Archive for April, 2011

2nd level CIA MIND CONTROLLING YOU-Press Release.

April 5, 2011

WARNINGS to “We the People”

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE                                         5/28/2010 rev 10/18/11

CONTACT: Mireille Torjman                                                   Federal Whistleblower

Mobile 954.529.8684                                                                 for Supreme Court Lawsuit and Open Letter to Congress.

Have you figured it out yet!

Astonishing Revelations and Press to Israel pg 6…13-May 2010 pg 14.


Sibel Edmonds gagged, Ariel Sharon comatosed, as I, DC swept covertly as NY pre-911 TYRANNY pretex to SURRENDER CIVIL LIBERTIES decoys (illnesses in Directed energy) zaps, and NSA Russell Tice threatened and discredited, as I. ” Why hasn’t the press–aside from MSNBC-covered NSA Tice’s revelations! CANCER NEURO NLP; Science and humanity under SIEGE! Behavioral Science and Technology-Sound and Seismic Waves infiltrations. For the Suspension of the Constitution to Communism and the LAUNCH of a NEW Holocaust in manifest on U.S. Soil Mission after surveillance implementation. [Prescott Bush, slides] —IF you knew ALL this, you would NOT be making these CHOICES! SSP, Patriot Act, Mass Control Human Engineering: Beam Warfare, Electronic Mind Control, Psi War, One World Brain, Dreamscape, Hardwiring Humans, and Information Warfare. The Persinger Plan, illegal WARRANTLESS mind taps intercepted thoughts, Engineering Consent. Paranormal Activities: Thomas Drake NSA Whistleblower Espionage Case Exposes Psychic Spy Connection. Projects… Spacestar DARPA (Trailing 50 yrs behind science/tech)-Project Voice of God, playing GOD, Cult of Intelligence, and laws of attraction, breeding Power & greed! All linked (Bear Stearns, Israel…) PsycheLeaks looks at the relationship between UK psychic Chris Robinson and indicted NSA whistleblower and former Senior Intelligence Official Thomas Drake. Other sources claim US National Security Agency inherited America’s STAR GATE psychic spy program from CIA. Futurist, STARstream Research Share, SpaceStar| Spies, Lies, & Polygraph Tape Gary S. Bekkum May 25, 2011– Mind to Mind Communication. And, “why has NSA whistle-blower Thomas Drake been charged with espionage?) – I watched CBS 60 Minutes story with great interest…” Focused on wrong WMD!


ALL 2nd Level CIA covert Weapon of Mass Destruction Psychoenergetics, Synthetic Telepathy miscommunications! Neurology under Siege, shadowing computer use entrainment! Gifford Shooting assassinations surreptitiously and Black Cancer.

CIA is Sued Decades Later: BAY OF PIGS!!!!!!!!! Operation MHCHAOS, ominous psychological warfare arsenalPlans to Psychocivilize You, Macrocosm “Process”; America’s Leaders & worse.

The National Security State and the Assassination of JFK
The CIA, the Pentagon, and the “Peace President” by Andrew Gavin Marshall

(1959)…”Among the recommended provocations and pretexts to justify a war, the Joint Chiefs suggested that, a series of well coordinated incidents will be planned to take place in and around [the US military base at] Guantanamo to give genuine appearance of being done by hostile Cuban forces,including starting rumours, landing “friendly Cubans in uniform” outside of the base to “stage attack on base” in Cuban uniform, capturing friendly “saboteurs inside the base,” and have friendly Cubans “start riots near the base main gate.”[30] Further recommendations were to “blow up ammunition inside the base; start fires,” as well as burning aircraft on the base, or sabotage a ship in the harbor, or to even, “sink [a] ship near harbor entrance. Conduct funerals for mock-victims.”[31] One startling recommendation was that, “We could blow up a US ship in Guantanamo Bay and blame Cuba,” or that, “we could blow up a drone (unmanned) vessel anywhere in the Cuban waters,” and blame Cuba, and that, “casualty lists in US newspapers would cause a helpful wave of national indignation.”[32] However, the most disturbing aspect of Operation Northwoods was the recommendation that:

“We could develop a Communist Cuban terror campaign in the Miami area, in other Florida cities and even in Washington. Honolulu fake documents! (Like all else: shark in Egypt waters blamed on Israel, 911, Rumors, etc)


With no danger to American Society, the entrapment from Bush /Obama “MANIPULATORS“…. “The object is to terrify the American Public, so that they will surrender their civil liberties–Possibly the greatest extortion scheme in U.S. history.” —It’s only the BEGINNING! See below creating subservient civilians, assassinations and torture goes on illegally anyway. Legalizing it is only for us civilians N.W.O.

All 2nd LEVEL CIA-SorcererNSA transmissions-current Assassinations: NSA, DOD Directed Energy Weapon frying life & earth; Taking us and Israel down duplicitous decoy.


The New (1975) weapon of war (mass destruction duped diversions) is out and was in the hands of Cult of Intelligence! HOW & WHY 911 mastermind/CONTROL ELF WEAPON! The root of all problems must be exposed and stopped before too late! See history collectively repeating by design! Cryptocracy’s Plan to Psycho-civilize you. Emulating, inducing the Scriptures. Duping ALL- Thomas Drake case Psychic Spy Programs hiding behind Dragnet and SSP since 1947! Macrocosm OFFICIALS and Corp. LEADERS…




ALL HIDING BEHIND SSP, Patriot Act since 1947 conspiracy take over slowly being introduced as New World Order MASS Brainwash-chunked to accept! The launch of a New Holocaust in manifest after trickery and the people’s CONSENT of balancing LESS FREEDOM, Civil Rights and a suspension of the Constitution, after MISSION of COMMUNISM and Middle East. Tyranny infiltrations in the guise of 911. [Pg 9, 213]  DARPA (trailing 50 yrs behind/suppressed) on BUDGET old CIA SCIENCE.

CYBERSYN; “The COUP for the Communist World: “It is said Henry Kissinger was the one who intervened to put an end to the GRAND experiment. Salvador Allende was assassinated by Chileans who are reported to have been in the PAY of CIA, and Cybersyn went by the wayside. They thought! Today FCC coup to regulate the INTERNET; COMMUNISM infiltrations and attempts, KGB/Gestapo style Domestic Surveillance mind manipulations after the fact & covertly hijacked www & humans. One World Brain Pg 241. N.S.A. has a five-thousand-acre campus at Fort Meade protected by iris scanners and facial-recognition devices. The electric bill there is said to surpass $$$ seventy million dollars a year.” For civility and DNA cloning and/or data-mining, etc. It does not protect.

CYBERNETICS; “Helms; can be used in molding of a child’s character” Subdue & Ripping senses while there. “ odd series of events” ARTICLES for decades on Ordinary folks Nationwide-leading to … Attached. –Strange cases and deaths on my website with other documents from this weapon of MIND Control events & tricks on whistleblowers & Civility especially CIVIL rights agenda.


“Secretary Geithner also highlightedBear Stearns former Chief Operating Officer of Fixed Income, Paul Friedman, stated “Rumors were untrue until the telling of rumors made them true. This is how they do it (Project Stargate/Spacestar research DUPED by 2nd LEVEL as all else, and playing psychics). Then, GAO report (INVOKED TO SELL by FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD), PLANS selectively REDISTRIBUTING/TRANSFER OF WEALTH from Jews, and agenda unwittingly. (odd/strange series of events on individuals across Country/Globe) and CONGRESSMAN KUCINICH AGAIN how the TRANSFER OF MONIES with WARS——— after presenting a bill for SPACE PRESERVATION ACT to ban this mind control WEAPON. Including Mark Zuckerburg Facebook. Donation of millions for “Science & Tech” while setting him up for years.


The CIA succeeded in developing a whole range of psycho-weapons to expand its already ominous psychological warfare arsenal. With these capabilities, it was now possible to wage a new kind of war: a war which would take place invisibly, upon the battlefield of the human mind… [p. 19]


1997 DoD Briefing: ‘Others’ can set off earthquakes, volcanoes remotely using electromagnetic waves By Lori Price 28 Feb 2010 Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen, 28 April 1997: ‘There are some reports, for example, that some countries have been trying to construct something like an Ebola Virus [OMG! Who would do such a thing?], and that would be a very dangerous phenomenon, to say the least. Alvin Toeffler has written about this in terms of some scientists in their laboratories trying to devise certain types of pathogens that would be ethnic specific so that they could just eliminate certain ethnic groups and  races; and others [LOL] are designing some sort of engineering, some sort of insects that can destroy specific crops. Others are engaging even in an eco- type of terrorism whereby they can alter the climate, set off earthquakes, volcanoes remotely through the use of electromagnetic waves.’ Just switch ‘yours,’ ‘others’ and ‘they’ with ‘U.S.,’ ‘U.S.’ and ‘U.S.’. Imagine, after eight years of George W. Bush turbo-funding these lunatics, what they can do now.


(WAVES, Seismic, radio frying us …) BP mind control transmitted human error! Tried to warn CONGRESS in 2008 and dismissed by disbelief. ELF CANCER directed energy at INDIVIDUALS being covered up as if from lame excuses and now Natural Disasters Corruptions infiltrated as all else.  WATERFRONT Properties FL to NYunder attack! Induced Climate ELF & Seismic Waves to De-populate and redistribute wealth/—again.  2nd LEVEL CIA (Terrorists) Mind CONTROLLING GLOBALIST to do THEIR MISSION for them. HUMANS are all PAWNS used in their U.S. Matrix since Alien Hallucinations to going Global!

Invisible Empire is bad enough; imagine the covert ops of ELF warfare arsenal and NSA transmissions Invisible WEAPON of Mass Destruction! See Military Complex Spending and horrific CRIMES & ills for Decades-Press Release and

“Only the small secrets need to be protected. The big ones are kept secret by public incredulity.”                                                 —Marshall McCluhan


“If both the past and the external world exist only in the mind, and if the mind itself is controllable—what then?”                                     —George Orwell


Published 1985 MACROCOSM: NEW WORLD ORDER MILLIONS Will go THROUGH “The PROCESS” (brainwash programming) INCLUDING MOST OF AMERICA’S CORPORATE LEADERS and OFFICIALS from Navy/ EDUCATION-“It was estimated that Millions of persons were (1985) put through this type of PROCESSING Breaking down of personalities and recondition…” Many already manipulated into their office long ago. College manipulations no one knows about. “Weird things happen when you join the bureau”. Their shadow. Collectively-What do you think they’ve been doing and how we got here! Making sense of 50 years in the manifest-Wake up America! Wake up Washington! NSA transmissions Article, Leading psychiatrist, Dr. Walter BOWART pg 4 and more.

“It was either invisible warfare or PEACE, and everyone seemed to agree the economy would “suffer” from peace. Without war, it was believed, the economy would falter and depression would be the dividend of peace. Thus the advisors to the president began to think about what might motivate the U.S. economy as well as war did. They came up with several possibilities, the most fantastic of which was to fake an invasion from outer spaceResource Tab 1973-90% JFK believed CIA conspiracy today BUT IT IS UNWITTINGLY mind controlled!!! Dr. Walter Bowart Pg 6 #21, 39.

The Weapon of Mass Destruction: DoD, Psychotronics, Synthetic Telepathy, DOE and a CIA’s-2nd Level–Spinning our wheels and putting out fires/band aids for yrs won’t solve humanity’s mind control at the root. THE FORCE BEHIND THE FORCES! Unveil them. Their own shadow is within (1973). Tesla’s Chinese wall of defense… Information warfare psyops transmitted thoughts, Article on MIND manipulating our SENATE STILL decades later…2nd level CIA FOIA 1972, “His God lurks Behind the electronic curtain, we find: The SORCERER, MANIPULATOR, CYBERNETICIST, the weaver of the DREAMscape” Jim Keith pg 245 Brilliant video below. They all said Abolish CIA and NSAct 1947. See Russia slide. It’s ALL about you, it AFFECTS YOU daily and un-wit.



WITNESS in COURT NO Plane hit PENTAGON, TANGIBLE coupled with fear TRANSMISSIONS to manipulate and BRAINWASH you to VOTE for PATRIOT ACT is one example——————————BEWARE!—— Facts below and on line with Appendices! There is a 18 U.S.C. § 241 Conspiracy against rights since MLK, JFK unwitting false blame—

Puppets/Ants/Robots “Everybody’s doing the LOCOMOTION” as Obama…Maxwell’s Silver

Hammer Chapter “The Body Electric” Operation Northwoods repeated under new psyops and HOOVER warned too Horrible to imagine. Jerry E. Smith was an author, lecturer, poet, & editor. … dies March 08, 2010… “Haarp: The Ultimate Weapon of the Conspiracy “(The Mind-Control Conspiracy Series) Lt Col Tom Bearden, Russia WARNED worse! ELF SICKO American accelerated ills and newcomers. French scientist Kervran Russian scientist Kaznacheyev, who proved that any disease could be TRANSMITTED electromagnetically. (1975) Immune…. Page 8.

CIA are NAZIS: Magnus Olsson; Below CIA Vet Milt Beardon states; “That you know of 911 etc, They play a lot with Memory and make you invest to lose or win $$$ -inventing ills, Aliens, and enemies. Magnus Olsson Sweden also stated CIA has NAZIS. A plan to fascism for another Holocaust in MANIFEST if the CONSTITUTION IS NOT restored. 90 Billion Hadassah Jerusalem Hosp…Pg 7

ALL RELATED TO PATRIOT ACT, disarming etc. DUPLICITOUS plans to take down Israel and WWIII still being manipulated behind the scenes duping everyone. This 2nd level CIA is behind the electronic CURTAIN on Long Island Tower inception and JP Morgan funding…


Bush was to be assassinated in the 1980’s by Duncan O’Finioan; didn’t know why, but was intercepted, overridden by CIA & (triggered) to cancel mission (shoot) as ALL ELSE. CIA were the Aliens among usWe are not alone” since big Brother’s watching was the buzz. Toggling between families homes. French civilians were transmitted Bush was controlled by Aliens for psyops.

Bowart, Walter, “Leading Psychiatrist Blows Whistle on Profession: Proves 50 + years of Mind Control “Were we Controlled?” JFK Adventures and False Memory Syndrome Foundation, Schizophrenic offshoot since HITLER Weapon of Mass…  pg 9 Synthetic ills and Crimes & AZ. Cancer Jim Keith-Mass Control Human Engineering. (Pushed/fell??? to his death) Cults in sheep skin! Duplicitous sabotaging behind the scenes APA and AMA (while in bed with DoD; Amy Goodman Standing up to the Madness) enemies close to take them down…, to Medical books also for 50 years. FALSE RECORDS & Character/Perception ETC! And JFK “no official of my Administration…” Psychotronics-Psychotechnologies, Psychoenergetics WARFARE also on APA & AMA in your doctor’s office/Lawyer… skewed medicine, list of ills below. (1975) Planted false memories in psychologist’s patients and blamed them as with medical manipulations in Hospitals & offices.

VIDEO Mossad Microbiologist Joseph Moshe’s Baxter Ukraine Plague Warning. Posted by labvirus on November 7, 2009 Bioweapon disguised as a vaccine. He claimed that the vaccine contained an adjuvant (additive) designed to weaken the immune system, and replicated RNA from the virus responsible for the 1918 pandemic Spanish flu, causing global sickness and mass death.

The next day, this happend (see video)…


This “Joseph Moshe” arrested in L.A. is likely a MOSSAD agent with a CONSCIENCE – and has apparently been extradited immediately to Israel. Now his “testimony”, whatever it would have been, is still “secure”. Notice, the “federal agents” used an electro-magnetic pulse – which knocked out his car, as well as any cell phone so he couldn’t contact the “U.S. Attorney” he was obviously going to meet with. (As I)…ELF immune scapegoats to hide as all else with propaganda mind controlled.

The immune system is so overloaded by the presence of the “shadow” diseases that its effectiveness is thinned out….“In short, alter the internal wavestructure, and one creates a curved spacetime ‘engine’ that acts on mass in any fashion one chooses to design — including initiate diseases . . . Now visualize one of these ‘vacuum engines’ or ‘spacetime curvature engines’ that acts on mass to generate the exact effects produced by anthrax. (Or any other disease one wishes) . . . Call the virtual state of a disease engine the disease pattern in the “shadow” state, just prior to becoming observable. . Tom Bearden Army Lt. Col. ( for all articles with notations)

Has America become a nation of psychotics? You would certainly think so, based on the explosion in the use of antipsychotic medications. In 2008,…while old people with dementia are dosed, in large numbers, with drugs once reserved largely for schizophrenics. Americans and bipolar…      Mass psychosis in the US – Opinion – Al Jazeera English Pfizer(Drugs (Rx tax)-IT’S ALL FOR TAX REVENUE & POWER) as USA 1970’s deployed VETS non-traced, GULF war & Ground 0.

Research Links Rise in Falluja Birth Defects and Cancers to US Assault Defects in newborns 11 times higher than normal • ‘War contaminants’ from 2004 attack could be cause by Martin Chulov enclosed… Published on Friday, December 31, 2010 by The Guardian/UK

The Dark Side of the Force: Creating and broadcasting disease

Speaking of the scalar wave induction of disease by longitudinal wave patterns Bearden refers to work by French scientist Kervran Russian scientist Kaznacheyev, who proved that any disease could be transmitted electromagnetically.    How to “Broadcast” Diseases Longitudinal EM Biowars

Bearden explains how the new quantum potential weapons can be used to induce disease-at-a-distance in a population, or to “spread” the immune system so thin that a conventional bio-attack would be greatly potentiated. By “broadcasting” virtual disease patterns over a population, the immune system is so overloaded by the presence of the “shadow” diseases that its effectiveness is thinned out. “In short, alter the internal wavestructure, and one creates a curved spacetime ‘engine’ that acts on mass in any fashion one chooses to design — including initiate diseases . . . Now visualize one of these ‘vacuum engines’ or ‘spacetime curvature engines’ that acts on mass to generate the exact effects produced by anthrax. (Or any other disease one wishes) . . . Call the virtual state of a disease engine the disease pattern in the “shadow” state, just prior to becoming observable. . . (see June 13, 1975)

“7. In 1967, after Ramparts magazine exposed secret CIA funding of the National Student Association and numerous nonprofit organizations, President Johnson forbade CIA support of foundations or educational institutions. Inside the Agency there was no notion that this order meant ending relationships, such as the one with Geschickter. In his case, the agile CIA men simply transferred the funding from the foundation to a private company, of which his son was the secretary-treasurer.

8. Lying to Congress followed the pattern of lying to the press that some MKULTRA veterans adopted after the first revelations came out. For example, former Human Ecology Society director James Monroe told The New York Times on August 2, 1977 that “only about 25 to 30 percent” of the Society’s budget came from the CIA—a statement he knew to be false since the actual figure was well over 90 percent. His untruth allowed some other grantees to claim that their particular project was funded out of the non-Agency part of the Society.” Pentagon’s source selection Board repeatedly recommended a bid by Boeing as both better and cheaper… DoD awarded to Gen. Dynamics” 2nd level manipulated.

DoD: McNamara, wrote in March 1969, issue of Washington Monthly Mag.; “ Few Americans are aware that about 90 % of the Major weapons systems that the defense Dept. procures ends up costing the Country at least twice as much as was originally estimated. “ The American Tax Payer is not getting their money’s worth???????? SAIC FBI lawsuit & Pursuant with Lawsuit by BOEING.

2 different thoughts etc; transmitted at the same time to create arguments, chaos, dis-information! Thoughts interfering on your speech, hearing, decisions for decades. First they build TRUST while set up.

Your destinies are being led or misled, mostly no coincidences and “YOUR THOUGHTS are NOT your own.” Dumbed down, Obese, busy, De-sensitized & Dehumanized robots by mind control individuals. Immigration mind controlled Americans as dumbed down and lazy to justify immigration; part of agenda.


SOA: Mind Manipulated in law impeding truth, creating doubts, infiltrations, and worse-GEORGE GREEN, ROBERT BAER CIA bomb makers. COVERT FEMA camps and Thousands built caskets under guise of HR 645 UNWIT. Massive ops wiki and brainwash underway! American homes and jobs, with our children since Apollo13 but with shadow Apollo 11 documented-7 witnesses never returned (Satellite) REMOTE VIEWING 24/7 spying is manipulating. Armies trained by our School of AMERICAS and set up mind controlling their people; South America now Working on ASIA. All Invaded Countries… Breaking The SOUND Barrier; Democracy NOW! pg 214+. BEAM WARFARE. SOA…It’s everywhere including CIA VALERIE PLAME technology weapons, Bay of Pigs invasion, and Juan Cole Scandals. RIK and Air Force waste as SAIC etc. AGNA’s Contract guard’s behaviors, linguistics and security in Embassies, F-22 waste… DC, Govt lock down, & impeded, information warfare, in (bubble) kept in dark for yrs. during process and false beliefs! Why is Palestine’s economy growing 10% a yr. with new Malls and we can’t Revolution in mass accordingly!


Death Ray” for planes was Tesla’s invention in 1940 and a $2,000,000.00 device to zap and melt an airplane motor 250 miles away and an Invisible Chinese Wall of defense was built around the Country, no matter how large an attack, (Teleforce, manifests FREE energy and creates rays; zapping beams, the new invisible war). (Dr. Becker, Naomi Wolf, and Sharon Weinberger “Imaginary Weapons)., this Warden cliff Tower is in full action in Long Island NY, along with 36 other stations or sites as GWEN, Globally that beam massive volume of Free Energy. (The New York Times, Sunday September 22, 1940-Science and Patents, Education News) One COSTLY energy zap causes by NLP suggestion transmitted to individuals; confusion, mistakes, trip/fall, body temp-freeze, heat, miscommunication, fatigue, focus/ concentration, radio-sleep (Kucinich-US patented under MKDELTA), and stalling any engine. HAARP, Body Electric, and Mass Control Human Engineering.

Dr. MILTON FRIEDMAN- Freedoms ARE THE moral of HUMAN—Abolish most Agencies and WHY. FB. ECONOMIST (5 segments post-humously-2006)

Israel-framed while dividing all people to conquer! CIA predicts, (no creating) to carry out- water (WAR) and pricing shortage, 2015-mind control transmissions zaps dry heat in body and energy-taking us down, Israel, Africa. De-population Pentagon video staging us for next invasion ASSASSINATED Allison Des Forges in Hudson River mind control plane CrashStaged and Senator Ed Ted Kennedy zapped. Both Civil Rights Africa, Water and Dry Land zapped already planning to invade them and brainwash one world govt. Emulating the Torah scriptures! Manchurians, and IRS, CIA bldgs/files in WT7! Surreptitious!


Major cities experiment to increase crime in the 70’s by mind control EVOLVED never ceased GENERATING BIGGER GOVT, INDUCING MISHAPS-MISFORTUNES, entrapment and now TERRORISM? Infiltrations of BRAINWASHING SCHOOLS-WEAKEN their ARMY take down ISRAEL and America going Global Agenda. Infiltrated PalestiniansWars provoked still in manifest; Under the Auspices/Scapegoating Drugs they brought in Conspiracy. NOT from drugs or your TV- SEE TIME photo/Article (Oct 1971) below… Infiltrations and excuses on all aspects of ELF attacks.

Egypt largest Military, Turkey Sibel gagged SSP created doubts and to hide conspiracy agenda of NWO) CIA masterminds. A public brainwashed to allow it unwittingly, in the White House, to next calamity and Global Domination Conspiracy of the minds! Connecting 50 yrs of dots! ie; General Anthony Zinni (wikepidia)Changed minds! (Brainwash on the job as many others, see how it’s done) CIA Predicts The Future 2015 – Water Resources. 2007 video/comments. (Unwitting agents channeled to Infiltrate) “Waging War” since the Church Committee 1974! Charges were made 2 administrations concerned and NEVER ABOLISHED. “May be drawn into the fight trying to stop it” John McWethy. Taking over the Globe under the disguise of helping others tactics. An unwitting population targeted in advance! DARPA (trailing Science 50 yrs as new MKULTRA) Psyops deployed 50 yrs on civilians. ELECTRONIC WARFARE! Mc Wethy video

Larry Silverstein OWNER of 911 TOWER 7, set up in advance to get insurance and transmitted forced speech/DECISION to “pull” to firefighters as if involved-NSA transmissions-SABOTAGED as Russell Tice Article “Is the NSA conducting war on Americans(YES, tip of iceberg) 2006 and Media asked, why press didn’t pick it up other than NBC? Operation Mockingbird propaganda unwittingly, updated remote viewing and impairment mind control as misunderstandings.

Sunstein’s ReportCognitive impairment infiltration is unwitting NOT hired Gangs, creating illusion-Un-realized Kinesthetic! Creating false perception for decades on civilians. Reagan erased with Alzheimer mind control (NLP) CIA programming. OPERATION MIND CONTROL (1973) Plans to Psycho civilize you and MACROCOSM America’s Corporate Leaders and Official, AND civilians.

Un-Covered documentary CONGRESS MARIONETTES not READING info zapped, to invade Iraq. Mind controlled Out-Foxed video for years-media mockingbird unwittingly, UNREALIZED, updated! The joke culture, misfits in the pentagon cult of intelligence and a dysfunctional country! Allen Dulles 1957″ Berle wrote in his diary. “If the scientists do what they have laid out for themselves, men will become manageable ants. Below FULL disclosures.

Hadassah 90 Billions in Ponzi sabotage away from Jersusalem HOSP (Laser/vision) funding. Re-Distributing the WEALTH from Jews manipulating our economy further than Corporations. Always keeping their enemy close, destroying files & buildings. They took down the economy behind the scenes!

Ariel Sharon zapped into coma (as I), Directed Energy Weapons as planes; because he knew the CIA was corrupt Sabotaging Israel. Kay Griggs Military whistleblower with MIND JABBING attacks (Secret Societies) 1910 Yale Prescott Bush FUNDED NAZI’s soldiers, KKK etc…DoD.

1967 USS libertyProject Philadelphia (Hallucinations) blaming ISRAEL- mistake in identity set up-framed, cutting off investigations & news coverage (as usual until exposed 2008 as the shuttle satellite cover up, Aliens, public corruption admissions, etc…) Start of Anti-Semitism fanned unwittingly since 1947 Act.

Alien UFO Hallucinations Scapegoating with LSD (that CIA brought in and sold to kids). Making Million off the Pharmaceutical (Rx) TAXES (as ALCOHOL INDUCED URGES), now being sued from synthetic side effects and transmitted Synthetic illnesses. After they mind controlled you and your teacher, professor to push prescriptions and the greed transmitted to make commercial on your drug inducement on Americans- VETS Agent Orange non-traceable! Military CANCER and Leukemia, lumps, to all under the disguise of microwaves cells… infiltrating crimes & wars! GROUND 0.

Playing GOD (Project Voice of GOD) & devil-The CIA Cult of Intelligence born with National Security Act in 1947, Weapons Stations need to be dismantled ASAP. Buzz in Pentagon “Synthetic Telepathy and Psychotronics” predicted in 1967 video instant communication in the news un-wit, after…

Public Speeches “Repeatedly staying the course” to brainwash invaded Countries with (excuses), GULF war, “The ENERGY will be just fine“, (Not at all)”we will help one soul at a time“. Hillary “I will not channel my husband” (as in ghost-like transmissions sabotaged Clinton… Rumsfeld: “There is what you know, you don’t know…..” “Didn’t mean to say that or that’s not what I meant”… Obama dividing the people to conquer with “They like to do that, one against the other” Called JACKETING in psyops. (Side effects of brainwash, and Mind Control conflictions). America; The Remote Cult of Intelligence!

SEARCH for MANCHURIAN ego state—such as an imaginary childhood playmate—and build it into a separate personality, unknown to the first. The hypnotist would communicate directly with this schizophrenic offshoot and command it to carry out specific deeds… kamikaze pilot. Manchurian crimes creating a subservient society was not out of sight- by mind control waves.” And worse.

GUANTANAMO scapegoats displays and focused on the wrong Weapons of mass destruction, brainwash and intelligence masterminded. (Nano thermal debris removed quickly). Cathy O’Brien, Book TRANCE-formation SSP impeding truth. Never getting to full truth—INNOCENT and display for false blame. TIME/DELAYS for false confession Brainwash out memory & PLANT new before public contacts.

How the CIA Missed Stalin’s Bomb, 1946-50-printed 2007 but updated 2008. —Remote Viewing and surveillance CANNOT prevent anything as London Subway Bombing-(Staged)!!! Water and Odd/even days Petrol, CIA sabotage since 70’s as drugs and crime all un-natural-inducing more plans for Florida.

Judge Napolitano, “Lies the Government told you unwittingly until 2008 cover up pre-empted allegations with political and media transparency… DELUSIONS, RE-READ, … and CONDONED corruptions! ILLUSIONS OF CRIMES statistics for 5 decades and mis perceptions mind controlled.

Market inflations and real estate pricing and gouging was all induced from the mind on each individual and as a mass, and part of conspiracy agenda. Corrupting American Minds. And, the suicide??? of a Jewish CFO after 3 months as interim accountant at FANNIE MAE fraud.

Jewish Aaron Russo died of Cancer recently after going public that Rockefeller told him the only reason the WOMEN’S liberation was allowed to occur successfully was to COLLECT TAXES from them. They also manipulate couples lives as “The Firm” John Marks also wrote only the participant knows of this and is not only army. Invading Countries Under pretex of oil etc. for take over of humanity.


Did you know CIA operates on the ground wearing Yamacas & M.C. soldiers to frame Jews, destroying fruit trees and crops against the Torah scriptures +, as with our organic natural farms in the U.S. Why?

Did you know that the ISRAELI ART STUDENTS were framed and mind controlled where to live and accepted only in the areas to live as guided to set up and look involved? CONTRARY OF CIA GUILT CREATING DOUBT and so much more BEARING FALSE WITNESS from a neighbor, false memory, fake Gov’t help spinning their wheels. INTERNET & Google lawsuit, libraries, false accusations & false detainments? Capable and do manipulate all Internet remotely with passwords and minds from spying surveillance. As with False imprisoned masses. Sabotaged 911 Commission never to see the light, as 9 DOJ Attorneys asking questions-Fired at once when they could not be brainwashed to go along, and Generation GAPS again. (see Bay of Pigs framing College Students in air recommendations in 1959 etc)

Did you know Mind Controlled People and Media is set up with tricks of false thoughts transmitted during conversation and output of written documents to put a SPIN on JOURNALISTS & civilians thus unknowingly creating PROPAGANDA, until now covering their tracks with blatant lies from our government? Decades of news from misunderstanding mind games, disputes, & slanders. No one high enough Q clearance! The behavioral sciences (Modification). Nevertheless, the final result is not the whole story of the CIA’s attack on the mind. No one knows except the PARTICIPANT.

He called it “Pain-Drug-Hypnosis” and said it “is a vicious war weapon … The extensiveness of the use of this form of hypnotism in espionage work is now so widespread that it is long past the time when people should have become alarmed about it.” [p. 75] Report

Duplicitous-Framing ISRAEL & piggybacked shadowing to scapegoat and set up! See how CIA tab +. INJECTED IDEOLOGY covertly INFILTRATING WORSE OVER TIME TO CHUNK & ACCEPT. BRAINWASH society and worse yet if not stopped and reversed. AND everything is being mis-applied!

Israel, Seismic Energy to part sea & leave crevice, Israel small land & surrounded by 50 yrs of vast constant attacks, Israel has Palestinians who were EVICTED by their own people, Israel can’t have chicken or cow suffer with Kosher scriptures and suffering—2nd level shadow CIA proven Diabolical! STOP Shadow CIA attacks-50 yrs PRESS FANNING Anti-Semitism and spinning all 2nd level CIA, Goldstone Report and 911, SS liberty … dis-info, hallucinations, cognitive infiltrations, illusions, wearing Yamacas on the Ground in disguise, psyops on Israel and cover-ups. Catherine Fitts Whistleblower Cracks everywhere now. Leave Israel alone and we will have world peace! (Tice Article on SABOTAGE on all aspects of life.)

Inducing mind control on rioters coupled with funding them in Egypt to take them down WW3 as planned every time we invade a Country- see also George Green link video. 9/2010 Press release in SUPREME COURT below this one of ISRAEL whistleblowing CIA to take them down (1947 to current activities fanning opposites) as all our NEWS for decades by design. Information Warfare [1973].

DATA-MINING, why and SINCE 1973 FOIA includes genetics & 2nd Level CIA See Lt. Col Bearden slides and more of NEW frightening weapon the World has ever seen! RUSSIAN SCIENTIST SLIDE.



Mind Control-Directed Energy Weapons are responsible for MOST ILLNESSES,

NEURO, Obesety, Immune, Central Nervous System. See Wired & Tice Article, 5 SENSES) KINESTHETIC wikipedia) Elec. Magnetic Fields. (MEMORY Mind/Body BLOCKS-ALZHEIMER-DIMENTIA as back to the future), Agent ORANGE, ADDHD, Equilibrium, Bladder, Colon, Leukemia, Numbness/ MS, Anesthesiology, AIDS, FIBROMALGIA, PULMONARY, Bi-Polar, CONFUSION extra thought transmissions, MEMORY, DYSLEXIA, opposites suggestions to confuse, SKIN/BLOOD Flow/DISEASES, EPSTEINS BAR, Vision Sight, HOLOGRAMS, HALLUCINATIONS, Parkinsons, MIGRAINES, CANCER, Anthrax, Valley Fever, Flu like symptoms, Insomnia is sleep deprivation, Thyroid, Short Term Memory, (intercepted thoughts)COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENTS, UN-Necessary procedures, Bi-polar/ADD (most misdiagnosed in America, Accidents, slip & falls, STROKES, Williams Syndrome Motor Coordination, Autism. & disorientation. False ALARMS all from the MIND; UNREALIZED forced speech emotions & mistakes, Epilepsy! (Dr Bearden) MORGELLANS! LIVER dialysis, kidney failures rampid in U.S. Hemorrhage energy heat  pressure, Vaccine synthetic, ELF ills hiding behind PHARMACEUTICAL side effects…, RLS jolts of ELF light/elec, DIABETES II, and worse. HIDING BEHIND MSG or ASPERTAME including RETARDATION, Tourette, MUSCLE Controls, ELF reproduction and sweats on both male/female, STD, ARTHRITIS… much worse. INFLAMATION, Burning feet (Lasers usually seniors), BLISTERS, SPLIT PERSONALITIES is a shift technique of NLP using remote electronic hypnosis, mood transmitted urges to act amplified thoughts, suggestions, thoughts back and forth, mind jabs-interrupt thoughts, with triggers of memory blocks, INDUCED ERASURES & DELAYS IN YOUR LIFE etc. Misplacing items in trash mind games. Programmed MISFITS Diabolic, playing mind games since milk carton missing children recruited by coercion called Handlers. They can’t see from your eyes but tell you to LOOK first and take the credit. Seniors mostly, HEARING DEAFNESS, BLINDNESS and PANACEAS. Responsible for much worse, would never sit on this kind of power with Weapons nicely tucked away, knowing no threats by Russia’s or China’s and never was by ELF.__Jerry Smith

Have you been mind controlled not to believe? Diabolical did not stop with what you already know today, that, I assure you, was the burned part. Targeted for 5 years, tortured, and attempts to recruit for the CIA, now trained in NLP and the software from NASA with Woodpecker Scalar Waves that reach Russia but SHIELDED. It is intercepted in our air space as all else. I am a witness in danger and need to come forward and be heard to WARN the grave dangers, cover ups and every excuse possible for doubt including medicinal, that are in manifest.


“Is the PENTAGON Science CRAZY ENOUGH?” Mind manipulations-Not just on Senators-See Articles/ Speeches Bottom Left. Remote Control Heart Attack Anyone! Explosions Decades ago.

WITHOUT A TRACE -Millions emails missing from WHITE HOUSE servers. Failed backups $2.5 mil in taxes to recover and NOTHING-2005 unwitPentagon’s Unit: The Cult of Dead Cows! Also see CIA Stuxnet. CIA cyber crimes, ID theft, stalking, viruses, HACKERS…..! covering up, pawns since 2009. CIA cyber crimes, THEFT & Vandalism selectively, ON ALL CIVILITY, stalking, specific MS viruses creation, HACKERS, tampered communications, muting, redirected, manipulations, intercepted thoughts day or night…..! LOS ALAMOS LABS; STUXNET creation. AGAIN in the AUSPICES of losing your FREEDOMS infiltrations… Dr. Warloff and Moret.


Mysteries solved! Remote Viewing is upon you 24/7 since 1973-Science and Humanity under Siege with DoD Secret Society Psychotronics, Synthetic Telepathy DIRECTED ENERGY- (2nd Level CIA); THE WEAPON of MASS DESTRUCTION-ELF miscommunications Duping everyone today!

“It may have been the biggest story since the atom bomb. The headline, however, was small and ignored the larger issue. “Drug Tests by CIA Held More Extensive Then Reported in ’75,” said the New York Times on July 16, 1977. .”Zombie is a quaint, old-fashioned folklore word but its meaning becomes obscene when our children’s minds are being controlled … [p.17][Note:1]

Pentagon Misfits- programming civility since 50% of milk carton children kidnapped ARRESTED EMOTIONS AGGRANDIZEMENT (NARCISSISM)! To RAMPID crimes, corruption, to AGGRANDIZEMENT OF GOVERNMENT justifications FOR TAX REVENUES and Fascism teen…suicides, Diabetes, ECO. & ills-Bomberserupted, CANCER, ALZHEIMER, Fibromyalgia, Immune See List (Project Montauk below L) The cult of Intelligence, documents. DRUGS do not make you commit crimes; the WILL does! How America was/is Mind Controlled behind scenes to Police crimes infiltrations and drugs, Politicians Military, Media, Channeled Hollywood minds, UN-REALIZED!

Ron Paul says: CIA runs Everything but this website content is HOW: SHADOW/2nd level took off (1973) one year prior Church Commission Report with psyop MHchaos-FOIA- NO WONDER BIG BROTHER has been into every ASPECT and PROFESSION of AMERICANS. Keeping enemies close. Picking up on everyone and their genetics and events or cults or investigation, TAMPERING with MINDS NOT JUST OUR CULTURE. Mistakes, Accidents, coincidences, your soul/ karma.

ELF directed energy weapon of mass…. Spread the word. We need a Revolution Abolish CIA 2nd level and NSAct. BP framed to cover up Gov’t Lab Venice FL RED TIDE-ELF infects since 1947 below Democracy NOW Air Force paralysis with a decision made one way or other. TRIED TO WARN CONGRESS in 2008 with dismissed manipulations, sabotage, and disbelief. 911 Kamikaze Pilots Mind Controlled robots on US Soil (Manchurians) suicide bombers as are Globalists. Bohemian Grove culture burning babies etc…
Our ENGINEERED CULTURE of INFILTRATIONS, COVER UPS and WHITEWASH (2008) The ROOT of ALL Problems, still in manifest! The Matrix began long ago and the spying is after the fact of CIA 2nd level-took off in 1973 one year prior. How you are letting mind control happen with brainwashing of disbelief… trickery of your will! Beliefs of their thoughts planted/transmitted as your own-daily manipulations.

The rest of the world didn’t ask until 1976 the type of questions we were facing in 1965…. Everybody was afraid of building the supersoldier who would take orders without questioning, like the kamikaze pilot. 70’s Manchurian crimes Creating a subservient society was not out of sight”- by mind control.

FBI HOOVER “clandestine warfare avowed objective had been WORLD DOMINATION by whatever means and COST!” FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, who ordered FBI agents to “expose, disrupt, misdirect, discredit, or otherwise neutralize” the activities of these movements and their leaders. Hoover disclosed how horrific these weapons were thus, hard to believe …”

INVENTING/INDUCING and APPLIED (NLP) Paranoid Schizophrenia, Moods, Mental BLOCKS, Grandeur Aggrandizement, etc. is only a thought from a trigger and anchors NSA CIA shadow transmissions, amplifications. Tavistock: Best kept secret in America and Gov’t RAND Corp primary function Brainwash -CIA NLP not Freudian mind control ills! AMA-Synthetic telepathy, false memory syndrome/ confession/ bearing false witness. Montauk Project (1943) A group which has as it’s prime goal the further acquisition of ever-greater raw, oppressive power over the actual lives of it’s own continued aggrandizement and enrichment at the expense not only of Earth’s people but most certainly of the planet itself and all its many life forms…Start of a LOCKED DOOR SOCIETY transmitted fears…

“Pretex for Tyranny” Gifford Shooting always a new law to infiltrate the whitewashing of The Constitution & Human Rights. FREEDOM! Gifford decoy/ EXPLOIT of Manchurian Synthetic ills and CRIMES- Surreptitious ASSASSINATION of a FEDERAL JUDGE by Manchurians crimes. Civil rights African crops and surreptitious cover up-CIA MASTERMINDS/CONTROL. Surveillance under the AUSPICES of and in disguise of existing remote viewing from Satellite Engineered a Human Matrix! Suggested Moods, pre-and post Manipulations.


Civil rights Africa… CIA MASTERMINDS of AGENDA too busy, to dismiss this, & sensory deprivation unrealized stress induced and another year goes by of 50 with unwitting cognitive infiltration un-wit in disconnects in White House to next calamity. IT’S not the PRESIDENT, it’s MIND CONTROL!


Mind Control-answer to all mis-information DC, GAZA disconnects 2009, RHETORIC, lies, dis-information GAPS, illusions, non-sense. GOLDSTONE REPORT, USS Liberty SET UPS… Mind Control Root of ALL problems. Talk about it FAN it! Looking beyond the messengers! CASES NEVER PROVEN in CRIMES AND SCIENCE settled————————–!


“God Bless America, God Bless Humanity!”


“Secrets are for a reason and secret abuses are impossible to correct unless you know they are going on. Knowing their plans before they are implemented to oppose before they occur. If they are exposed by the people already suffering by the abuse, then the abuse has already occurred and it is too late.”


M. Monroe mind control suicides…! Mind Control redistribution of wealth. [See Home Page]


“When even one American -who has done nothing wrong- is forced by fear to shut his mind and close his mouth, then all Americans are in peril.  Harry S.Truman

JFK speech
The very word “secrecy” is repugnant in a free and open society; and we are as a people inherently and historically opposed to secret societies, to secret oaths and to secret proceedings. We decided long ago that the dangers of excessive and unwarranted concealment of pertinent facts far outweighed the dangers which are cited to justify it. Even today, there is little value in opposing the threat of a closed society by imitating its arbitrary restrictions. Even today, there is little value in insuring the survival of our nation if our traditions do not survive with it. And there is very grave danger that an announced need for increased security will be seized upon by those anxious to expand its meaning to the very limits of official censorship and concealment. That I do not intend to permit to the extent that it is in my control. And no official of my Administration, whether his rank is high or low, civilian or military, should interpret my words here tonight as an excuse to censor the news, to stifle dissent, to cover up our mistakes or to withhold from the press and the public the facts they deserve to know.”

PLANNED WARS TO INFILTRATE COMMUNISM! Dividing all to conquer! Brainwashing & WHITEWASHING HISTORY is underway! THE MOTHER OF ALL EVIL-CIA Technology Changing minds and hearts, including Presidents! And vice versa CONTROLLING MENTAL BLOCKS.

Disarming you-Gun Control, for a manipulated REVOLUTION hijacked passwords, www in the 90’s, 911, now Exec. Order 11005 take over waterways martial law Katrina Massacres, Plans, to HR 1955 reversed freedom of thought! Unwittingly infiltrating NLP tactics Psyops. OPPOSITES! Dr. Robert Becker was the major researcher and writer on health dangers from electromagnetic fields; he died a few months ago, in summer 2008 warned INDUCED ELF/EMFdisconnects in White House to next calamity.

JUDICIAL SYSTEM, AND SCHOOL BOOKS WITH FALSE MEDICINE and FALSE TESTS RESULTS and Engineered lives all from the mind! Voting, www. and all tests can and are tampered. Have you read “Lies the Government told you”? READ twice- Perceptions in AMERICA-LONDON Subway CIA- INSIDE JOB- Remote Viewing, Surveillance and Searches-STAGED!

John Marks-CIA BUILDING/Search MANCHURIANS since Hitler (who had electronic epilepsy himself) and MKULTRA on German Soldiers—- Our Soldier admits guilt to representation of TERRORISM.

Press release below June 2008 was impeded from going out in Boston. The sender reported Disappeared;          “A growing number of Americans have reported symptoms that include but are not limited to severe physical trauma such as shocks, stings, burning, nausea, and sleep deprivation. Targeted individuals of domestic terrorism originate from many different backgrounds and are affected in a physical, psychological, social, and financial manner as a result of directed energy weapons assaults. “The average American would be astonished to learn the extent to which secret surveillance technology has advanced from remote viewing and manipulation; torture of the human mind and body horrendous abuses. Measures must be taken to free…”“The mind control examined in this book is the control of ONE individual’s mind by ANOTHER!” Guided, misled, by the public UNWITTINGLY used as pawns (jacketed) one against the other with everything the OPPOSITE, manipulated, and dysfunctional! (1973)

First. Then they came for the communists. I didn’t object bc I wasn’t a communist. Then they came for the trade-unionists. I didn’t object bc I wasn’t a trade-unionist. Then they came for the Jews. I didn’t object bc I wasn’t a Jew. Then they came for me and there was no one left to help me. “We must hang together or we will surely hang separately” …Ben Franklin

This website information is awakening debunking/educating raising awareness, on humanity, a FULL DISCLOSURE Correction of 5 DECADES of 2nd level CIA mind controlled DIS-information, MIS-COMMUNICATION, non-sense, blinders/blocks, unconsciously, manipulating YOUR conversations, not on same wavelength) or/ sabotage created by Mind Control ELF waves & Energy, (1974) CIA Neuro-linguistic Programming. Directed ENERGY Weapon used nefariously deployed on ALL people as pawns UNWITTINGLY, illusions, robots, “every body’s doing the locomotion”, CANCER. “Information Warfare tactics” and the new ways to ASSASSINATE civilians currently. Not the Patriot ACT after THE FACT as ALL else. SURREPTITIOUSLY! SLOW KILLS…Legal!

130 Facts and Examples, see induced ills; LIST on bottom left and (Pharma (Rx) Taxes; Tab)- Collectively by a Mind Control victim Expert Witness (NLP) Federal Whistleblower 1st hand, Warning “We the People” “Impeded, Gagged, tortured, squashed, disrupted, threatened, for 5 years, now being set up +. Never believe anything until it is officially denied”. Illusions scapegoating our Media after 50 yrs victims of created spin, dis-information WARFARE etc… by mind control UNREALIZED & cognitive impairment infiltrations on all people. “Why hasn’t the press–aside from MSNBC-covered NSA Tice’s revelations! Or mine. Let the people decide; Millions would come forward. BREACHED contracts OVERSEAS SPYING to manipulate. Massive brainwash also in manifest! Another layer!

Dr. Robert O Becker was the major researcher and writer on health dangers from electromagnetic fields, he died a few months ago, in summer 2008 warned INDUCED ELF/EMF-“John Wayne and Susan Hayward died CANCER decades after movie and unexpecded wind shift and MONSETTO wind? FARMING cases!” ANY ADDICTION, and FRAMING Tobacco Co. Page 307/347 THE BODY ELECTRIC DoD!


Summary information: CIA brainwashing “We the People” for decades engineering our lives and culture unwittingly with mind and body control, corruptions to destroy humanity (jacketing) one against the other divide and conquer world Domination selecting who will live. Wake up America. Wake up Washington! The secret holocaust & WWIII in MANIFEST. Un-realized and programmed.  THIS video is about the PROCESS. WASHINGTON will be shot after the CRISIS step 4 of mind control Brainwash over decades- slow kills… Do you believe a RUSSIAN or are you targeted? They always kill you when you are done serving. See below creating subservient civilians and torture goes on illegally anyway. Legalizing it is only for us civilians and what is coming (N.W.O. a silent holocaust) with no recourse or redress available on civil rights. Illusions, transmitted false thoughts, crimes infiltrated now Making it REAL. After 50 yrs of spy devices being installed and attached today overtly as all else shadowed.

The White Rose, was formed by students at the University of Munich in 1941 after serving the GERMAN ARMY, and executed by guillotine shouting “Long Live Freedom”-dropping leaflets in Revolution for SOCIAL JUSTICE…

CIA bomb makers & Mind Controlled  Magnus Olsson Swede; CIA Nazis      Memory Mind control to $ invest & lose ALL, and they play with the MEMORY A LOT. Former Hitler Youth Whistleblower Warns Of America’s Nazi Future on line videos This is how they will KILL us! ISRAEL first!     V For 911 Vendetta Past Present and Future — brilliant!!!! George Green and Israel first Plans for WW3…

EXPLOSIONS of: Alien hallucinations, ill list pg. 9, crimes, corruption culture, CANCER, obesity, dumb down bureaucracy, zombies, surreptitiously and unrealized infiltrations until 2008 explosions made overtly!

Number of American civilians who died worldwide in terrorist attacks last year: 8 – Minimum number who died after being struck by lightning: 29.” Spinning their wheels freeing 6,000 terrorists falsely accused, while assassinating who they really want, and BILLIONS a YEAR just to surveil us nefariously and worse agendas still, un-wit.

“Mind control planted ideas in advance as Hollywood and RUMORS of Bear Stearns, and Bay of Pigs starting them in advance including musicians. Playing psychics and mind games…”


A Brave New World by Dr. Nick Begich-Updated FULL DISCLOSURES at

April 3, 2011

See Mind Controlled Cognitive Infiltrations Today under Information Warfare! Dis-info by Agenda to Science under Siege as Humanity under Siege! please see

Mind Control: (Please be aware mind control is all thoughts to the 5 senses in suggestions 24/7 and not all physical effect of ELF/EMF, but have been nefariously abused secretly before patents.

“The Ultimate Brave New World

Technologies for stimulating the brain and controlling the mind can have benefits, but they have a dark side that military and intelligence planners have been exploiting for decades.

Extracted from Nexus Magazine, Volume 13, Number 2

(February – March 2006 & April-May 2006) PO Box 30, Mapleton Qld 4560 Australia.

by Nick Begich, MD © 2006 Extracted from: “Controlling the Human Mind” 2006

It would also appear possible to create high fidelity speech in the human body, raising the possibility of covert suggestion and psychological direction… Thus, it may be possible to “talk” to selected adversaries in a fashion that would be most disturbing to them.

US Air Force, New World Vistas: Air and Space Power for the 21st Century

The idea that the brain can be made to function at a more efficient and directed level has been the subject of research by scientists, mystics, health practitioners and others for as long as mankind has contemplated such matters. In the last decade, advances in the science of the brain have begun to yield significant results. The results of the research are startling, challenging and, if misused, will be frightening. The certainty to be expected from the research is that it will continue to proceed. The idea that people can be impacted by external signal generators which create, for example, pulsed electromagnetic fields, pulsed light and pulsed sound signals is not new. The following information demonstrates some of the possibilities and gives hints of the potentials of the technology. On the positive side, researchers in the field of light and sound are making huge progress in a number of areas, including working with learning disabilities, attention deficit disorders, stroke recovery, accelerated learning, drug/alcohol addiction and

enhanced human performance. The research has shown that certain brain states can be influenced in a way which causes changes within the brain itself. These changes allow individuals the possibility of influencing specific conditions in the mind and body otherwise thought beyond our direct control. The military and others interested in such things have also focused a large amount of research into this area for the purpose of enhancing the performance of soldiers while degrading the performance of adversaries. What is known is that great strides in the area of behaviour control are now possible with systems developed and under development by most sophisticated countries on the planet. These new technologies represent a much different approach to warfare which our government is describing as part of the “Revolution in Military affairs”. While these new technologies offer much for military planners, they offer even more to citizens generally. Their potential use in military applications and “peacekeeping” creates the need for open debate of this new realm of intelligence-gathering, manipulation and warfare. The most basic ethical questions regarding use of these technologies have not been adequately addressed. At the same time that defence and intelligence-gathering capabilities are being sought, independent researchers are fully engaged in seeking positive uses for the technology. The potentials of the technology, like all technology, are great as both a destructive or constructive force for change. The idea of enhancing physical and mental performance while bypassing what heretofore was a long and arduous road to achieve the same results is exciting. Maintaining the research in the open literature and ensuring that constructive uses are encouraged is critical. I began looking into technologies for stimulating brain performance about fifteen years ago. At the time, there were limited tools available compared to what is now possible. Now it is possible to obtain light and sound, electrocranial and biofeedback tools for use in this exploration. moreover, there are audio materials also available for use with most of these tools. These audio materials can be used for learning languages, behaviour modification or enhanced performance. The biofeedback side of the new technology is being used to train people to reach specific desired brain states for optimum performance. The use of light and sound devices for stimulating brain activity which is conducive to accelerated learning and relaxation is a growing area of interest to many people. Moreover, the use of these tools in conjunction with biofeedback has been the subject of quickly evolving research. The combined technologies of brain state inducement and biofeedback offer exciting possibilities. It has been found with the combination that a person, in a matter of several weeks, can learn to modify purposefully his/her brain activity in a way which would have taken a Zen master twenty years to accomplish. It has been shown that some children with attention deficit disorders can be taught to regulate their brain activities so that they can learn efficiently without chemicals. It has been demonstrated that recovering stroke victims can more rapidly recover when working with brain-biofeedback practitioners and these new tools. The research is also teaching us a good deal about our suggestibility in terms of influences which have an impact on our behaviour. The underlying message that comes with the new technology is the necessity of providing safeguards against misuse. Additionally, recognition of the everyday stimulation we all get and the effect of these information inputs on our learning processes becomes more clear. The suggestibility of humans, particularly when in a fatigued condition, has been exploited by terrorists, cults and others in pursuit of their own aims. The passive suggestibility of radio and television as we weave in and out of the semi-sleep states is for the most part not even recognised. The passive learning situations become even more relevant when we consider how we “receive the news” in our daily lives. The ability to influence thinking, behaviour and performance is indeed a two-edged sword. The 1980s and 1990s were focused on building up the physical body. The 21st century will see a focus on building the mind and optimising mental performance. The idea of merging the new technologies into education is interesting and also calls into question who will decide what is to be learned. In the interim, the possibilities are incredible for those interested in such pursuits. The control of our mental function is no different than the control of the muscles in our bodies. Learning to control or coordinate the activity of our minds will propel our bodies through a much more productive and fuller life. The new tools may offer just such opportunities. On the other side of the issue is the potential for misuse and exploitation of the science. Military planners, law enforcement officials and others are now seeking the covert use of these technologies for controlling the ultimate “information processor”—the Human Being.


“Dr Gottlieb, born August 3, 1918, was the CIA’s real-life ‘Dr Strangelove’—a brilliant

bio-chemist who designed and headed MKULTRA, the agency’s most far-reaching drug and mind-control program at the height of the Cold War. Though the super-secret MKULTRA was ended in 1964, a streamlined version called MK-SEARCH was continued—with Gottlieb in charge—until 1972.” During this period, substantial interest in mind control was stimulated by Soviet use of microwaves. In 1988, “thirty-five years after security officers first noticed that the Soviets were bombarding the US embassy in Moscow with microwave radiation, the US Government still has not determined conclusively—or is unwilling to reveal—the purpose behind the beams”. The US government did know what was happening. The Soviets had developed methods for disrupting the purposeful thought of humans and were using their knowledge to impact diplomats in the United States embassy in Moscow. In 1994, a report concerning the MKULTRA program was issued, containing the following information:

“In the 1950s and ’60s, the CIA engaged in an extensive program of human experimentation, using drugs, psychological, and other means, in search of techniques to control human behavior for counterintelligence and covert action purposes. “In 1973, the CIA purposefully destroyed most of the MKULTRA files concerning its research and testing on human behaviour. In 1977, the agency uncovered additional MKULTRA files in the budget and fiscal records that were not indexed under the name MKULTRA. These documents detailed over 150 subprojects that the CIA funded in this area, but no evidence was uncovered at that time concerning the use of radiation. “The CIA did investigate the use and effect of microwaves on human beings in response to a Soviet practice of beaming microwaves on the US embassy. The agency determined that this was outside the scope of the Advisory Committee’s purview. “…The Church Committee found some records, but also noted that the practice of MKULTRA at that time was ‘to maintain no records of the planning and approval of test programs’. …MKULTRA itself was technically closed out in 1964, but some of its work was transferred to the Office of Research and Development (ORD) within the DS&T under the name MKSEARCH and continued into the 1970s. “The CIA worked closely with the Army in conducting the LSD experiments. This connection with the Army is significant because MKULTRA began at the same time that Secretary of Defense Wilson issued his 1953 directive to the military services on ethical guidelines for human experiments. “Throughout the course of MKULTRA, the CIA sponsored numerous experiments on unwitting humans. After the death of one such individual (Frank Olson, an army scientist, was given LSD in 1953 and committed suicide a week later), an internal CIA investigation warned about the dangers of such experimentation. The CIA persisted in this practice for at least the next ten years. After the 1963 IG [Inspector-General] report recommended termination of unwitting testing, Deputy Director for Plans Richard Helms (who later became Director of Central Intelligence) continued to advocate covert testing on the ground that ‘positive operational capability to use drugs is diminishing, owing to a lack of realistic testing. With increasing knowledge of state of the art, we are less capable of staying up with the Soviet advances in this field’. …Helms attributed the cessation of the unwitting testing to the high risk of embarrassment to the Agency as well as the ‘moral problem’. He noted that no better covert situation had been devised than that which had been used, and that ‘we have no answer to the moral issue’.” They did have the answers to the moral questions on human experimentation but chose to ignore them, destroy the records, hide the truth and still continue in their efforts. Nothing has changed as each participating organisation, using national security laws, avoids disclosure and accountability. The records which were destroyed contained the evidence necessary perhaps to send some participants to jail for society’s version of behaviour modification. Once again, there was no accountability and no recognition of the rights of the individuals damaged by these experiments.

Mind Wars

“For the first time in some 500 years, a scientific revolution has begun that will fundamentally change the world as much as the Renaissance and Enlightenment did. A handful of extraordinary new advances in science are taking humans quickly and deeply into areas that will have profound implications for the future.” One of these areas is control of the human mind. The issues surrounding behaviour modification, mind control and information warfare become crystal clear as the facts unfold. The following is taken from a current military document, “The Information Revolution and the Future Air Force” by Colonel John A. Warden III, USAF, which clarifies their position in the emerging area of research, taking a much different direction than the one described above: “We’re currently experiencing, on an unprecedented global basis, three simultaneous revolutions, any one of which would be more than enough to shock and confound us. The first revolution, a geopolitical revolution, sees a single dominant power in the world for the first time since the fall of Rome. The opportunities that are inherent in this situation are extraordinary, as are the pitfalls. Unfortunately, there is no one around that has first hand experience in how to deal with that kind of single power dominant world. “The second revolution, and there’s a lot of discussion about this so far, is the information revolution. As other people have mentioned, it is following inexorably in tandem behind Moore’s law of computing power. Attendant to it, though, is not the creation of new ideas and technologies, but also an exponential growth in the velocity of information dissemination, and for us that is of extraordinary importance. A key part of this information revolution has an awesome impact on competition. The business that introduced a new product ten years ago could count on probably five years before it had to look seriously at potential competitors based overseas. Today, you’re lucky if you can count on five months or even five weeks before you are facing the overseas competitor. In today’s world, success simply demands rapid introduction of successively new products or military systems. Success now goes to the organization which exploits information almost instantly, while failure is the near certain fate of the organization which tries to husband or hide ideas. Real simple—use it or you’re going to lose it. “The third revolution, which is a little bit more complex, is the military/technological revolution, or in some places called the revolution in military affairs. I’m convinced that this is the first military technological revolution ever because we now have, for the first time, a conceptually different way to wage war. We can wage war in parallel now. In the past, communications and weapons technology, especially weapons accuracy, have constrained us to waging serial war. This changes almost everything. “Biological Process Control: As we look forward to the future, it seems likely that this nation will be involved in multiple conflicts where our military forces increasingly will be placed in situations where the application of full force capabilities of our military might cannot be applied. We will be involved intimately with hostile populations in situations where the application of non-lethal force will be the tactical or political preference. It appears likely that there are a number of physical agents that might actively, but largely benignly, interact or interfere with biological processes in an adversary in a manner that will provide our armed forces the tools to control these adversaries without extensive loss of life or property. These physical agents could include acoustic fields, optical fields, electromagnetic fields, and combinations thereof. This paper will address only the prospect of physical regulation of biological processes using electromagnetic fields. “Prior to the mid-21st century, there will be a virtual explosion of knowledge in the field of neuroscience. We will have achieved a clear understanding of how the human brain works, how it really controls the various functions of the body, and how it can be manipulated (both positively and negatively). One can envision the

development of electromagnetic energy sources, the output of which can be pulsed, shaped, and focused, that can couple with the human body in a fashion that will allow one to prevent voluntary muscular movements, control emotions (and thus actions), produce sleep, transmit suggestions, interfere with both short-term and long-term memory, produce an experience set, and delete an experience set. This will open the door for the development of some novel capabilities that can be used in armed conflict, in terrorist/hostage situations, and in training. New weapons that offer the opportunity of control of an adversary without resorting to a lethal situation or to collateral casualties can be developed around this concept. This would offer

significant improvements in the capabilities of our special operation forces. “Initial experimentation should be focused on the interaction of electromagnetic energy and the neuromuscular junctions involved in voluntary muscle control. Theories need to be developed, modeled, and tested in experimental preparations. Early testing using in vitro cell cultures of neural networks could provide the focus for more definitive intact animal testing. If successful, one could envision a weapon that would render an opponent incapable of taking any meaningful action involving any higher motor skills (e.g., using weapons, operating tracking systems). The prospect of a weapon to accomplish this when targeted against an individual target is reasonable; the prospect of a weapon effective against a massed force would seem to be more remote. Use of such a device in an enclosed area against multiple targets (hostage situation)

may be more difficult than an individual target system, but probably feasible. “It would also appear to be possible to create high fidelity speech in the human body, raising the possibility of covert suggestion and psychological direction. When a high power microwave pulse in the

gigahertz range strikes the human body, a very small temperature perturbation occurs. This is associated with a sudden expansion of the slightly heated tissue. This expansion is fast enough to produce an acoustic wave. If a pulse stream is used, it should be possible to create an internal

acoustic field in the 5–15 kilohertz range, which is audible. Thus, it may be possible to ‘talk’ to selected adversaries in a fashion that would be most disturbing to them.

“In comparison to the discussion in the paragraphs above, the concept of imprinting an experience set is highly speculative, but nonetheless highly exciting. Modern electromagnetic scattering theory raises the prospect that ultra-short pulse scattering through the human brain can result in reflected signals that can be used to construct a reliable estimate of the degree of central nervous system arousal. The concept behind this ‘remote EEG’ is to scatter off of action potentials or ensembles of action potentials in major central nervous system tracts. Assuming we will understand how our skills are imprinted and recalled, it might be possible to take this concept one step further and duplicate the experience set in another individual. The prospect of providing a ‘been there—done that’ knowledge base could provide a revolutionary change in our approach to specialized training. How this can be done or even if it can be done are significant

unknowns [sic]. The impact of success would boggle the mind!” The above report was a forecast for the year 2020. However, the reality is that these technologies already exist and there are a number of patents in the open literature which clearly show the possibilities. This research is not new but goes back to the 1950s. “A new class of weapons, based on electromagnetic fields, has been added to the muscles of the military organism. The C3I [Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence] doctrine is still growing and expanding. It would appear that the military may yet be able to completely control the minds of the civilian population.” The targeting of civilian populations by the military is a significant departure from its history. In the past, the military has used persuasion through real information rather than using deliberate deception and mind manipulation to win populations over.

A decoy and deception concept presently being considered is to remotely create the perception of noise in the heads of personnel by exposing them to low power, pulsed microwaves. When people are illuminated with properly modulated low power microwaves the sensation is reported as a buzzing, clicking, or hissing which seems to originate (regardless of the person’s position in the field) within or just behind the head. The phenomena occurs [sic] at average power densities as low as microwatts per square centimeter with carrier frequencies from 0.4 to 3.0 GHz. By proper choice of pulse characteristics, intelligible speech may be created. Before this technique may be extended and used for military applications, an understanding of the basic principles must be developed. Such an understanding is not only required to optimize the use of the concept for camouflage, decoy and deception operations

but is required to properly assess safety factors of such microwave exposure.” Actual testing of certain systems has proven “that movements, sensations, emotions, desires, ideas, and a variety of psychological phenomena may be induced, inhibited, or modified by electrical stimulation of specific areas of the brain. These facts have changed the classical philosophical concept that the mind was beyond experimental reach.” The first widespread interest in the subject of mind control hit the mainstream of military think-tanks after the Korean War when returning prisoners of war exhibited significant behavioural changes. In 1956, the following was written into the United States Congressional Record:

“Reports of the treatment of American prisoners of war in Korea have given rise to several popular misconceptions, of which the most widely publicized is ‘brainwashing’. The term itself has caught the public imagination and is used, very loosely, to describe any act committed against an individual by the Communists. Actual ‘brainwashing’ is a prolonged psychological

process, designed to erase an individual’s past beliefs and concepts and to substitute new ones. It is a highly coercive practice which is irreconcilable with universally accepted medical ethics. In the process of ‘brainwashing’, the efforts of many are directed against an individual. To be successful, it requires, among other things, that the individual be completely isolated from normal associations and environment.” The ethical considerations have not changed, but the military’s position on the ethics has changed as it has gained significant capabilities in these areas. “Psychological warfare is becoming increasingly important for US forces as they engage in peacekeeping operations. ‘In the psychological operations area, we’re always looking to build on our existing technologies, so much of this is evolutionary,’ [military planner] Holmes said. ‘It is critically important that we stay ahead of the technology curve.” The temptation to dabble in this area has now overcome the ethical considerations. A Russian military article offered a slightly different slant to the problem, declaring that “humanity stands on the brink of a psychotronic war” with the mind and body as the focus. These “psychotronic” weapons aim to control or alter the psyche, or to attack the various sensory and data processing systems of the human organism. In both cases, the goal is to confuse or destroy the signals that normally keep the body in equilibrium.

According to a US Department of Defense directive (S-3600.1, December 9, 1996),

“information warfare” is defined as “an information operation conducted during time of crisis or conflict to achieve or promote specific objectives over a specific adversary or adversaries”. An “information operation” is defined in the same directive as “actions taken to affect adversary information and information systems”. These “information systems” lie at the heart of the modernisation effort of the US armed forces and manifest themselves as hardware, software, communications capabilities and highly trained individuals. Information warfare has tended to ignore the role of the human body as an information or data processor in this quest for dominance, except in those cases where an individual’s logic or rational thought may be upset via Dis-information or deception... Yet, the body is capable not only of being deceived, manipulated or mis-informed but also shut down or destroyed—just as any other data-processing system. The “data” the body receives from external sources, such as electromagnetic, vortex or acoustic energy waves, or creates through its own electrical or chemical stimuli, can be manipulated or changed, just as the data (information) in any hardware system can be altered. If the ultimate target of information warfare is the information-dependent process, “whether human or automated”, then the definition implies that human data-processing of internal and external signals can clearly be considered an aspect of information warfare.

On a much grander scale, the use of mind control was contemplated as far back as 1969

by a former science adviser to President Johnson. “Gordon J. F. Macdonald, a geophysicist specializing in problems of warfare, has written that accurately timed, artificially excited strokes ‘could lead to a pattern of oscillations that produce relatively high power levels over certain regions of the earth… In this way, one could develop a system that would seriously impair the brain performance of very large populations in selected regions over an extended period..” This capability exists today through the use of systems which can stimulate the ionosphere to return a pulsed (modulated) signal which, at the right frequency, can override normal brain functions. By overriding the natural pulsations of the brain, chemical reactions are triggered which alter the emotional state of targeted populations. Subliminal Messages and commercial Uses One of the areas where this new technology is being used is in systems to dissuade shoplifters, using sound below the range of hearing. “Japanese shopkeepers are playing

CDs with subliminal messages to curb the impulses of the growing band of shoplifters. The Mind Control CDs have sound-tracks of popular music or ocean waves, with encoded voices in seven languages…warning that anyone caught stealing will be reported to the police.” A number of devices have been developed to influence behaviour in this way, and patents have been awarded. The following summations are taken from some of these patents dealing with both audio and video programming—only this time, we are the program: “An auditory subliminal programming system includes a subliminal message encoder that generates fixed frequency security tones and combines them with a subliminal message signal to produce an encoded subliminal message signal which is recorded on audio tape or the like. A corresponding subliminal decoder/mixer is connected as part of a user’s conventional stereo system and receives as inputs an audio program selected by the user and the encoded subliminal message.” “Ambient audio signals from the customer shopping area within a store are sensed and fed to a signal processing circuit that produces a control signal which varies with variations in the amplitude of the sensed audio signals. A control circuit adjusts the amplitude of an auditory subliminal antishoplifting message to increase with increasing amplitudes of sensed audio signals and decrease with decreasing amplitudes of sensed audio signals. This amplitude controlled subliminal message may be mixed with background music and transmitted to the shopping area.” “Data to be displayed is combined with a composite video signal. The data is stored in memory in digital form. Each byte of data is read out in sequential fashion to determine: the recurrence display rate of the data according to the frame sync pulses of the video signal; the location of the data within the video image according to the line sync pulses of the video signal; and the location of the data display within the video image according to the position information.” “This invention is a combination of a subliminal message generator that is 100% user programmable for use with a television receiver. The subliminal message generator periodically displays user specified messages for the normal television signal for [a] specific period of time. This permits an individual to employ a combination of subliminal and supraliminal therapy while watching television.”

The above points may seem a bit complicated; however, they can be summarised. These patents are designed to provide a way to hide messages in video or audio formats, masking any suggestions that the programmer wishes to convey. These kinds of messages bypass the conscious mind and are acted upon by the person hearing them; they are not sorted out by the active mind. Although these technologies are being developed for personal use and as security measures, consider the possibilities for abuse by commercial interests where the messages might be “buy, buy, buy”, “drink more, don’t worry”, or some other self-serving script. Should these systems be regulated? By whom and under what conditions? New Standards for What is a Memory “Nevada is currently the only state to allow witness testimony of a person who has undergone hypnosis. As of October 1, 1997, courts hearing both civil and criminal cases can take a hypnotically refreshed testimony, as long as the witness, if a minor, has had the informed consent of parent or guardian, and the person performing the hypnosis is any of the following: a health care provider, a clinical social worker licenced in accordance with 641B of Nevada Revised Statute, or a disinterested investigator.” This issue will surely become more complex as technology advances in terms of evidence. When the day arrives that it is possible to change or alter memory completely, as suggested earlier by military officers, what then? How will we separate the real from the unreal? What will be the impact on the burden of proof in courts as it relates to “reasonable doubt”? Again, the emergence of the technology has first to be recognised as real before laws can be constructed and systems established for controlling misuse. Think how long it has taken the courts even to recognise hypnotherapy as valid science. We are hopeful that we will not have to wait so long for legislative bodies to take the initiative to address these issues. Auditory Effects The questions which this section raises are profound. Is it possible to transmit a signal to the brain of a person, from a distance, which deposits specific sounds, voice or other information which can be understood? Is it possible to transfer sound in a way where only the targeted person can hear the “voice in the head” and no one else hears a thing? Is it possible to shift a person’s emotions using remote electromagnetic tools? The answer to each of these questions is a resounding “Yes!” The state of the science has passed even the most optimistic predictions, and the capabilities are here now. Military literature suggests that this is possible. A series of experiments, patents and independent research confirm that this technology exists today. While giving testimony to the European Parliament in 1998, I demonstrated one such device to the astonishment of those in attendance. This particular device required physical contact in order to work and was nearly forty years old. This area of research is one of the most important because it points to the ultimate weapon of political control: the ability to place information directly into the human brain, bypassing all normal filtering mechanisms. In 1995, the US Department of Defense put forward the contract, “Communicating via the Microwave Auditory Effect; Awarding Agency:

Department of Defense; SBIR Contract Number: F41624-95-C-9007”. The description of this technology, which would be used for direct communications with military personnel, is written as follows: “Title: Communicating via the Microwave

Auditory Effect

“Description: An innovative and revolutionary technology is described that offers a means of low-probability-ofintercept Radio Frequency (RF) communications. The feasibility of the concept has been established using both a low intensity laboratory system and a high power RF transmitter. Numerous military applications exist in areas of search and rescue, security and special operations.” The feasibility was not only demonstrated in the laboratory but also in the field using a radio-frequency carrier. In the case of the Gulf War, we had always suspected that the reason the Iraqis gave up in mass was not because of the heavy bombardments but because they were being hit with new “nonlethal” systems which created fear and perhaps even worse. Our research uncovered reports which now confirm our suspicions as fact. “What the ‘Voice of the Gulf’ began broadcasting, along with prayers from the Koran and testimonials from well-treated Iraqi prisoners, was precise information on the units to be bombed each day, along with a new, silent psychological technique which induced thoughts of great fear in each soldier’s mind…”This makes a great deal of sense today, given what has become increasingly known about mind-control weapons. “According to statements made by captured and deserting Iraqi soldiers, however, the most devastating and demoralizing programming was the first known military use of the new, high tech, type of subliminal messages referred to as ultra-high-frequency ‘Silent Sounds’ or ‘Silent Subliminals’. “The use of these new techniques, we believe,

went well beyond the injection of fear and may have involved more powerful signal generators which caused the other symptoms which the world observed, including head pain, bleeding from the nose, disorientation and nausea—all possible with so-called nonlethal weapons. The questions which now remain: Are they still using the techniques like an electronic concentration camp in order to control the population? Is this part of the way in which modern governments

will suppress rogue nations? The development of the technology followed a very traceable history which began in the early 1960s at the height of the Cold War.

In 1961, Dr Allen Frey wrote: “Our data to date indicate that the human auditory system can respond to electromagnetic energy in at least a portion of the radio frequency (RF) spectrum. Further, this response is instantaneous and occurs at low power densities, densities which are well below that necessary for biological damage. For example, the effect has been induced with

power densities 1/60 of the standard maximum safe level for continuous exposure.” This observation had incredible ramifications because it meant that within certain ranges RF could create a sound within the brain of a person at energy concentration levels considered too small to be significant. Later that year, a patent was issued to Henry K. Puharich and Joseph L. Lawrence which stated in part: “The present invention is directed to a means for auxiliary hearing communication, useful for improving hearing, for example, and relates more specifically to novel and improved arrangements for auxiliary hearing communications by effecting the transmission of sound signals through the dental structure and facial nervous system of the user.”24 This crude device produced a signal which could be heard in the brain by inducing a vibration which was transferred through the bone into the inner ear, where it was then carried to the brain via the nervous system. Puharich continued researching along this line, gaining an additional patent in 1965.25 Both of these inventions required physical contact with the head of the subject. By 1962, Dr Allan Frey had advanced his work and was able to create sound at a distance from the subject, using a pulsed (modulated) radio transmitter. “Using extremely low average power densities of electromagnetic energy, the perception of sounds was induced in normal and deaf humans. The effect was induced several hundred feet from the antenna the instant the transmitter was turned on, and is a function of carrier frequency and modulation.” What was occurring in this research were the first attempts to “tune” into the brain of a human in the same manner as “tuning” into a radio station. The same energy was being used; it was just at a different frequency with a slight vibration (modulation) on the carrier wave which delivered the signal. In 1968, G. Patrick Flanagan was issued a patent for a device which also required physical contact with the skin of the subject. “This invention relates to electromagnetic excitation of the nervous system of a mammal and pertains more particularly to a method and apparatus for exciting the nervous system of a person with electromagnetic waves that are capable of causing that person to become conscious of information conveyed by the electromagnetic waves.” This invention was much different than what others had created by that time, because this device actually sent a clear, audible signal through the nervous system to the brain. The device could be placed anywhere on the body, and a clear voice or music would appear in the head of the subject. This was a most unbelievable device which had actually been invented in the late 1950s. It had taken years to convince patent examiners that it worked. The initial patent was only granted after the dramatic demonstration of the device on a deaf employee of the US Patent Office. In 1972, a second patent was issued to G. Patrick Flanagan after being suppressed by the military since 1968. This device was much more efficient in that it converted a speech waveform into “a constant amplitude square wave in which the transitions between the amplitude extremes are spaced so as to carry the speech information”. What this did is establish the code of modulation or timing sequences necessary for efficient transfers into the nervous system where the signals could be sent to the brain and decoded as sound in the same way that normal sound is decoded. The result was a clear and understandable sound. The military interest in auditory effects was present since the first inventions were patented, but in 1971 came a system which would allow troops to communicate through a radio transmitter which would render the enemy deaf and disoriented while allowing “friendly” combatants to communicate at the same time. The device is described as follows: “Broadly, this disclosure is directed to a system for producing aural and psychological disturbances and partial deafness of the enemy during combat situations. Essentially, a high directional beam is radiated from a plurality of distinct transducers and is modulated by a noise, code, or speech beat signal. The invention may utilize various forms and may include movable radiators mounted on a vehicle and oriented to converge at a desired point, independently positioned vehicles with a common frequency modulator, or means employed to modulate the acoustical beam with respect to a fixed frequency. During combat, friendly forces would be equipped with a reference generator to provide aural demodulation of the projected signal, thereby yielding an intelligible beat signal while enemy personnel would be rendered partially deaf by the projected signal as well as being unable to perceive any intelligence transmitted in the form of a modulated beat signal.” What this says simply is that ata-distance personal communication could be achieved by one’s own forces while denying it to others and disabling adversaries at the same time. In 1974, it was noted that using a microwave a signal was changed (transduced) by the receiver into an acoustic signal. This signal was “heard” inside or just behind the head. The report stated: “…it was noticed that the apparent locus of the ‘sound’ moved from the observer’s head to the absorber. That is, the absorber acted as a transducer from microwave energy to an acoustic signal. This observation, to the best of our knowledge, has not been described in the literature and may serve as a mechanism mediating the ‘hearing’ of pulsed microwave signals.” By 1989, the science took another leap forward with the combination of the modulated signal on a microwave carrier. This provided a much more efficient delivery of the sound. It was reported: “Sound is induced in the head of a person by radiating the head with microwaves in the range of 100 megahertz to 10,000 megahertz that are modulated with a particular waveform. The waveform consists of frequency modulated bursts. Each burst is made up of ten to twenty uniformly spaced pulses grouped tightly together. The burst width is between 500 nanoseconds and 100 microseconds. The pulse width is in the range of 10 nanoseconds to 1 microsecond. The bursts are frequency modulated by the audio input to create the sensation of hearing in the person whose head is irradiated.” Two other patents awarded that year addressed this breakthrough. The first invention related to devices for aiding hearing in mammals: “The invention is based upon perception of sounds which is experienced in the brain when the brain is subjected to certain microwave radiation signals.”32 The second invention confirmed the earlier observations: “Sound is induced in the head of a person by radiating the head with microwaves in the range of 100 megahertz to 10,000 megahertz that are modulated with a particular waveform. The waveform consists of frequency modulated bursts. Each burst is made up of ten to twenty uniformly spaced pulses grouped tightly together.” In 1992, another patent was issued with the following description: “A silent communications system in which nonaural carriers, in the very low or very high audio frequency range or in the adjacent ultrasonic frequency spectrum, are amplitude or frequency modulated with the desired intelligence and propagated acoustically or vibrationally, for inducement into the brain, typically through the use of loudspeakers, earphones or piezoelectric transducers.” This device had limited practicality in that it required the person to be in contact with or in close proximity to the sending device. When examined together, each of these patents is seen to be a discrete step toward a new weapon system. In 1995, it was reported that in the early research, clear sound signals had been sent and received. It is difficult now to determine what level of military or other research was being advanced in these areas. The history is clear from congressional reports that this entire area was of great interest to the intelligence communities. According to Scientists for Global Responsibility: “Drs Alan Frey and Joseph Sharp conducted related research. Sharp himself took part in these experiments and reported that he heard and understood words transmitted in pulse-microwave analogs of the speaker’s sound vibrations. Commenting on these studies, Dr Robert Becker, twice nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize, observed that such a device has obvious applications in covert operations designed to drive a target crazy with voices, or deliver undetectable instructions to a potential assassin.” Then, in 1996 came another development, a “wireless communication system undetectable by radio frequency methods for converting audio signals, including human voice, to electronic signals in the ultrasonic frequency range, transmitting the ultrasonic signal by means of acoustic pressure waves across a carrier medium, including gases, liquids, or solids, and reconverting the ultrasonic acoustical pressure waves back to the original audio signal”. Although this was meant to be used with both receiving and sending hardware, what was determined were the modulation methods for transferring the signal. The real work was yet to be made public in the form of patents. However, the military claims in the area were starting to surface. What was known from experience was that patents were being held back by the government and confiscated by the military. When this intellectual property was seized, the inventors were given a choice: work for the government, or you cannot continue research or even talk about your invention under a national security order. Those who did not cooperate could have their work effectively shut down.

Brain-to-Computer Connections

Major steps are being made to connect biology to information technology. In 1990 came the news that “[s]cientists have succeeded for the first time in establishing a colony of human brain cells that divide and grow in laboratory dishes, an achievement with profound implications

for understanding and treating a wide range of neurological disorders from epilepsy to Alzheimer’s disease”. According to a report in the Wall Street Journal in February 1994: “Researchers said they took a key first step toward creating electronic microchips that use living brain cells. The researchers said they had learned how to place embryonic brain cells in desired spots on silicon or glass chips and then induce the brain cells to grow along desired paths.”

The other possibility is that both brain cells and computer hardware could be built in the laboratories, creating, perhaps, the first biologically augmented computers.

What’s on Your Mind?

A significant initiative was started for use in creating counter-drug measures: the Brain Imaging Technology Initiative. “This initiative establishes NIDA [National Institute on Drug Abuse] regional neuroimaging centers and represents an interagency cooperative endeavor funded by

CTAC [Counterdrug Technology Assessment Center], Department of Energy (DOE), and NIDA to develop new scientific tools (new radiotracers and technologies) for understanding the mechanisms of addiction and for the evaluation of new pharmacological treatments.” Through

neuroimaging, not only could the stated objective be achieved, but through imaging a person’s emotional states could be mapped, chemical influences determined and perhaps even specific thoughts read. Back in 1975, Physics Today reported: “Developments in ways to measure the

extremely weak magnetic fields emanating from organs such as the heart, brain and lungs are leading to important new methods for diagnosing abnormal conditions.” In 1995, a system for capturing and decoding brain signals was patented which includes a transducer for stimulating a person and EEG transducers for recording brainwave signals from the person. It also includes a computer for controlling and synchronising stimuli presented to the person and at the same time

recording brainwave signals, and either interpreting these signals using a model for conceptual, perceptual and emotional thought to correspond to the EEG signals of the person’s thoughts or comparing the signals to normal brain signals from a normal population to diagnose and locate the origin of brain-dysfunctional underlying perception, conception and emotion. In other words, the device reads your mind by comparing your brain activity to other people’s. In 1996 came this Orwellian development: “…a method for remotely determining information relating to a person’s emotional state, as waveform energy having a predetermined frequency and a predetermined intensity is generated and wirelessly transmitted towards a remotely located subject. Waveform energy emitted from the subject is detected and automatically analyzed to derive information relating to the individual’s emotional state. Physiological or physical parameters of blood pressure, pulse rate, pupil size, respiration rate and perspiration level are measured and compared with reference values to provide information utilizable in evaluating [an] interviewee’s responses or possibly criminal intent in security sensitive areas.” This technology could be used for determining what a person might do, given his totally discernible interior emotions. This technology walks through any behaviour wall a person can erect and goes straight to the brain to see what may be on a person’s mind. Inducing behaviour rather than just reading a person’s emotional state is the subject of one scientist’s work in Canada. “Scientists are trying to recreate alien abductions in the laboratory… The experiment, to be run by Professor Michael Persinger, a neuroscientist at Laurentian University, of Sudbury, Ontario, consists of a converted motorcycle helmet with solenoids on its sides that set up magnetic fields across a subject’s head.” This experiment was carried out and was the subject of a Canadian Broadcasting System exposé on mind control. The segment ran on a program called undercurrents in February 1999. This author also appeared in that program, along with several others interested in this field. A 1993 report said that for over 20 years Dr Persinger “…has been working on a theory that connects not only UFOs and earthquakes, but also powerful electromagnetic fields and an explanation of paranormal beliefs in terms of unusual brain activity. He has also found that stimulating another area, the temporal lobes, can produce all sorts of mystical experiences, out-of-body sensations and other apparently paranormal phenomena.” This doctor’s work suggests that these experiences may be the result of activity in the brain and not the actual experiences of the individuals. He has had some measure of success in re-creating many of these experiences in his subjects. Dr Persinger is also known for his work in studying the effects of ELF [extra-lowfrequency waves] on memory and brain function. In 1991, a method for changing brain waves to a desired frequency was patented. A 1975 patent discussed a similar technology: a device and method for “…sensing brain waves at a position remote from a subject whereby electromagnetic signals of different frequencies are simultaneously transmitted to the brain of the subject in which the signals interfere with one another to yield a waveform which is modulated by the subject’s brain waves. The interference waveform which is representative of the brain wave activity is retransmitted by the brain to a receiver where it is demodulated and amplified. The demodulated waveform is then displayed for visual viewing and then routed to a computer for further processing and analysis. The demodulated waveform also can be used to produce a compensating signal which is transmitted back to the brain to effect a desired change in electrical activity therein.”47 In simple terms, the brain’s activity is mapped in order to read a person’s emotional state, conceptual abilities or intellectual patterns. A second signal can be generated and sent back into the brain which overrides the natural signal, causing the brain’s energy patterns to shift. This is the “brain entrainment” which causes the shift in consciousness. There are many uses of a positive nature for this kind of technology, as was mentioned at the front of this section, the important factor being who controls the technology and for what purpose.

In January 1998, the following encapsulating statement appeared in the leading scientific journal Nature, quoting Pasteur Institute neuroscientist Jean-Pierre Changeux, chairman of the French national bioethics committee: “But neuroscience also poses potential risks, he said, arguing that

advances in cerebral imaging make the scope for invasion of privacy immense…it will become commonplace and capable of being used at a distance, he predicted. That will open the way for abuses such as invasion of personal liberty, control of behaviour and brainwashing.” Dancing to the Tune of an Unknown Drummer In “…a dramatic demonstration of mind reading, neuroscientists have created videos of what a cat sees by using electrodes implanted in the animal’s brain. ‘Trying to understand how the brain codes information leads to the possibility of replacing parts of the nervous system with an artificial device,’ he said.” The scientist commenting on this technology—Gattett Stanley, assistant professor of biomedical engineering at Harvard—saw the future possibility of brain activity mapping being used in creating electronic components to replace damaged parts of the system. The use of mind-mapping had other possibilities as well. Similar research in controlling the behaviour of humans and animals was pursued by Dr José Delgado at Yale University, one of the leading research institutions in the United States. Actual testing of certain systems proved that “movements, sensations, emotions, desires, ideas, and a variety of psychological phenomena may be induced, inhibited, or modified by electrical stimulation of specific areas of the brain”.50 By 1985, Dr Delgado was able to create these effects using only a radio signal sent to the brain remotely, using energy concentrations of less than 1/50th of what the Earth naturally produces. This discovery implied that frequency, waveform and pulse rate (modulation) were the important factors rather than the amount of energy being used. In considering this, it makes sense because

the human body does not require high electromagnetic power concentration to regulate its normal functioning. The key was in finding the “tuning” mechanisms for locating the right “receiving station” in the brain. By 1993, publicly released information was being discussed as a result of information openly flowing out of Russia. Meetings were held to assess the threat: the “main purpose of the March meetings was described in the Psychotechnologies memo as to ‘determine whether psycho-correction technologies represent a present or future threat to US

national security in situations where inaudible commands might be used to alter behavior'”. The threat assessment was likely to begin to condition Americans for the public acknowledgement of one of the government’s long-held secrets: that the human mind and body can be controlled remotely, without a trace of evidence being left behind. In another quote, one of the leading researchers in this area, Dr Igor Smirnov, began to announce his findings. “But psychological warfare experts on all sides still dream that they will one day control the enemy’s mind. And in a tiny, dungeon-like lab in the basement of Moscow’s ominously named Institute of Psycho-Correction, Smirnov and other Russian psychiatrists are already working on schizophrenics, drug addicts and cancer patients.” The results of this research have been investigated and demonstrated to members of the intelligence community in the United States, and have even been demonstrated by Dr Smirnov in an interview for the Canadian television documentary Undercurrents. This issue is also an interesting one, as can be seen in this 1999 article excerpt.

Fantasies are thought processes involving internal monologues and imaginative sequences which can motivate healthy people to constructive behaviour; likewise, they can inspire unbalanced individuals to destructive or dangerous behaviour. One conclusion from that research was that fantasy played a major role among violent criminals. Researchers learned that criminals often daydreamed their fantasies, and then practiced elements of those fantasies before committing their crime. FBI agents determined that violent criminals often exhibit telltale signs as children and as adults. Hence, disturbed employees or students may demonstrate signs of violent fantasies to close observers. Troubled individuals may be obsessively interested in music with violent lyrics, or may have a drug or alcohol problem. When these signs reveal themselves, they should be reported to a threat management team, which can then neutralize the threat, either by therapy, if rehabilitation is possible, or by firing the employee. Workplace and school Violence is usually preceded by warning signs.” The ability to determine a “predisposition” for a behaviour does not mean that a person will make the “choice” to act on the feelings and internal thoughts. Every person on the planet can remember times when his thoughts were dangerous, immoral or otherwise unacceptable, falling below the standards set by societal and cultural “norms”. Yet, we can have these thoughts in the privacy of our own mind. The trend in the application of mind control technology now would make our most private internal thoughts, as we wrestle with the temptations and choices of everyday life, subject to scrutiny by Government and employers. Who will define the rules for psycho-correction? Who will decide what is ethical and right in this area as it develops over the next decade?

Control of the Mind and Body

The predominant brain wave frequencies indicate the kind of activity taking place in the brain. There are four basic groups of brain wave frequencies which are associated with most mental activity. The first group, beta waves (13–35 Hertz or pulses per second), is associated with normal activity. The high end of this range is associated with stress or agitated states which can

impair thinking and reasoning skills. The second group, alpha waves (8–12 Hertz), can indicate relaxation. Alpha frequencies are ideal for learning and focused mental functioning. The third group, theta waves (4-7 Hertz), indicates mental imagery, access to memories and internal mental focus. This state is often associated with young children, behavioural modification and

sleep/dream states. The last group, ultra-slow delta waves (0.5–3 Hertz), is found when a person is in deep sleep. The general rule is that the brain’s predominant wave frequency will be lowest in terms of pulses per second when a person is relaxed, and highest when a person is most alert or agitated.54 External stimulation of the brain by electromagnetic means can cause the brain to be entrained or locked into phase with an external signal generator. Predominant brain waves can be driven or pushed into new frequency patterns by external stimulation. In other words, the external signal driver or impulse generator entrains the brain, overriding the normal frequencies and causing changes in the brain waves, which then cause changes in brain chemistry, which then cause changes in brain outputs in the form of thoughts, emotions or physical condition. As you are driven, so you arrive. Brain manipulation can be either beneficial or detrimental to the individual being impacted, depending on the level of knowledge or the intentions of the person controlling the technology. In combination with specific wave-forms, the various frequencies trigger precise chemical responses in the brain. The release of these neurochemicals causes specific reactions in the brain which result in feelings of fear, lust, depression, love, etc. All of these, and the full range of emotional/intellectual responses, are caused by very specific combinations of these brain chemicals which are released by frequency-specific electrical impulses. “Precise mixtures of these brain juices can produce extraordinarily specific mental states, such as fear of the dark, or intense concentration.” The work in this area is advancing at a very rapid rate, with new discoveries being made regularly. Unlocking the knowledge of these specific frequencies will yield significant breakthroughs in understanding human health. Radiofrequency radiation, acting as a carrier for extremely low frequencies (ELF), can be used to entrain brain waves wirelessly.

The control of mind and body by using various forms of electromagnetic energy including radio signals, light pulsations, sound and other methods has resulted in several inventions and innovations. The positive health effects and uses have been pursued by private researchers round the world. In 1973, an “…apparatus for the treatment of neuropsychic and somatic disorders herein light, sound, VHF electromagnetic field and heat sources, respectively, are simultaneously applied by means of a control unit to the patient’s central nervous system with a predetermined repetition rate. The light radiation and sound radiation sources are made so as to exert an adequate and monotonous influence of the light and sound radiation on the patient’s visual analyzers and auditory analyzers, respectively.” This results in the brain following the external stimulating source in triggering brain pattern changes which affect the brain immediately and directly. A simple invention patented in 1977 “…provides a device for improving upon the aforesaid application [see patent for full text] in assisting the induction of natural sleep. As stated above, this invention is concerned specifically with an improvement

that will permit the creation of several waveforms such that an analgesic noise device can approximate soothing sounds of nature, i.e., waves, rain, wind.” These kinds of devices are available everywhere and are noted for their calming effects in helping people relax and sleep.

In 1980, another patent was issued which disclosed “…a method and apparatus for producing a noise-like signal for inducing a hypnotic or anesthetic effect in a human being. The invention also has application in crowd control and consciousness level training (biofeedback). The invention may also be used in creating special musical effects.” This device would have a profound effect in controlling individuals to a point otherwise only achievable through the application of hypnotherapy or drugs. A couple of years later, another device was engineered to create these types of effects, again using very subtle energy: “Brain wave patterns associated with relaxed and meditative states in a subject are gradually induced without deleterious chemical or neurological side effects.”

Various systems were perfected and patents issued for controlling brain activity. These inventions generated a whole array of breakthroughs for controlling a person’s emotional state, concentration and pain levels and creating other effects as well. In 1990, the results of a study strongly indicated that “…specific types of subjective experiences can be enhanced when extremely low frequency magnetic fields of less than 1 milligauss are generated through the brain at the level of the temporal lobes. Vestibular feelings (vibrations, floating), depersonalization (feeling detached, sense of a presence) and imaginings (vivid images from childhood) were more frequent within the field exposed groups than the sham field exposed group.” In a 1996 “new age” invention, quartz crystals are used to create stress relief by slowing brain activity. “Physiological stress in a human subject is treated by generating a weak electromagnetic field about a quartz crystal. The crystal is stimulated by applying electrical pulses of pulse widths between 0.1 and 50 microseconds each at a pulse repetition rate of between 0.5k and 10k [500 and 10,000] pulses per second to a conductor positioned adjacent to the quartz crystal thereby generating a weak magnetic field. A subject is positioned within the weak magnetic field for a period of time sufficient to reduce stress.” It is interesting that “New Age” thinkers have played on “crystal magic” as a way to get “in tune” with oneself and relax, and here is a quartz crystal being included as a component of this invention. Again, the crossovers between fiction and science continue to appear.

Consciousness training is also a big theme in cults, religious organisations and others pursuing the “New Age”. Science has now gained a greater understanding of how the mind and brain work, so that what used to take years or even decades to achieve can now be mastered in weeks, days or even minutes. For instance, in 1996 a method and apparatus for the use in achieving alpha and theta brainwave states and effecting positive emotional states in humans was developed. Three years before, a patent was issued for a device which could create desired consciousness states: “…in the training of an individual to replicate such states of consciousness without further audio stimulation; and in the transferring of such states from one human being to another through the imposition of one person’s EEG, superimposed on desired stereo signals, on another individual, by inducement of a binaural beat phenomenon.” Thought transference?

This is interesting in that it speaks to the ideas alluded to earlier by the military in changing the memory of a person by imposing computer-manipulated signals which would integrate with the normal memory of a person. The possibility for abuse is obvious, and the opportunity for personal advancement is great. Imagine gaining education by the transfer of data directly into the human brain by these new methods rather than by the standard methods of learning. A serious consideration in developing these types of memory transfer systems is that they bypass normal intellectual filters: information is deposited into the brain as fact, without question or careful consideration. What happens when the new information conflicts with existing information? Would it be possible to include hidden information meant to unduly influence things like religious beliefs, politics or consumption of goods and services? The possibilities are immense and the ethical and moral questions surrounding these matters are equally large. We can no longer avoid the debate. In fact, the debate is lagging far behind the scientific advances. In the interim, there are some simple things we could all do to enhance our own, or our children’s, learning capacity by applying simple and available knowledge. For instance, “researchers at the Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory at University of California, Irvine, have determined that 10 minutes of listening to a Mozart piano sonata raised the measurable IQ of college students by up to nine points”. This is a simple thing of great use to anyone seeking self-improvement.

Weapons of the Mind

A 1984 paper titled “The Electromagnetic Spectrum in Low-Intensity Conflict” said much about the military’s interest in EMR: “The results of many studies that have been published in the last few years indicate that specific biological effects can be achieved by controlling the various

parameters of the electromagnetic (EM) field. A few of the more important EM factors that can be manipulated are frequency, wave shape, rate of pulse onset, pulse duration, pulse amplitude, repetition rate, secondary modulation, and symmetry and asymmetry of the pulse. Many of the clinical effects of electromagnetic radiation were first noticed using direct current applied

directly to the skin. Later the same effects were obtained by applying external fields. Electromagnetic radiation has been reported in the literature to induce or enhance the following effects.

1. Stimulation of bone regeneration [in fractures]

2. Healing of normal fractures

3. Treatment of congenital pseudarthrosis

4. Healing of wounds

5. Electroanesthesia

6. Electroconvulsive therapy

7. Behavior modification in animals

8. Altered electroencephalograms in animals and humans

9. Altered brain morphology in animals

10. Effects of acupuncture

11. Treatment of drug addiction

12. Electrostimulation for relief of pain

13. Altered firing of neuronal cells

“These are but a few of the many biological effects and uses that have been reported over the past decade. They are not exhaustive and do not include many of the effects reported in the Soviet and East European literature. “As with most human endeavors, these applications of electromagnetic radiation have the potential for being a double-edged sword. They can produce significant benefits, yet at the same time can be exploited and used in a controlled manner for military or covert applications. This paper focuses on the potential uses of electromagnetic radiation in future low-intensity conflicts.

“‘Potential Military Applications of EMR

“The exploitation of this technology for military uses is still in its infancy and only recently has been recognized by the United States as a feasible option. A 1982 Air Force review of biotechnology had this to say. ‘Currently available data allow the projection that specially generated radio frequency radiation (RFR) fields may pose powerful and revolutionary military threats. Electroshock therapy indicates the ability of induced electric current to completely

interrupt mental functioning for short periods of time, to obtain cognition for longer periods and to restructure emotional response over prolonged intervals. ‘Experience with electroshock therapy, RFR experiments and the increasing understanding of the brain as an electrically mediated organ suggested the serious probability that impressed electromagnetic fields can be

disruptive to purposeful behavior and may be capable of directing and or interrogating such behavior. Further, the passage of approximately 100 milliamperes through the myocardium can lead to cardiac standstill and death, again pointing to a speed-oflight weapons effect.

‘A rapidly scanning RFR system could provide an effective stun or kill capability over a large area. System effectiveness will be a function of wave form, field intensity, pulse widths, repetition frequency, and carrier frequency. The system can be developed using tissue and whole animal experimental studies, coupled with mechanisms and waveform effects research. ‘Using relatively low-level RFR it may be possible to sensitize large military groups to extremely dispersed amounts of biological or chemical agents to which the unirradiated population would be immune. ‘The potential applications of artificial electromagnetic fields are wide ranging and can be used in many military or quasi-military situations. Some of these potential uses include dealing with terrorist groups, crowd control, controlling breeches [sic] of security at military installations, and antipersonnel techniques in tactical warfare… One last area where electromagnetic radiation may prove to be of some value is in enhancing abilities of individuals for anomalous phenomena.'” Quite the papers for the 1980s. Stimulating anomalous phenomena was another interesting point revealed in the Air Force review. What could this mean? In one press report in November 1995, the interest of the CIA was disclosed when it was announced that for “…20 years, the United States has secretly used psychics in attempts to help drug enforcement agencies track down Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi and find plutonium in North Korea, the CIA and others confirm. The ESP spying operations—code named ‘Stargate’—

were unreliable, but three psychics continued to work out of Ft Meade, at least into July, researchers who evaluated the program for the CIA said…” It is also worth pointing out that this report coincided with the public disclosure by military personnel of this project. The story was revealed in David Morehouse’s book Psychic Warrior.

Col. John Alexander, working out of Los Alamos and a major proponent of this area of research, was quoted as saying: “…there are weapons systems that operate on the power of the mind and whose lethal capacity has already been demonstrated… The psychotronic weapon would be silent, difficult to detect, and would require only a human operator as a power source.”

According to a paper on non-lethal weapons:

“An RF weapon currently under development is the high powered, very low frequency (VLF)

modulator. Working in the 20–35 kHz spectrum, the frequency emits from a 1–2 meter antenna dish to form into a type of acoustic bullet. The weapon is especially convenient because the power level is easily adjustable. At its low setting, the acoustic bullet causes physical discomfort—enough to deter most approaching threats. Incrementally increasing the power nets an effect of nausea, vomiting and abdominal pains. The highest settings can cause a person’s bones to literally explode internally. Aimed at the head, the resonating skull bones have caused people to hear ‘voices’.” The weapon was researched by the Russian military more extensively than by the US. Indeed, “…the Russians actually offered the use of such a weapon to the FBI

in the Branch Davidian standoff to make them think that ‘God’ was talking to them. Concerned with the unpredictability of what the voices might actually say to the followers, the FBI declined the offer. Another RF weapon that was ready for use back in 1978 was developed under the guise of Operation PIQUE. Developed by the CIA, the plan was to bounce high powered radio signals off the ionosphere to affect the mental functions of people in selected areas, including Eastern European nuclear installations.”The use of the ionosphere in the CIA’s experiments reminds one of the possibilities now available with systems such as HAARP, which was developed 15 years later. What is clear in all of this is that these systems have been developed and hidden from public view. The practice continues to this day. “The next area of non-lethal weapons is primarily used against machinery…these devices can either cause the machinery to stop functioning or to render it vulnerable to further, more lethal attacks. In addition to this effect, man has become very dependent upon the use of machines and is often rendered helpless in a situation when they become dysfunctional. Therefore, it is only appropriate that they are covered here. The primary anti-machinery arsenal includes the microwave weapon, the non-nuclear electromagnetic pulse, and the laser weapon. “US Special Operations Command has in its arsenal the portable microwave weapon. The capability of such a weapon is varied in that it can not only disrupt enemy communications, but can also superheat internal organs. Of course, directing this type of weapon towards personnel eliminates it from the non-lethal classification. Developed in the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the weapon forms its signal similar to the RF weapons discussed above in that it directs the energy into a high-powered pulse and destroys transistors and other electrical equipment… On an even smaller scale, a portable EMP weapon could be carried by ground forces to destroy the electrical components in an armored vehicle or tank. This capability is being developed with police forces to emit a pulse that would stop a car almost immediately.” These systems offer both promises and risks as we move into the new century. What will be the public reaction to these systems? We suggest that the reaction will cause a significant change in the uses and further developments of these technologies. Additionally, we suspect that monitoring systems would be developed which would allow for the detection of these technologies in order to control abuse. Mind Control Victims Sometimes referred to as “wavies” or “beamers”, these individuals are usually dismissed when asserting that they are the victims of mind control weapons testing. In fact: “University of South Florida researchers have published a study showing that fears of the Internet are replacing the CIA and radio waves as a frequent delusion in psychiatric patients. In every case of Internet delusion documented by the researchers, the patient actually had little experience with computers.” The problem is that it is difficult if not impossible to sort out which people might be victims and which are delusional. Attempts to determine the reality of the complaints are often the butt of jokes and fear. For example, the University of Albany has “…shut down the research of a psychology professor probing the ‘X-Files’ world of government surveillance and mind control. At conferences, in papers and research over two semesters, Professor Kathryn Kelley explored the claims of those who say they were surgically implanted with communications devices to read their thoughts.” Since the release of our first book, Angels Don’t Play This HAARP: Advances in Tesla Technology, we have heard from hundreds of people making such claims. We cannot sort out what might be real experimentation from that which resides only in the minds of these people. We believe that the claims should be taken seriously and that people should have some place to go in order to find the truth or gain the medical treatments they otherwise deserve. The history of the United States is littered with examples of people being exploited by scientists working under the cover of darkness provided by “black budgets”. Could these reports have a factual basis? We believe that some do. Government control of the mind in order to impose its will on people is best summarised on the wall of the Franklin D. Roosevelt Memorial with an inscription that reads: “They [who] seek to establish systems of government based on the regimentation of all human beings by a handful of individual rulers…call this a new order. It is not new and it is not order.”


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Begich, Dr Nick and Jeane Manning, Angels Don’t Play This HAARP: Advances in Tesla Technology, EarthPulse Press, Anchorage, 1995. 84. Lalli, Anthony N., “Human Research Subject Protection”, at BillSite_analysis/paper_web.html. EPI619 EPI259 Filename: Mind Control.doc Directory: D:\epulse\test\epulseuploads\articles Template: E:\Documents and Settings\raja\Application Data\Microsoft\Templates\ Title: Subject: Author: Keywords: Comments: Creation Date: Change Number: Last Saved On: Last Saved By: Total Editing Time: Last Printed On: Mind Control Dr. Nich Begich 1/7/2007 1:48 PM 31/15/2007 10:34 AM Daphine 8 Minutes 1/15/2007 11:18 AM As of Last Complete Printing Number of Pages: 66 Number of Words: 12,883 (approx.) Number of Characters: 73,434 (approx.)”

Pentagon War on ALL CIVILIANS not just CANCER- it’s not the Sun not God!

April 3, 2011

Home » Bizarro » Air Force Plan: Hack Your Nervous System

More updated information and full disclosures at

This is the first of a two-part series on plasma and electromagnetic weapons by David Hambling, author of Weapons Grade: How Modern Warfare Gave Birth to Our High-Tech World.
The brain has always been a battlefield. New weapons might be able to hack directly into your nervous system.
Controlled Effects” (see image, right) is one of the Air Forces ambitious long-term challenges. It starts with better and more accurate bombs, but moves on to discuss devices that “make selected adversaries think or act according to our needs… By studying and modeling the human brain and nervous system, the ability to mentally influence or confuse personnel is also possible.“
The first stage is technology to remotely create physical sensations. They give the example of the Active Denial Systempeople zapper” which uses a high-frequency radiation similar to microwaves as a non-lethal means of crowd control.
Other weapons can affect the nervous system directly. The Pulsed Energy Projectile fires a short intense pulse of laser energy. This vaporizes the outer layer of the target, creating a rapidly-expanding expanding ball of plasma. At different power levels, those expanding plasmas could deliver a harmless warning, stun the target, or disable them — all with pinpoint laser precision from a mile away.
Early reports on the effects of PEPs mentioned temporary paralysis, then thought to be related to ultrasonic shockwaves. It later became apparent that the electromagnetic pulse caused by the expanding plasma was triggering nerve cells. Details of this emerged in a heavily-censored document released to Ed Hammond of the Sunshine Project under the Freedom if Information Act. Called Sensory consequence of electromagnetic pulsed emitted by laser induced plasmas, it described research on activating the nerve cells responsible for sensing unpleasant stimuli: heat, damage, pressure, cold.         By selectively stimulating a particular nociceptor, a finely tuned PEP might sensations of say, being burned, frozen or dipped in acid — all without doing the slightest actual harm.
The skin is the easiest target for such stimulation. But, in principle, any sensory nerves could be triggered. The Controlled Effects document suggests it may be possible to create synthetic images to confuse an individual’ s visual sense or, in a similar manner, confuse his senses of sound, taste, touch, or smell.
In other words, it may be possible to use electromagnetic means to create overwhelming ‘sound’ or ‘light’, or indeed ‘intolerable smell’ which would exist only in the brain of the person perceiving them. There is another side as well. The sensory consequences document also notes that the nervous system which controls muscles could be influenced to cause what they call Taser-like motor effects. The stun guns ability to shock the muscles into malfunction is relatively crude; we might now be looking at are much more targeted effects.
Tomorrow: Moscow moves in. Remote-controlled heart attacks, anyone?
David Hambling February 13th, 2006 | Bizarro, Lasers and Ray Guns | Comments (211)

Democracy Now! Interview: BP oil spill EMPLOYEES.

And it didn’t fail because people were—you know, wanted something bad to happen or were not trying to do the best that they could, but what we discovered was that there was a kind of paralysis that gripped this vast rig in critical places at critical times. And what it resulted in is it resulted in people not taking the steps, not deploying some of these safety systems, or trying to deploy them but deploying them too late, when the damage had already been done. And the net effect of this paralysis is that for nine minutes, from when the blowout first hit the rig until these crippling explosions that basically left this a dead ship, those nine minutes, there was no alarm, general alarm, issued to the 126 people who were on this rig. So, for most of the people on the rig, the first time they really understood that there was a major crisis going on was when the explosions ripped through this oil rig, in many cases injuring people, in some cases quite, quite devastating injuries—burns, broken bones, that kind of thing.

JUAN GONZALEZ: Well, David, it is a fascinating account. And as I told you before the show started, it’s not every day that I read a full New York Times multi-page story. But this one really read like a novel, in terms of what actually happened. And especially, as you say, it wasn’t just a failure of the equipment, but there were several moments when key decisions were made by these experienced people that, had they made a decision one way-Barstow-YES

These are not in the weapon only but the suggested anger and sensations all triggered from mind control messages transmitted.

Home » Bizarro » Pentagon Science: Crazy Enough?

Pentagon Science: Crazy Enough?

Is fringe science good for military technology?
Sharon Weinberger is, to put it mildly, skeptical. Her book, Imaginary Weapons [being discussed tonight in New York –ed.], tells the tangled story of the struggle between the “isomer believers” who think a Hafnium bomb it can be made to work, and the doubters who think is based on impossible science. I’m not so sure. “Fringe science” is a label that history applies after the event to failures; successes are immediately transferred to the mainstream. What looks like ridiculous like fringe tinkering at the time may later be seen as pioneering genius. It struck me while writing my book, Weapons Grade, that revolutionary advances tend to come from outside the mainstream. This is pretty much true by definition: if a concept is already in the mainstream then it will not be revolutionary. Let’s look at three cases of kooks who came good after years in the wilderness: the Spaceman, the Flyboy, and Mr. Death Ray.
Case one is the Spaceman, who spent his career dreaming of travel to other planets. He was suspicious other others and tended to work on his own, refusing to publish many of the details of his work. His report on how he spent a $5,000 grant from the Smithsonian was roundly mocked in the press — especially the New York Times, which said he should go back and learn some high school physics. His biggest success was to send a craft a distance of 184 feet into a cabbage patch.
The Spaceman took his plans for giant weapons based on his space drive to the military, but nobody was convinced they were feasible. Twenty years earlier his idea for an infantry weapon — using a music stand — had also been shelved.
The Spaceman was in fact Robert Goddard, pioneer of the liquid-fuelled rocket. NASA’s Goddard Space Center is named in his honor. Three years after the military turned him down, German V-2 rockets started raining down on London. The V-2 directly drew on Goddard’s work from the 1920’s; the Nazis had rounded up amateur rocket enthusiasts, who called themselves ‘Societies For Space Travel’ and set them to building a weapon based on his liquid-fuelled design. Goddard’s portable rocket was also resurrected — the shoulder-mounted rocket launcher, or Bazooka, became an important infantry weapon.
On July 17th 1969, the day after Armstrong and Aldrin set foot on the moon, the New York Times published a correction to its 1920 story, accepting that Goddard was right: “it is now definitely established that a rocket can function in a vacuum as well as in an atmosphere. The Times regrets the error.”
Case two is the Flyboy, a 22-year-old airman who was convinced he could build better aircraft engines than anything that existed at the time. When he took his designs to his superiors, he was told they were nothing new, and that better men with more experience had failed to get similar plans to work. The working temperatures were too high for any known material, the efficiencies required were too great, and the fuel consumption would be far too high. “Very interesting my boy,” one distinguished aeronautics professor remarked, “but it will never work.“ The official rejection was scarcely less patronizing: “It must be remembered that a tremendous amount of work is being done, and you may rest assured the criticisms made of your scheme were made with the full knowledge of the results achieved by actual experiment.“ The design was going nowhere. Five years later the patent lapsed; the military did not think it was worth renewing, and Flyboy could not afford the fee. He kept working at it though, building prototypes in a tiny workshop on a shoestring budget scraped together from family and friends. The Flyboy was Frank Whittle, the jet engine pioneer, whose designs form the basis for almost all modern jet engines. He only started to get taken seriously when it became clear in 1939 that the Germans had flown a jet aircraft and were storming ahead in development. The RAF had thrown away a lead of several years: if Whittle had been taken seriously in 1929, the Battle of Britain might have been fought with jet aircraft instead of Spitfires. Hans Von Ohain, who developed jets in Germany, even suggested that WWII might not have happened if Britain possessed jets, as “Hitler would have doubted the Luftwaffe’s ability to win.“ Case 3 is the radio Death Ray. Rockets and jet engines may have attracted some ridicule, but death rays were even more absurd. When Marconi developed a directional radio transmitter in 1924, it seemed every crackpot in the word was building one. One of the most notable self-publicists was Harry Matthews — known to the media as “Death Ray” Matthews — who claimed his apparatus could kill mice and shrivel plants at a distance, and that a weapon based on it would have a range of up to eight miles. Although radio waves could do serious damage at close range, anything beyond a few feet was less plausible. In the US, the Army’s Aberdeen Proving Ground offered a standing reward to anyone who could produce a death ray capable of killing a tethered goat. Britain’s Air Ministry put up a similar prize to the inventor whose ray could kill a sheep at a range of a hundred yards.
Neither animal was ever seriously endangered. So great was the public clamor for death rays in Britain that the Air Ministry appointed a committee to look into them. After considerable research, Dr. Robert Watson-Watt reported on February 4th, 1935 that although in theory it was possible to bring down an aircraft with a radio beam, the power required was far in excess of what was possible in practice. Having done the work, the Ministry then asked Watson-Watt whether, in the absence of death rays, anything useful could be done with these radio beams. Watson-Watt had found that aircraft reflected radio waves, and he drew up a paper entitled “The Detection and Location of Aircraft by Radio Means.“Three weeks after the Death Ray paper, the first test was carried out, showing conclusively that an aircraft could be located from the radio waves it reflected. Radio direction finding, later known as Radar, became one of the RAF’s most important tools and was kept strictly secret. In each of these cases the breakthrough has come from outside the mainstream, and each of them has had a lasting impact. Goddard’s rockets paved the way for satellite technology, global communications, GPS, and space imaging (can you imagine weather forecasts without satellite maps?). Whittle’s jet engine revolutionized air travel, and we now take for granted out ability to fly the world quickly and cheaply. An although the death-ray enthusiasts were on the wrong track entirely, they were responsible for radar and the related rise in radio-frequency technology, including everything from microwave ovens to lasers. Revolutionary progress is always going to involve going beyond the mainstream, because if something is in the mainstream already it is part of the slow process of incremental change. It is only the outsiders often working alone and without sufficient funding — who can bring in those radical innovations.
It’s easy to laugh at new ideas, whether they are space rockets, giant electronic brains — or manned flight. Supposed experts in the relevant field often reject such ideas out of hand, not bothering to look closely at the data, and dismiss them as impossible. But it’s surprising how quickly these impossible things become commonplace. We live in an age where robotic terminators taking out terrorists by remote control from thousands of miles away with laser-guided weapons are a routine news story. Look at the cutting edge of military technology and you see plenty of ideas which are derided by the established authorities. I’ve covered lots of stories where this has been the case: The supercavitating penetrator is said to be impossible, as is plasma stealth, not to mention the Slingatron space launcher and radio-frequency devices which hack the human nervous system. Small incremental improvements based on existing ideas are never going to produce the weapons which give decisive advantages like ballistic missiles, jet engines and radar. To paraphrase the great physicist Niels Bohr: “We all know the Pentagon has some crazy ideas. The question is, are they crazy enough?“
David Hambling

Tools ‹ Thewhiterose’s Blog — WordPress Americans-Psyops Diabolical

April 3, 2011

Operation Mind Control-

by Dr. Walter Bowart, New York: Dell Publishing Co., 1978 – 2011

Please keep fearfully in mind that the astonishing information published in this seminal work of investigative reporting, concerning avenues taken to decision and execution by our secret police to fracture or dissolve human minds, then to operate those minds as a small boy, might operate a Yo-Yo, for purposes of counter-intelligence military “efficiency,” and the destruction of democratic institutions, was drawn directly from federal records and from official laboratory archives of the highest educational purpose—as well as from the reviving memories of those who had already undergone the dehumanizing process. … [p. 14]

Zombie is a quaint, old-fashioned folklore word but its meaning becomes obscene when our children’s minds are being controlled … [p. 17][Note:1]

It may have been the biggest story since the atom bomb. The headline, however, was small and ignored the larger issue. “Drug Tests by CIA Held More Extensive Than Reported in ’75,” said the New York Times on July 16, 1977. …

The testing of drugs by the CIA was just a part of the United States government’s top-secret mind-control project, a project which had spanned thirty-five years and had involved tens of thousands of individuals. It involved techniques of hypnosis, narcohypnosis, electronic brain stimulation, behavioral effects of ultrasonic, microwave, and low-frequency sound, aversive and other behavior modification therapies. In fact, there was virtually no aspect of human behavioral control that was not explored in their search for the means to control the memory and will of both individuals and whole masses of people.

The CIA succeeded in developing a whole range of psycho-weapons to expand its already ominous psychological warfare arsenal. With these capabilities, it was now possible to wage a new kind of war: a war which would take place invisibly, upon the battlefield of the human mind… [p. 19]

The psychological techniques described in The Manchurian Candidate were to become a reality less than a decade after Condon saw his story set in type. As if Condon’s fiction had been used as the blueprint, a group of hypno-programmed “zombies” were created. Some were assassins prepared to kill on cue. Others were informers, made to remember minute details under hypnosis. Couriers carried illegal messages outside the chain of command, their secrets secured behind posthypnotic blocks. Knowledge of secret information was removed from the minds of those who no longer had the “need to know”—they were given posthypnotic amnesia. … [p. 21]

The objective of Operation Mind Control during this period has been to take human beings, both citizens of the United States and citizens of friendly and unfriendly nations, and transform them into unthinking, subconsciously programmed “zombies,” motivated without their knowledge and against their wills to perform in a variety of ways in which they would not otherwise willingly perform. This is accomplished through the use of various techniques called by various names, including brainwashing, thought reform, behavior modification, hypnosis, and conditioned reflex therapy. For the purpose of this book the term “mind control” will be used to describe these techniques generically. REF

Mind control is the most terrible imaginable crime because it is committed not against the body, but against the mind and the soul. Dr. Joost A. M. Meerloo expresses the attitude of the majority of psychologists in calling it “mind rape,” and warns that it poses a great “danger of destruction of the spirit” which can be “compared to the threat of total physical destruction . . .” … [p. 23]

“I can hypnotize a man—without his knowledge or consent—into committing treason against the United States,” boasted Dr. George Estabrooks in the early 1940s. Estabrooks, chairman of the Department of Psychology at Colgate University, … [p. 58]

From one such think tank, the Rand Corporation, came a report [1949] … [p. 67]

“ … a hypnotized subject will often accept and confess to an implanted memory as a real event in his own past life.” … A number of experienced hypnotists had been able to train their subjects to perform “in such a way that observers could not tell that the subject was in a trance or that he was acting under hypnotic suggestions.” … [p. 69]

To induce hypnosis in an unwilling subject, the report suggested any of three possibilities which were then well supported by research findings:

1.         As part of a medical examination, talk relaxation to the subject, thus disguising the hypnotic induction. For example, the person could be given a blood pressure test, told that he must relax completely in order to give an adequate test record, and then be given suggestions to go to sleep which would result in a hypnotic trance.

2.         Induce hypnosis while the person is actually asleep from normal fatigue. This could be done by simply talking softly into the sleeper’s ear.

3.         Use injections of drugs to induce hypnosis. The hypnotic drugs would relax the subject and put him in a “twilight state” where the subconscious mind is very susceptible to suggestion. Subjects who refuse or resist the simple “talking” methods of hypnotic induction could be given a few grams of paraldehyde or an intravenous injection of sodium pentothal or sodium amytal. … Subsequently the subject could be allowed to practice carrying out posthypnotic suggestions. He could then be re-hypnotized, still without his conscious cooperation, but this time without the use of drugs. …

Another important use of hypnosis … the report said, would be the induction of amnesia: “Once a deep hypnotic trance is achieved, it is possible to introduce posthypnotic amnesia so that [a subject] . . . would not know . . . that he had been subjected to hypnosis, to drugs, or to any other treatment.”…

The report then said, “Conceivably, electroshock convulsions might be used as an adjunctive device to achieve somnambulism in a very high percentage of the cases. … It is conceivable, therefore, that electroshock treatments might be used to weaken difficult cases in order to produce a hypnotic trance of great depth.” In 1958 the Bureau of Social Science Research (BSSR), a subcontractor to the

Rand Corporation, issued a “technical report” on hypnosis to the air force

“it is conceivable . . . that these techniques could have been used and covered up so successfully that they might be impossible to recognize . . .”

All of these techniques, involving drug-induced hypnosis and electroshock convulsions, were eventually developed and used to reduce some of our own citizens to a zombie state in which they would blindly serve the government. Regardless of the Constitution and the laws which supposedly protect the individual against government coercion, “zombies” were covertly created to do the government’s more unsavory bidding. Such “zombies” asked no questions about the legality of their assignments.

Often their assignments were never consciously known. And if they were ever questioned about their own actions, amnesia protected them from self-incrimination. … [p. 70-73]

In 1951, a former naval officer described “a secret” of certain military and intelligence organizations. He called it “Pain-Drug-Hypnosis” and said it “is a vicious war weapon … The extensiveness of the use of this form of hypnotism in espionage work is now so widespread that it is long past the time when people should have become alarmed about it.”… [p. 75]

Mind control arranges that “slaves” of the intelligence community—witnesses, couriers, and assassins—are “protected” from their own memories and guilt by amnesia.

These “slaves” may be left alive, but the knowledge they possess is buried deep within the tombs of their own minds by techniques which can keep the truth hidden even from those who have witnessed it. It is the ultimate debriefing, the final security measure short of assassination…[p. 148]

José Delgado was a neurophysiologist at the Yale University School of Medicine. By 1964, … he had already been experimenting with electronic stimulation of the brain (ESB) for nearly two decades. His work, supported by the Office of Naval Research,… [p. 250]

A number of government agencies were actually at work on projects similar to Delgado’s, and through these projects the cryptocracy had gained the technology for direct access to the control of the brain and through it, the mind. … [p. 251]

ESB, however, used in conjunction with psycho-surgery and behavior modification, offered unlimited possibilities. After experiments on laboratory animals met with success, human experimentation was enthusiastically undertaken in quest of the most reliable and absolute method of remote control of the mind. … [p. 253]

ESB has, meanwhile, been strikingly successful in other areas. It has been used to modify mental mechanisms, to produce changes in mood and feelings, to reinforce behavior both positively and negatively. It has been used to activate sensory and motor regions of the brain in order to produce elementary or complex experiences or movements, to summon memories, and to induce hallucinations. It also has been used to suppress or inhibit behavior and experience and memory—outside of the conscious control of the owner of the brain…. [p. 256]

And, in 1974, the first victim of Parkinson’s disease treated by ESB walked gracefully out of a San Francisco hospital under his own power, thanks to portable ESB. He had a “stimoceiver” implanted in his brain … The “stimoceiver” which weighed only a few grams and was small enough to implant under his scalp, permitted both remote stimulation of his brain and the instantaneous telemetric recording of his brain waves. … [p. 256-257]

And by the late 1960s, the “remote control” of the human brain—accomplished without the implantation of electrodes—was well on its way to being realized.

A research and development team at the Space and Biology Laboratory of the University of California at the Los Angeles Brain Research Institute found a way to stimulate the brain by creating and electrical field completely outside the head. Dr. W. Ross Adey stimulated the brain with electric pulse levels which were far below those thought to be effectual in the old implanting technique. … [p. 257]

In 1975 a primitive “mind reading machine” was tested at the Stanford Research Institute. The machine is a computer which can recognize a limited amount of words by monitoring a person’s silent thoughts. This technique relies upon the discovery that brain wave tracings taken with an electroencephalograph (EEG) show distinctive patterns that correlate with individual words—whether the words are spoken aloud or merely subvocalized (thought of).

The computer initially used audio equipment to listen to the words the subject spoke. (At first the vocabulary was limited to “up,” “down,” “left,” and “right.”) At the same time the computer heard the words, it monitored the EEG impulses coming from electrodes pasted to the subject’s head and responded by turning a camera in the direction indicated. After a few repetitions of the procedure, the computer’s hearing was turned off and it responded solely to the EEG “thoughts.” It moved a television camera in the directions ordered by the subject’s thoughts alone! … [p. 258]

While Dr. Reed conceded that it was “conceivable that thoughts could be injected” into a person’s mind by the government, he indicated that he did not believe it had already been done. … [p. 259]

Typically, the scientists have not been vigilant enough, for the cryptocracy already has developed remote-controlled men who can be used for political assassination and other dangerous work, …   [p. 260]

In 1967 a writer named Lincoln Lawrence published a book … [Were We Controlled? presented] a sophisticated technique known as RHIC—EDOM … Radio Hypnotic Intra-Cerebral Control—Electronic Dissolution of Memory. …

“Under RHIC, a ‘sleeper’ can be used years later with no realization that the ‘sleeper’ is even being controlled! He can be made to perform acts that he will have no memory of ever having carried out. In a manipulated kind of kamikaze operation where the life of the ‘sleeper’ is dispensable, RHIC processing makes him particularly valuable because if he is detected and caught before he performs the act specified . . . nothing he says will implicate the group or government which processed and controlled him.” …

… according to Lawrence, … during the operation a small electrode was implanted inside … [the person’s] mastoid sinus. The electrode responded to a radio signal which would make audible, inside … [the person’s] head, certain electronic commands to which he had already been posthypnotically conditioned to respond. …

In 1975 the RHIC-EDOM story surfaced again. … The journalist, James L. Moore, said that the papers in his possession described the details of “a military technique of mind-control called Radio-Hypnotic Intra-Cerebral Control—Electronic Dissolution of Memory.” …

According to Moore, in the initial (RHIC) stage of programming the … [person] is put into a deep hypnotic trance, and conditioned to go intro trance at the sound of a specific tone. “A person may be placed under this control with or without his knowledge, programmed to perform certain actions and maintain certain attitudes” whenever he hears the tone. …

The second part of the process, electronic dissolution of memory (EDOM), Moore said, “… By electronically jamming the brain, acetylcholine creates static which blocks out sights and sounds. You would then have no memory of what you saw or heard; your mind would be a blank.” …

The claims of James L. Moore would sound fantastic were it not for the abundance of information to support the possibility of their validity. … [p. 261-264]

The cryptocracy has gone to absurd lengths to develop remote-controlled beings. Victor Marchetti revealed that the CIA had once tried to create a cyborg cat. He said that the Agency wired a live feline for sound in an attempt to use the pet for eavesdropping purposes. The cat was first altered electronically so that it would function as a listening device in areas where potential enemy agents would be discussing covert plots.[Note:2] …

After the electronic feline was at last ready for its assignment, it was turned loose on the street and was followed by a CIA support van loaded with electronic monitoring gear. … [p. 273]

The cryptocracy has used mind control for the past thirty years. It has used it on its own agents and employees, on enemies and friends alike. It has used it on thousands of Americans without their knowledge or consent. The CIA has programmed assassins and couriers by it. The CIA has even openly confessed to its conspiracy of mind control.

Many people will believe that since the CIA has publicly disclosed its interest in mind control, it has now ceased its activities. The earlier CIA records, however, contain a number of termination dates for aspects of Operation Mind Control, yet evidence clearly suggests that it continued past those dates.

In 1975, following the release of the Rockefeller Commission Report and the subsequent investigations by Senator Church’s and Congressman Pike’s committees, a public accounting was given and apologies were made. The intelligence community was reprimanded and small changes made. … [p. 275]

Recent history documents the fact that the CIA, as the whipping boy of the cryptocracy, covers up and routinely lies about its activities, heaping one lie on another, in a labyrinthine network of falsehood. It stretches credibility to believe, therefore, that the CIA and especially lower-profile members of the cryptocracy have terminated the mind-control research and development that has been going on for thirty years. … If it has ceased, it has ceased only because it is obsolete and the new technology of radiation and electronic brain stimulation has given the cryptocracy a more powerful form of control. … [p. 276] With advancements in electronic technology—increasingly sophisticated microphones, transmitters, and surveillance devices—the erosion of privacy becomes a mudslide. … [p. 280]

Mind control remains above United States law, making it a most attractive tool for clandestine operators. [p. 281]


[Note:1] Richard Condon, author of The Manchurian Candidate (1958), the forward to Operation Mind Control (1978).

REF … The mind control examined is this book is the control of one individual’s mind by another.

[Note:2] José Delgado, M.D., conducted experiments (circa 1961) that attached an electrode to the eardrum (middle ear) of a cat. The device picked-up people’s whispered conversations and transmitted them to a receiver for monitoring. The CIA attached their tiny radio implant to the cat’s cochlea (inner ear).


“a synopsis” By W.H. BOWART

Notes on this synopsis: Bowart’s 1st release of Operation Mind Control was back in 1978. In an interview, in 1995 [ Richardson, TX] Walter said, “It went into print and made it to the where houses (we think) few made it to the book stores -I got paid <chuckle> nice of them, to pay me for what they took.” –Then Mr. Bowart went on to other books and a life of a pretty hip journalist -one of the few people that Frank Zappa gave an interview to! Many say Bowart forgot more than most now know! About the Format –These are e-mail down loads, that I later cleaned up for this format. Amicus humani generis, Eric Heimstadt

Date: Thu, 24 Aug 1995 00:52:21 +0000 From: Freedom of Thought Foundation Subject: (Fwd) OPERATION MIND CONTROL-2





In response to demand here is a synopsis of W.H. Bowart’s seminal work without notes, illustrations and additional material. This synopsis is composed of the first few paragraphs ( some abridged) of each of the 42 chapters of Operation Mind Control, the “Limited Researcher’s Edition” which has been published in a numbered edition of 500 copies signed by the author.


It may have been the biggest story since the atom bomb. The headline, however, was

small and ignored the larger issue. “Drug Tests by CIA Held More Extensive Than

Reported in ’75,”—– said the New York Times on July 16, 1977. What it should have said is

“U.S. Develops Invisible Weapons to Enslave Mankind.”

The testing of drugs by the CIA was just a part of the United States government’s top-secret mind-control project, a project which had spanned thirty-five years and had involved tens of thousands of individuals. It involved techniques of hypnosis, narcohypnosis, electronic brain stimulation, behavioral effects of ultrasonic, microwave, and low-frequency sound, aversive and other behavior modification therapies. In fact, there was virtually no aspect of human behavioral control that was not explored in their search for the means to control the memory and will of both individuals and whole masses of people…


Through the gray waters of amnesia he drifted, coming back from blind coma. First the echoes, like electronically amplified voices speaking from a deep, deep well… then, far off, the dim pink molecules of light… David’s body lay still in the military hospital bed. Only his eyes rolled beneath the lids. For several hours he lay that way, perfectly still -just eyes fluttering. The fluttering became more intense. Then his eyes opened. “When I woke up,” David said, “I couldn’t remember anything. I couldn’t remember how I’d gotten there or why I was in the hospital.” He asked nurses and aides why he was there. They told him he’d have to ask his doctor. When David finally saw him, the doctor said, “You tried to commit suicide…”


David’s own assessment of his mental confusion after his air force experience was that he had not been “brainwashed.” By the time David had his mind controlled, “brainwashing” had become a catchall phrase, but what David had suffered was a much more subtle and hideous form of tyranny. George E. Smith was a POW during the early days of the Vietnam War. Unlike David, George did not have a good education. It can even be said that he was a little naive, and therefore a good candidate for brainwashing of both the American and the NLF (Viet Cong) varieties. He was one of the first of the Green Berets captured in the Vietnam conflict in 1963…


“I can hypnotize a man –without his knowledge or consent —into committing treason against the United States,” boasted Dr. George Estabrooks in the early 1940s. Estabrooks, chairman of the Department of Psychology at Colgate University, was called to Washington by the War Department shortly after Pearl Harbor. Since he was the ranking authority on hypnosis at the time, they wanted his opinion on how the enemy might be planning to use hypnotism. “Two hundred trained foreign operators, working in the United States,” Estabrooks told the military leaders, “could develop a uniquely dangerous army of hypnotically controlled Sixth Columnists…


In 1951, a former naval officer described “a secret” of certain military and intelligence organizations. He called it “Pain-Drug-Hypnosis” and said it “is a vicious war weapon and may be of considerably more use in conquering a society than the atom bomb. This is no exaggeration. The extensiveness of the use of this form of hypnotism in espionage work is now so widespread that it is long past the time when people should have become alarmed about it… Pain-Drug-Hypnosis is a wicked extension of narcosynthesis, the drug hypnosis used in America only during and since the last war…” That naval officer was none other than L. Ron Hubbard. Before the war an explorer and prolific science fiction writer he went on to found one of America’s fastest growing if controversial religions, Scientology. (In an exchange of letters, Hubbard told me that he had written a book called Excaliber which had been stolen. The information in the book, he said, had all been subsequently published in his many other books. Excaliber, was, he intimated, the guts of what would be published as Dianetics, a work which takes all the mind control insights Hubbard was exposed to both in his travels in the east and in Naval Intelligence, and applies them to empower the human spirit –the exact opposite of mind control as it came to be. He was subsequently kidnapped, and of course we know that he, and The Church of Scientology were hounded by the government much as others like Will helm Reich had been hounded, for spreading the truth about technologies which may have the potential to liberate, rather than enslave. Several years after Hubbard’s death, The Church of Scientology was granted, in 1993, official recognition by the Internal Revenue Service. It finally granted them the tax-deductible status which run-of-the-mill religious groups have little trouble obtaining.)…


In June, 1975, it was revealed publicly for the first time what many had suspected –that the CIA and a number of government agencies under its direction had actually been giving behavior-influencing drugs to citizens within the United States for more than twenty years. I was in Washington at the time, searching the catalogue card files at the National Technical Information Service. A previous search by friends in military intelligence of the M.I. Classified Index had revealed nothing but peripheral references to the object of my study: government research in drugs, hypnosis, behavior modification, and related subjects. The NTIS file is supposed to contain a complete numerical listing of all government contracts, by contract number, whether or not they are classified. The contract cards were indeed numbered in consecutive order, but the ones I was looking for were missing; the index simply skipped over them and continued on in numerical sequence. Other cards in the index were marked “classified,” and I would not have been able to obtain the papers to which they referred. But the reports I was looking for were not even cited in the index, although references to them in scientific journals indicated that they had once existed. Classified or not, these documents had been removed from the record…


Following the release of the Rockefeller Report, John D. Marks, author and former staff assistant to the State Department Intelligence Director, filed a Freedom of Information Act appeal on behalf of the Center for National Security Studies requesting documentation from the CIA. I filed an identical request at about the same time. Marks and I both requested documentation for the evidence cited in the Rockefeller Report on the CIA’s mind-control activities conducted within the United States. Seven months later, Marks was given more than 2,000 pages of top-secret and “eyes only” documents by the CIA’s Information Review Committee. A short time later I began to receive what Marks had gotten. These pages were said to be the bulk of the information upon which the Rockefeller Commission had based its report. Exempted from release were portions of or entire documents which contained information said by CIA officials to pertain to “intelligence sources and methods which the Director of the Central Intelligence has the responsibility to protect from unauthorized disclosure pursuant to section 102 (d) (3) of the National Security Act of 1947.” But in the photo-copied pages obtained was a statement to the effect that within a few hours of his resignation (forced by the disclosures of the Watergate and Church Committees), Director Richard Helms ordered the records shredded and burned…


Candy Jones was a sex symbol during World War II. Born Jessica Wilcox, with her catchy stage name and shapely legs she rose to a standing second only to Betty Grable as America’s most popular pinup girl. She was a favorite of the troops at the front, and she felt it a duty to entertain them near the battlefields. After her advertised beauty faded and she could no longer serve to raise the morale of the troops with her appearance, she served her country in another way. She served under MKULTRA as a hypnoprogrammed CIA courier for twelve years. While on a USO tour in the Pacific in 1945

Candy contracted a case of undulant fever and, shortly thereafter, malaria. On top of that, she caught the contagious fungus known as “jungle Rot.” Within a week, her hair had begun to fall out, and her complexion had turned a sickly yellow. The combination of these diseases sent her to a military hospital in Manila, where she met a young medical officer whom she identifies only by the seudonym “Gilbert Jensen.” Later, he would offer her the opportunity to become a CIA courier…


Due to the volatile nature of the information contained in her story, I am withholding this victim’s identity. The evidence is still being uncovered. Others are coming forward with corroborating information. While details of her testimony is still being checked, we do know, that what she describes in her story is entirely possible, so, from the perspective of students of mind control this story has great value as it is here presented. Future editions may contain more. We’ll call her O. She was born in 1957. Her first memories are of being suffocated by her father’s penis in what was to be a childhood of continual sexual abuse. After six years of “deprogramming” with Mark Phillips, O has come to reintegrate her fragmented personality and has gained access to most of the shocking memories of her abuse by, among others, high government officials…


In 1981, Major Michael A. Aquino collaborated with Colonel Paul E. Vallely to produce a paper entitled From PSYOP to MindWar: The Psychology of Victory. The paper was submitted to Military Review and Parameter, the publication of the U.S. Army War College. It was widely circulated among the psyop community and among mind control researchers without a copyright notice. Finally it appeared in its entirety in Milton WIlliam Cooper’s Behold A Pale Horse, a 1991 work that deals largely with the question of Unidentified Flying Objects. LTC John Alexander’s Military Review article in supportof “psychotronics” –intelligence and operational employment of ESP–was decidedly provocative. Criticism of research in this area, based as it is on ‘existing frontiers of

scientific law, brings to mind the laughter that greeted the Italian scientist Spallanzani in 1794 when he suggested that bats navigate in the dark by means of what we now call sonar. “If they see with their ears, then do they hear with their eyes?” went the joke, but I suspect that the U.S. Navy is glad someone took the idea seriously enough to pursue it…


Project Monarch, according to Mark Phillips, is a U.S. Defense Department project begun in the 1960’s. He says its code name was assigned to a subsection of the CIA’s Operation Artichoke which later became Project MKULTRA… So-called “Presidential Models”, the most highly prized products of the Project Monarch mind control factories have a distinct (conditioned) habit of sitting very erect with their legs daintily perched. They serve kings and presidents and high ranking government officials as sex slaves. They are controlled by invisible reins. The Presidential Models have “fluttered about the White House” and European hideaways which, in another day, would have been the “courts.” While they appear to be “lighthearted” and “inconstant” sex slaves, they are trained at the art of pillow talk and do, in fact, have memories like human tape-recorders…


I met Lois first in Palm Springs, when I was the editor of Palm Springs Life. She was sitting, looking pretty, at one of the many events that bear Bob Hope’s name, the Bob Hope Classic golf tournament or the Hope Center which houses the Palm Desert opera. Her real name was not Lois and I was not introduced to her, but when I saw her again, several years later, she had come along with a Project Monarch survivor just to watch the interview I was doing with their deprogrammer. I knew I’d seen her before, but at first, couldn’t remember where or when..


A number of friends and fellow researchers can’t bring themselves to believe the story of “O” nor Lois. Neither in the beginning could I. Both dropped too many famous names. Both had witnessed too many important events in history. Both told hideous stories of abuse. How could our high government officials fall to such low perversions? Would they violate the human spirit just for lust? Greed? After a little thought, once one has processed the horror, one realizes that in each case, celebrities and high government official’s vices were fed by the cryptocracy using one of Project Monarch’s programmed “presidential models.” In this case Ms. O’s remarkable gifts, which were the invisible reins of control the cryptocracy held over Senators, Presidents, and Kings. In fact, it looked as if our executive branch of government is now controlled by new innovations in the usual Machiavellian options: bribery, blackmail, threat of death, and/or ultimately assassination. Then, again come the doubts. Here we are taking the word of a “reintegrated” person who’s suffered a lifetime of Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) which is a relatively new idea in itself. One doesn’t want to believe this…


Heinrich Himmler’s Lebensborn program may have been the grandparent of Project Monarch. Monarch sought to create junior Manchurian Candidates with multiple personalities, each trained to perform a specific specialty. The kids were programmed to respond to codes, mnemonic cues, and audio-reversed triggers and tones. They were trained in killing techniques and the rapid assembly and de-assembly of exotic weapons. They were educated about poisons, explosives, languages and computers, then programmed to forget it all or remember only selected areas upon command. Monarch produced a cadre of child spies who were directed to prey upon high placed military, government and high society paedophiles, sometimes hauling them into blackmail situations. As in the Nazi Lebensborn program there is evidence of selected breeding, adoption of the children, and a peculiarly large number of twins among them. There is mounting evidence that the directors of Project Monarch were former Nazis, and that, like Nazism, the Monarch program was interlaced with Satanism…


According to a Customs Service memorandum, the CIA and FCIA (Foreign Counter Intelligence Agency a distinct and autonomous organization within the FBI ) were both involved in a mysterious group with behaviors similar to the one in Nebraska. Known as the Finders, CIA ownership of this organization was kept secret for seven years after local law enforcement uncovered its practice of child abduction, kiddie-porn, ritual abuse, and slavery. In early February 1987, an anonymous tip to the Tallahassee, Florida police brought cops out like bloodhounds. The caller said two “well dressed men” seemed to be “supervising” six disheveled and hungry children in a local park. The two men were identified as members of the Finders. They were charged with child abuse in Florida. In Washington, D.C., police and U.S. Customs Service agents raided a duplex apartment building and a warehouse connected to the group. Among the evidence seized were detailed instructions on obtaining children for unknown purposes. Several photos of nude children were found, one of which appeared “to accent the child’s genitals…”


Had I not heard this story, in essence, from a half dozen other survivors of this kind of mind control, I would not have included it here. But we video taped a number of credible people talking about these “voices” in their heads. People who experience this are what Martin Cannon referred to in his book The Controllers as “wavies.” Cannon wrote: Every Senator and Congressional representative has a “wavie” file. So do many state representatives. Wavies have even pled their case to private institutions such as The Christic Institute. And who are the wavies? They claim to be the victims of clandestine bombardment with non-ionizing radiation –or microwaves. They report sudden changes in psychological states, alteration of sleep patterns, intracerebral voices and other sounds, and physiological effects.

Most people never realize how many wavies there are in this country. I’ve spoken to a number of wavies myself. I don’t like the term “Wavie.” It’s a hard-hearted term which does not show any sympathy for the people who are suffering this way. They’re suffering just as much as the people who have survived the so-called Project Monarch. Giving them the benefit of the doubt, I’ll term them E-M Targets, E-M for electromagnetic spectrum, since the technical possibilities exist that they are experiencing bombardment by ELF, VLF, SHF microwaves, magnetic waves and other radiation of the electromagnetic spectrum which can be modulated so that voices can be heard inside the head, without implants, without speakers. Most of them have been diagnosed as being “Paranoid Schizophrenic…”


The CIA uses thought reform, programming, and indoctrination on its own employees. Patrick J. McGarvey, a veteran of fourteen years in U.S. intelligence service, described the cryptocracy’s more ordinary indoctrination procedures in his book CIA: The Myth and the Madness. McGarvey said that his indoctrination was carried out in a classroom which was “right out of The Manchurian Candidate. It was a cavernous room not unlike a nineteenth century surgical exhibition pit.” That training, he said, consisted of “an admixture of common sense, insanity, old-time religion, and some of the weirdest lectures you can imagine.” The most important result of this early training, as far as the CIA was concerned, McGarvey said, “was the attitudes they managed to inculcate” among the recruits…


The cryptocracy’s search for reliable mind control methods was one of the most far-reaching secret projects ever undertaken. In addition to research and development in drugs and hypnosis, CIA funds and cryptocracy guidance gave impetus to a number of behavior modification projects carried out in federal prisons and mental institutions. Most of the projects were arranged secretly so recipients of the funds would have no way of knowing that the CIA was backing the research. Even if they had known of the CIA’s involvement, their interest in behavior modification probably would not have been dampened. Previously called conditioned reflex therapy, behavior modification, in the sixties and seventies, was becoming the most popular tool of psycho science since Sigmund Freud asked his first patient to lie down on the couch. Behavior modification is based on conditioning, but conditioning is a big word for a simple form of learning in which a reaction is evoked by an outside action. The reaction is called a response; the outside action is called a stimulus. In 1927 Pavlov won the Nobel Prize for his discovery of a method of making dogs salivate at the ringing of a bell. Salivating dogs were not much good to anyone, and it was not for making dogs drool that Pavlov was so honored.

He was honored with the world’s most prestigious award for making dogs drool on cue. He called his process “conditioning”. The dogs’ involuntary response, he called a “reflex.” Pavlov’s discoveries provided the breakthrough which behavioral science needed to begin to control the human mind…


The cryptocracy recruited their assassins from among people who had already demonstrated a violent nature, people who had few reservations about taking human life. No homicidal maniacs were recruited because they could not be controlled. The cryptocracy needed killers who would not murder on impulse, but only upon command. Once selected, the assassin candidates were turned over to the military, where, under the guise of “combat readiness” training, they underwent a complete program of conditioning. Graduates of the program would forever after act with ruthless efficiency. They would eliminate local political leaders in a foreign country, or undertake “search and destroy” missions in violation of national and international laws. They would be given a cover allowing them to enter the Foreign Service; or they would pose as embassy marine guards. In July, 1975, the Sunday Times in London quoted a U.S. Navy psychologist who admitted that U.S. Naval Intelligence had taken convicted murderers from military prisons, conditioned them as political assassins, and then placed them in American embassies around the world. This admission came shortly after the Senate Intelligence Committee had scolded the CIA for plotting a number of political assassinations around the world. From the congressional reports, however, one got the feeling the cryptocracy was being chastised not for the assassinations it had successfully accomplished, but for those which it had attempted, but failed. The attempts on the life of Fidel Castro drew the greatest notice from the congressional committees and the press…


On March 2, 1967, Luis Angel Castillo, age twenty-four, was arrested by the Philippine National Bureau of Investigation (NBI) on suspicion of conspiring to assassinate President Ferdinand Marcos in Manilla. In a series of interrogation sessions, the NBI and Philippine Army investigators gave him truth serum (at his request) and put him under hypnosis. During one of these sessions, Castillo revealed he had been involved in an assassination four years earlier. Castillo told the NBI, both under hypnosis and truth serum and also in a normal state, that he had been hypnoprogrammed to kill a man riding in an open car. Although Castillo did not know the identity of his target, the scene of hissupposed “hit” was Dallas, Texas. The date was November 22, 1963…


MKULTRA was fully operational when Luis Castillo was programmed. It was active that same decade when events blamed on three “lone assassins” changed the course of history. In a well executed, mass indoctrination campaign employing all the honor, prestige, and power of the U.S. government, Americans were told over and over again the lives of John Kennedy, Martin Luther King, and Robert Kennedy were all taken by lone assassins -men operating without political motivation. These three assassins –Lee Harvey Oswald, James Earl Ray, and Sirhan Sirhan–conveniently left diaries, underlinings in various books, and other self-incriminating clues to establish their guilt. The evidence gathered on the assassinations remains fragmented and incomplete. Any event of such magnitude as political assassination is bound to invite a large number of interpretations. While in 1978 when the first edition of this book appeared there was not any conclusive proof of a conspiracy, more than eighty percent of the American public then believed there was a conspiracy. Today, after Oliver Stone’s masterful film JFK, more than ninety percent of the public believe that John F. Kennedy was murdered by conspirators working with the U.S. intelligence agencies. While Congress did cite Richard Helms for contempt, and declared that the FBI and the CIA did not cooperate with the Warren Commission, the murders of Kennedy, Kennedy and King remain unsolved mysteries in the public’s opinion. A string of circumstantial evidence, and a knowledge of the fundamentals of mind control invites further speculation. In each case the method was the same –death by the bullet. In each case the circumstances were the same –murder in a public place in view of many witnesses. All three assassins were men whose personal histories can be interpreted to indicate they were mentally unstable. Evidence suggests all three had been hypnotized at one time or another…


Only an understanding of the techniques and applications of mind control could begin to bring meaning to the fragmented ramblings of Jack Ruby. On June 7, 1964, Jack Ruby was questioned in jail in Dallas, Texas, by Earl Warren and Gerald Ford. In that session Ruby continually pleaded for a lie-detector test or for sodium pentothal. He desperately wanted to prove his honesty so Warren and the commission would know he was telling the truth. Said Ruby: “I would like to be able to get a lie-detector test or truth serum of what motivated me to do what I did at that particular time, and it seems as you get further into something, even though you know what you did, it operates against you somehow, brainwashes you, that you are weak in what you want to tell the truth about, and what you want to say which is the truth…”


On April 4, 1968, Nobel laureate Dr. Martin Luther King was murdered on a second floor balcony of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis Tennessee. Half of the six thousand man FBI force was assigned to the task of bringing the killer to justice. The FBI should have had an easy job. There was an abundance of evidence left behind on the second floor of a rooming house a block from the Lorraine Motel. There were fingerprints on the window ledge of a bathroom next to a room which had been rented to an “Eric S. Galt.” On the sidewalk in front of the house was a weapon, a high powered assault rifle with telescopic sight. Neighbors said they had seen a white Mustang roar away moments after the shooting…


The circumstances of Robert Kennedy’s death are well known. On June 5, 1968, at 12:15 a.m., Sen. Robert Kennedy was shot in the pantry of the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles. Karl Uecker grabbed the gun, a .22 caliber Iver-Johnson revolver. It was smoking in the hand of Sirhan Beshara Sirhan, a Palestinian refugee. The Los Angeles police immediately took Sirhan into custody. At first they appeared to be taking every precaution so they wouldn’t make the same mistakes the Dallas police had made. They taped every interrogation session with the suspect and kepthim under surveillance through a closed-circuit TV camera in his cell. They took every measure to protect the life of this man, the second “lone nut” to gun down a Kennedy. Trying to avoid anything which would be an infringement on the rights of the alleged assassin, the police carefully informed Sirhan of his legal rights before trying to interrogate him. They did not inform his alter personalities of their rights, however. Through the first hours of questioning, Sirhan chose to remain silent. For some time, no one knew who the curly-haired, swarthy man in custody was… …Police immediately went to his house and searched his bedroom. On the floor next to Sirhan’s bed was a large spiral notebook. On the desk was another notebook. There was a third small notebook, a good deal of occult literature, a brochure advertising a book on mental projection, and a large brown envelope from the Internal Revenue Service on which someone had written, “RFK must be disposed of like his brother was.” At the bottom of the envelope was scrawled “Reactionary.” In one of the notebooks there was a page which was used later in the trial to prove premeditation: “May 18, 9:45 a.m. –68. My determination to eliminate RFK is becoming more the more of an unshakable obsession… RFK must die –RFK must be killed Robert F. Kennedy must be assassinated… Robert F. Kennedy must be assassinated before 5 June 68 Robert F. Kennedy must be assassinated I have never heard please pay to the order of this or that pleas pay to the order of…” Also drawn on the page were spirals, diamonds, and doodles. While Los Angeles mayor Sam Yorty ignorantly told the press Sirhan was a “member of numerous Communist organizations, including the Rosicrucians,” Sirhan’s neighbors told a different story. One said he was “very religious.” Another reported that he was “just a normal kid.” He took cars and bikes apart and put them back together again.” Neighborhood kids said he was “nice.” When asked if Sirhan was the angry type, a black girl in his Neighborhood said, “He didn’t show it.” Arthur Bean, another neighbor said, “Someone talked that kid into gunning down Kennedy.” When Irwin Garfinkel, a deputy attorney in the public defender’s office, asked Sirhan about the shooting, he said,

“I don’t remember much about the shooting, Sir. Did I do it?

Well, yes, I am told I did it.

I remember being at the Ambassador. I was drinking tom collinses. I got dizzy. I went back to my car so I could go home. But I was too drunk to drive. I thought I’d better find some coffee. The next thing I remember I was being choked and a guy was twisting my knee.” George Plimpton, editor of the Paris Review, was in the hotel pantry when Kennedy was shot. He was one of the men who wrestled Sirhan down. According to Newsweek, Plimpton “offered some eloquent testimony that appeared to some to support the defense’s contention that Sirhan Beshara Sirhan had, in fact, been in a ‘trance’ during the shooting. ‘He was enormously composed,’ recalled Plimpton. ‘Right in the midst of this hurricane of sound and feeling, he seemed to be almost the eye of the hurricane. He seemed purged…'”


All the assassins in the cryptocracy’s army of hit men are not, by any means, programmed. There are other ways besides mind control to motivate the commission of murder. In 1298 Marco Polo returned from his Asiatic travels with a tale of assassins who were motivated by an unusually clever technique. Polo described a fortress he had visited in the valley of Alamut in Persia. He said the valley was the headquarters of a notorious group known as the Ashishin, from which the word “assassin” evolved. Polo’s story echoed numerous legends about an “Old Man of the Mountain,” named Allahudin, who used subtle and elaborate psychological tricks to motivate simple country boys to undertake fearless acts of murder. The Old Man had created an inescapable valley between two mountains by building up high walls at both ends. He turned the valley into a beautiful garden, the largest and most beautiful that had ever been seen. In this valley he planted every kind of fruit tree and built several elaborate, ornamented pavilions and palaces which were said to be of such elegance they could not be described in words. Everything that could be, was covered with gold. The buildings housed the most exquisite collection of paintings and sculpture in the known world. Man-made streams flowed wine, milk, honey, and water…


Joe called me one day from Australia. I was still working on Grub Street as editor of Palm Springs Life. He told me what most of the victims of mind control have told me: “I read your book. You saved my sanity. I know now that I’m not crazy. Thanks so much for writing it.” That was reward enough for doing it, I suppose, but I didn’t want to do it again. I wanted nothing more to do with mind control. I was burned out on the subject, so Joe got a polite but disinterested reception from me. He kept up a correspondence with me anyway from the outback. At first his letters were fragmented, disjointed, mine were polite, encouraging, brief. I couldn’t tell where he was coming from, but, what do you expect from a victim whose mind has been scrambled? He began by talking about some missing British Scientists…


Jose Delgado stood sweating in the center of a bull ring in Madrid. He was sweating from the heat of the sun reflected on the sand. He felt a twinge of natural fear as the door at one end of the walled ring swung open, and a huge black bull lunged forth from the darkness into the plaza de toros. This was a very good bull, one the best matador would have desired. It charged as if on rails, straight at Delgado. In front of a ton of black beef, two sharp horns aimed to gore the vital parts of his body. Delgado stood face to face with the charging Andalusian toro. But Delgado was no matador. He stood in the ring alone in his shirtsleeves. He wore no “suit of lights” and he carried no cape. Instead of a sword, he held only a little black box. He wanted to wait until the last possible moment, but he could not contain his fear. When the bull was thirty feet away, he pressed the button on the box. The bull immediately quit his attack and skidded to a halt. Toro looked right, then left. Then, as if bewildered, he turned his broad side toward Delgado and trotted away


In 1967 a writer named Lincoln Lawrence published a book which asked the question: Was Lee Harvey Oswald a robot-assassin programmed by a sophisticated technique known as RHIC-EDOM? The letters stood for Radio Hypnotic Intra-Cerebral Control-Electronic Dissolution of Memory. Lawrence speculated that Oswald had been behavior-controlled and prepared during his “defection” to the Soviet Union as a “sleeper” agent programmed to return to the United States and murder on cue. It was the Manchurian Candidate theme, with one exception. Lawrence insisted that the Russians had not masterminded the RHIC-EDOM plan. It had been masterminded, he thought, by an international cartel of commodities merchants who sought to make millions by driving the market with the assassination of a president —any president. Lawrence wrote, “Lee Harvey Oswald was to be utilized as… (and now you must clear your brain and put aside your preconceived notions of what espionage and sabotage are today)… an RHIC controlled person… somewhat like a mechanical toy. An RHIC controlled person can be processed (as Oswald was in Minsk, allowed to travel to any country… and be put to use even years later by the application of RHIC controls. In short, like the toy, he can in a sense be ‘wound up’ and made to perform acts without any possibility of the controller being detected…


Since this book first appeared in 1978 there has been a rapid acceleration in public awareness about mind control. It has largely replaced the term “brainwashing” in the press, appearing with some regularity on the front pages of your local daily newspaper. If you are laboring under the impression that the Church Committee hearings stopped Operation Mind Control, in these pages you have learned of evidence to the contrary. Instead of halting mind control, a whole new kind of warfare as developed around it. The new technology makes the old “Project Monarch” style classical conditioning obsolete. It is the reason so many survivors are remembering and are allowed to talk. They are no longer needed, and there’s a better way to control minds. Public awareness has been outrun by the progress in mind control technology. It has gone from drugs and hypnosis to the effects of microwaves, ELF waves, gravity waves, and modulated signals of all kinds. The basics are the same in all techniques –the government programmers sneak into the subconscious mind of individuals and the masses and influence them without their knowledge or consent…


The first evidence of the use of hypnosis as a reliable operational tool of the cryptocracy, according to John Marks, can be found in the work of Morse Allen in 1954. Of course hypnosis itself had been used by shamans and fakirs to manipulate and control people for centuries. Marks explains that Allen’s work came at the height of the Project ARTICHOKE explorations in which the spooks attempted to use hypnosis to “programme” an assassin. CIA documents also reveal that in 1959 John Gittinger recommended the use of hypnosis in operational experiments. (Of course our latest evidence shows that Navy Intelligence had been using mind control in the 1940’s, at least.) The CIA files contain a translation of a Soviet research project entitled Unperceived Manifestations of Mental Processes in Deep Hypnosis which described the success of their psychoscientists: “We succeeded in programming not only the subject of dreams ( I would like to visit Africa in my dream…), but to program color perception (let my dream be blue…), as well as inducing a specific mood after sleepin…”


John Alexander is a busy man these days, not only is he one of the moving forces behind PSITECH, a company that sells military developed remote viewing skills (RVS) to private enterprise, he is the program manager for nonlethal defense at the Los Alamos (N.M.) National Laboratory, an author (The Warrior’s Edge), and a practitioner of the gem of mind control arts —Neuro-linguistics Programming. Today, after 32 years of military service this retired Colonel has the responsibility of drawing together and nurturing many nonlethal weapons devices which could disable key electronic equipment, blind weapons sensors or shut off the power to a capital city. He has drawn upon a variety of disciplines involving polymer chemistry, microbics, kinetics, acoustics, electrical engineering, materials science and information science, just to demonstrate their feasibility,” in the burgeoning science called Nonlethal defense, at least so said Aviation Week & Space Technology. “As the concept has evolved,” Alexander is reported as saying,” we have come to focus our efforts on anti-material systems. If you can stop the machines of war, you can inhibit the prosecution of conflict.”…


In 1990 spychiatrist Dr. Louis Jolyon West, M.D., Professor of Psychiatry, University of California, pet shrink of the cryptocracy gave a speech on cults. As usual it was soft on fact and hard on the cryptocracy line: It is estimated that there are more than 2500 cults in the United States… Now there must be a lot more “cults” than that since, the Oxford English Dictionary said the word cult meant: “1. worship –2. a particular form of religious worship; esp. in reference to its external rites and ceremonies –3. devotion to a particular person or thing…” Some would say that includes the Moose, Elks, Shriners, Optimists, Boy Scouts, certain football teams, religions of all denominations, hang gliding clubs, sky diving clubs, James Joyce reading groups and on and on. But without further argument, West’s comments on “CULTS-PSYCHIATRIC ASPECTS”


Perhaps not since the Reichstag fire in Nazi Germany have flames leaped so visibly onto the pages of history. The flames in both Waco and the Reichstag fires were fueled by mind control. At least that’s the impression you get when you read attorney Paul D. Wilcher’s letter to Attorney General Janet Reno… Dated May 21st, 1993 the letter begins with no salutation, the phone numbers of Ms. Reno, Justice Department Communications Director Carl Stern, Appointments Secretary Melissa Muller, Assistant Attorney General Richard Scruggs, and James Kramarsic, Special Ops–CIA. With a typical lawyerly lack of style the letter begins: RE: (1) Vital NEW information concerning the conflagration at David Koresh’s Branch Davidian compound, “Ranch Apocalypse,” outside Waco, Texas, on Monday, April 19th, 1993, which is now being kept from you and covered up _ i.e., that what happened was NOT a “mass suicide,” but rather a MASS MURDER… the letter then reads:”


The purpose of this letter… is for me to deliver to you extremely sensitive information about the deaths of the 86 men, women, and children who perished at the Branch Davidian compound on Monday, April 19th, 1993, and the truth about how it all happened… But even more important, my purpose here is to demonstrate how the Waco tragedy fits into a much bigger (and far uglier) The subject of mind control is introduced on page four when Wilcher writes: “David Koresh had an extensive CIA background…he was known in CIA circles as a “sleeper” _ someone who had been subjected to extensive CIA “mind control” training and programming…” Wilcher said that it was not a coincidence that all these events were occurring in or near Waco, Texas _”since Waco is a major center for such CIA “mind control” experimentation and programming _ with much of this activity occurring at the CIA’s Leadership Management Institute in Waco.” Wilcher pointed out that “similar CIA-sponsored “cults” are located across the country including in such places as Salt Lake City, Utah; Provo, Utah; Logan, Utah; Boise, Idaho; and San Francisco, California,” and that one or all of these other “cults can likewise `explode’ onto the front pages of the press at any time the CIA deems appropriate, in order to accomplish its pre-determined, hidden, right-wing political agenda.”…

Mind Control and Memory Blocks to Ease the Consciences of the CIA’s PROFESSIONAL killers: Thus far, we have been discussing mind control and memory blocks in the context of the CIA’s `Manchurian-Candidate-type’ robot assassins _ those low-level individuals _ like Sirhan Sirhan, David Hinckley, Mark David Chapman (who assassinated the Beatles’ lead singer/songwriter John Lennon), and the six (6) Black men murdered in Pershing Park _ persons who are programmed by the Agency to be used only once then `thrown away’ and discarded _ i.e., persons who are destined either to be killed or imprisoned for the rest of their lives, once they have performed their pre-ordained secret mission. In other words, these low-level individuals are highly expendable _ particularly when getting rid of them will preserve the `plausible deniability’ that the Agency had anything to do with their training, conduct, or activities. In the context of these low-level individuals, the mind control programming we have been discussing is used not only to condition the desired robotic response to a pre-ordained secret signal, but also to prevent the subject from remembering anything to do with their training, conduct, or activities. In the context of these low-level individuals, the mind control programming we have been discussing is used not only to condition the desired robotic response to a pre-ordained secret signal, but also to prevent the subject from remembering anything


Not far from the melted sand and globs of green Trinitite at the Trinity site –beneath the tower that exploded the first atomic bomb, just across the desert sands from the Los Alamos National Laboratories where Invisible Weaponry is being developed at an alarming rate, is a private company, Consumertronics, which specializes in all things electronic. Headed by a “weapons engineer”, John J. Williams, the company offers for sale all sorts of VLF, SHF, VHF, ELF devices and designs for devices to produce a variety of waves. It sells both offensive generators and defensive countermeasures “for research purposes only.” It is the only company in the world which advertises this kind of expertise. His ads might as well say: “Have Buck Rogers Ray Gun, Will Travel,” because Williams will travel to your home with a van full of scanners, meters, measurers and monitors and tell you what your electromagnetic environment looks like 24 hours a day. All it takes is money…


Harlan E. Girard, one of the most level-headed researchers into the lore of mind control has, himself, been an E.M. target for years. He doesn’t like to talk about his personal experiences because he’d rather let others tell their stories, but he admits he still has “handlers” and hears disembodied voices. Like so may of the other so-called “Wavies” Girard is no wild-eyed maniac. He is distinguished, affluent and quietly articulate. The brief abstract printed below sets the overview for this chapter and offers a look at the high quality of the human beings reporting this E.M. Target phenomenon. I’ll introduce Girard to you, the way I met him, through his paper: OFFENSIVE MICROWAVE WEAPONS: Developments in the Technology of Political Control: The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) has developed a technology which can make the blind see, the deaf hear, and the lame walk. It will never be used this way because the technology is central to the domestic policy and foreign ambitions of the United States Government, whether that government is nominally headed by George Herbert Walker Bush, William Jefferson Clinton, or any possible successor. The effects of these microwave weapons are many and varied, but the most insidious couple with the central nervous system to produce effects which might be described as Satanic possession. remote motor control of human locomotion and movement (including speech) has become possible. Remote motor control can be used to murder by suicide, “accident”, suffocation, asphyxiation and heart attack, or to simply neutralize the victim by making words come out of his/her mouth which he/she had no intention of speaking… Consequently, a situation is created in which the victim appears to be free to uninformed third parties, but at the same time is incarcerated as securely as if he/she had been confined to a maximum security prison. In this manner, human beings can be and are being sadistically tortured in the privacy of their own homes. The bizarre objective of this treatment is to mentally and physically torture the victim until his/her own personality collapses, and he/she becomes something lower than a slave. In science fiction, this computer driven human being is called a cyborg…


Operation Mind Control has brought the mental health profession to the verge of a nervous breakdown. Attacked by cryptocratic peers in such organizations as the Cult Awareness Network and False Memory Syndrome Foundation on the one hand, and grappling with the techniques of psychiatry and psychology which the cryptocracy has leapfrogged with new technology on the other, the profession can only make the mentally tortured comfortable while it looks desperately for a way to heal them. The healing techniques are in the hands of a few. Some of them are “deprogrammer”s who once worked for the cryptocracy, learned the codes, cues, and triggers, and know practically how the classical conditioning technology of the cryptocracy comes to work like hypnosis. The mental health professionals, as we know them, are learning to completely rethink their approaches to healing the victims of the crytpocracy’s mind control projects. While insights into what is state-of-the-art mind control today begins with a study of physics, it is still built upon well-tested patterns of brain functions. But, the traditional “let’s get in touch with our feelings” kinds of therapy are not especially helpful…


Almost simultaneous with the founding of the modern cryptocracy and the passing of the National Security Act in 1947, if the rumors are to be believed, there came to be a faction working within the secret agencies of government to restore the Constitution. It is claimed that this group has been fighting a resistance from within the cryptocracy against the Nazi group known as the Aquarius Group (AG) which came to cluster around the Gehlen/Nazis taken to the breast of the American intelligence community at the end of World War II. While our sources beg for anonymity, they tell us they have been known as the Guardians of the Eternal Flame or The Rowboat Magicians. To my knowledge, only twice has this group communicated with the general public, then not “officially” but through documents “leaked” or “planted” in the samisdat. Then they called themselves Com-12…


As early as 1961, advisors to the late President Kennedy recommended that with the threat of nuclear war hanging over the future, civilized nations could no longer risk overt confrontations that would lead to war, since even conventional war could escalate to Armageddon. If war was necessary it would have to be invisible. It was either invisible warfare or peace, and everyone seemed to agree the economy would “suffer” from peace. Without war, it was believed, the economy would falter and depression would be the dividend of peace. Thus the advisors to the president began to think about what might motivate the U.S. economy as well as war did. They came up with several possibilities, the most fantastic of which was to fake an invasion from outer space…


Memory is illusive in some cases, vivid in others. A Roper poll conducted in 1993 suggested that up to 20 million people in North America may have memories of “alien” abductions. In 1994 Dr. Colin Ross said that he heard someone on a CBC radio broadcast say that they had evidence that 750,000 babies had been ritually sacrificed. FBI ritual abuse “debunker” Kenneth Lanning in 1992 said that there were 50,000 missing children in the U.S., which law enforcement reports said people believed were “being murdered in human sacrifices…” Incest and child sexual abuse reached epidemic proportions. The generally accepted statistics in 1993 were as follows: * One out of three girls and one of five boys would be sexually molested before the age of eighteen. * A child was sexually abused every 2 minutes with over 95% of the abusers being someone the child knows and trusts. * For every case reported, there were twenty-five cases that went unreported. * Only 5% of all sexual abuse cases ever went to court. In 50% of those cases the child was returned to the abuser. * Approximately 97% of child prostitutes were incest victims. * Child sexual abuse was a major cause of teenage suicide. * One in ten homes were involved in child sexual abuse. * A high percentage of abused children develop dissociative identity disorders. Then, just as the legions of abused children (now grown to adulthood) were beginning to remember satanic abuse, (the ranks of diagnosed cases of Multiple Personality Disorder had reached 25,000 in the U.S.) and Harvard University’s Dr. John Mack was enjoying celebrity as the author of a book on alien abductions, and about twenty percent of those diagnosed as suffering from Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) were being discovered to have military or intelligence backgrounds, a “robust and adroit” public relations effort was mounted against those who were beginning to remember all sorts of details which related to their abuse as children. Groups were quickly formed to debunk such “nonsense.” One was spearheaded by a woman who was herself named by her daughter as a child abuser. Her name was Pamela Freyd and her organization was the False Memory Syndrome Foundation (FMSF) which sprang suddenly up from nowhere…



In an undisclosed location, at a secret conference, an emergency panel of five psychiatrists and clinical psychologists met to discuss the alarming data they were gathering about mind control, satanic ritual abuse, and alien programming from patients diagnosed as suffering from Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) also called Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). Due to what is, by the standards of a conservative profession, the controversial content of this conference, and due to the fact that many of the doctors have already received the strongest criticism from their peers and threats on their lives, their identities must remain undisclosed –you’ll understand why as you read more. Although delivered in a conversational tone without footnotes and scientific documentation, there is a lot of technical information in this round-table conference which should be of great use to therapists. For the lay reader a study of the works of Milton Erickson or at least NLP would be helpful in explaining what the doctors are talking about. The term “bloodline” refers to the practice of satanic ritual abuse which carries on generation after generation under the belief that after several generations of “conditioning” a “genetic memory” or a “blood memory” carries on the information which has been programmed. This belief in “blood memory” can be found in a variety of secret societies and not just in satanic cults. A person who is of the “bloodline” is the offspring of parents who are in the cult, and often the great, great, great, great grandchildren of cult members. Some survivors have reported that the sophisticated form of programming described in this conversation goes back more than 100 years and has been co-opted by the intelligence agencies only within the past fifty-odd years. Suffice it to know that the assembled doctors, men and women, are among the most qualified in their profession. They are recipients of the top honors, awards and degrees, members of all the most prestigious societies, editors of the most influential journals. Researchers who are aware of the literature may think they are able to identify some of the doctors by the content of their speeches, but it’s important that they just ignore any failing on my part as an editor, overlooking any speech patterns which may reveal their identities. For the sake of their safety, and at their request, I have done my best to re-write this transcript –not for content, but for style –so that these doctors can never be identified. After some preliminary remarks the host of the conference, Dr. A, began:

Dr A: I have been looking forward to this exchange for quite some time and I hope we can cut right to the chase and talk specifically about ritual abuse and about mind-control programming and brainwashing –how it’s done, how to get on the inside of it.

Dr. B: Until only recently I didn’t believe it. I wasn’t willing to discuss it with colleagues such as you before, and I’m still not willing to speak about it publicly.

Dr. C: I have done that in small groups and in consultations, but recently I decided that it’s time that somebody started doing something about it.

Dr. D: So we’re going to talk about specifics today?

Dr. E: At the international congress I heard about these details for the first time. I thought, “how weird.” “Interesting but weird.”


I watched C-SPAN once again to celebrate the birth of our country. It was the first time I’d watched C-SPAN since the Clinton campaign. I watched just for a couple of synchronistic hours. They were showing programs they’d taped on June 28 and 29. First there was a program called “Project for the Republican Future”. On that program the famous “political consultant and pollster, Dr. Frank Luntz told us that his polls showed that the people in the U.S. today believe the quality of life has gone down since the previous generation and, the majority believe that the next generation will have even a lower standard of living. He said that the polls showed that the average American believed that there was a moral decline in this country. He said, “For the first time in American history, Americans are pessimistic about their future…” “

By W.H. Bowart December 1996

Is the profession of psychiatry beginning to rival the legal profession as having the most useless information, the most know-nothing, corrupt and mercenary practitioners of any profession?

The proof of the psychiatric pudding might be that doctors who once easily earned $300,000 or more a year are having a hard time pulling in $100,000 a year these days. This could be due to the cuts in national health care payments, to the competition that has been created by the lower prices of the HMO’s, and/or it could be partly caused by the accumulative effects of the CIA’s fifty years of covert manipulation of that profession.

Almost every psychiatrist of the aged generation (especially those who also hold diplomas in psychology) worked for the CIA or another branch of the cryptocracy in one or another dirty project which tested drugs, hypnosis, brain stimulation and a variety of other things on unwitting humans –often employees of the government who’d already signed their lives away. These psychiatrists were hell-bent on seeing that this government chattel would, since they hadn’t given their lives for their country, give their minds and souls and too often their children’s minds and souls for it.

In any of the professions it’s hard to find a whistle blower. Seldom will one lawyer speak ill of a peer. Even harder is it to find justice in the self-regulated profession of health -especially mental health. Doctor’s seldom bear witness against other doctors. A good example of the insular attitude which sees regulatory board members looking the other way was the case of Dr. William Jennings Bryan III (WJB3). Great grandson of the great orator William Jennings Bryan, WJB3 was the director of the American Institute of Hypnosis in Los Angeles from the fifties to his death in the seventie….P 1of 9

Mind Control: (Please be aware mind control is all thoughts to the 5 senses in suggestions 24/7 and not all physical effect of ELF/EMF, but have been nefariously abused secretly before patents.


“The Ultimate Brave New World

Technologies for stimulating the brain and controlling the mind can have benefits, but they have a dark side that military and intelligence planners have been exploiting for decades.

Extracted from Nexus Magazine, Volume 13, Number 2

(February – March 2006 & April-May 2006) PO Box 30, Mapleton Qld 4560 Australia.

by Nick Begich, MD © 2006 Extracted from: “Controlling the Human Mind” 2006

It would also appear possible to create high fidelity speech in the human body, raising the possibility of covert suggestion and psychological direction… Thus, it may be possible to “talk” to selected adversaries in a fashion that would be most disturbing to them.

— US Air Force, New World Vistas: Air and Space Power for the 21st Century

The idea that the brain can be made to function at a more efficient and directed level has been the subject of research by scientists, mystics, health practitioners and others for as long as mankind has contemplated such matters. In the last decade, advances in the science of the brain have begun to yield significant results. The results of the research are startling, challenging and, if misused, will be frightening. The certainty to be expected from the research is that it will continue to proceed. The idea that people can be impacted by external signal generators which create, for example, pulsed electromagnetic fields, pulsed light and pulsed sound signals is not new. The following information demonstrates some of the possibilities and gives hints of the potentials of the technology. On the positive side, researchers in the field of light and sound are making huge progress in a number of areas, including working with learning disabilities, attention deficit disorders, stroke recovery, accelerated learning, drug/alcohol addiction and enhanced human performance. The research has shown that certain brain states can be influenced in a way which causes changes within the brain itself. These changes allow individuals the possibility of influencing specific conditions in the mind and body otherwise thought beyond our direct control. The military and others interested in such things have also focused a large amount of research into this area for the purpose of enhancing the performance of soldiers while degrading the performance of adversaries. What is known is that great strides in the area of behaviour control are now possible with systems developed and under development by most sophisticated countries on the planet. These new technologies represent a much different approach to warfare which our government is describing as part of the “Revolution in Military affairs”. While these new technologies offer much for military planners, they offer even more to citizens generally. Their potential use in military applications and “peacekeeping” creates the need for open debate of this new realm of intelligence-gathering, manipulation and warfare. The most basic ethical questions regarding use of these technologies have not been adequately addressed. At the same time that defence and intelligence-gathering capabilities are being sought, independent researchers are fully engaged in seeking positive uses for the technology. The potentials of the technology, like all technology, are great as both a destructive or constructive force for change.

Speech: “First. Then they came for the communists. I didn’t object bc I wasn’t a communist. Then they came for the trade-unionists. I didn’t object bc I wasn’t a trade-unionist. Then they came for the Jews. I didn’t object bc I wasn’t a Jew. Then they came for me and there was no one left to help me.”< famous statement attributed to Pastor Martin Niemöller (1892–1984) about the inactivity of German intellectuals following the Nazi rise to power and the purging of their chosen targets, group after group. peasantrock2, it’s not about loving or hating the ACLU, its about the govt arbitrarily stiffling free speech of America citizens. “We must hang together or we will surely hang separately”……………Ben Franklin””

John Marks-CIA BUILDING/Search MANCHURIANS since Hitler and MKULTRA on German Soldiers..Click here!  

1997 DoD Briefing: ‘Others’ can set off earthquakes, volcanoes remotely using electromagnetic waves By Lori Price 28 Feb 2010 Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen, 28 April 1997: ‘There are some reports, for example, that some countries have been trying to construct something like an Ebola Virus [OMG! Who would do such a thing?], and that would be a very dangerous phenomenon, to say the least. Alvin Toeffler has written about this in terms of some scientists in their laboratories trying to devise certain types of pathogens that would be ethnic specific so that they could just eliminate certain ethnic groups and races; and others [LOL] are designing some sort of engineering, some sort of insects that can destroy specific crops. Others are engaging even in an eco- type of terrorism whereby they can alter the climate, set off earthquakes, volcanoes remotely through the use of electromagnetic waves.’ —Just switch ‘yours,’ ‘others’ and ‘they’ with ‘U.S.,’ ‘U.S.’ and ‘U.S.’ This was in 1997. Imagine, after eight years of George W. Bush turbo-funding these lunatics, what they can do now. CIA COVERT OPS and Bio Warfare now Electronic war

America- Psyops diabolical! WW3 AGENDA taking us down! Topplings!

April 3, 2011

WARNINGS to “We the People”

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE                                                           September 13, 2010

CONTACT: Mireille Torjman                                                          Federal Whistleblower                                                                   Mobile 954.529.8684                

Sibel Edmonds gagged, Ariel Sharon comatosed, DC swept covertly as NY pre-911 (illnesses in energy) zaps, and Russell Tice threatened and discredited, as I.

INFILTRATING INDUCED SEISMIC waves/ATTACKS ON WATERFRONT PROPERTIES EAST COAST & WATER WARS WITH TURKEY, EGYPT Largest Military TAKING ISRAEL DOWN BEHIND THE SCENES! Exec Order 11005- to take over WATERWAYS East Coast after Climate and Piracy infiltrations! What’s going on and how it’s been done, duping “We the People” for Communism, Tyranny and Fascism! Creating Red Tape, Bureaucracy… from the minds.

CIA-NSA transmissions-current Assassinations: NSA Directed Energy Weapons frying life & earth-2015 planning to invade Egypt and Turkey under the disguise of a Water Shortage War, building behind scenes since 2007. Taking us and Israel down duplicitous decoy. The new weapon of war (mass destruction duped diversions) is out and was in the hands of the CIA Cult of Intelligence!

HOW & WHY 911 masterminded! The root of all agendas must be exposed and stopped before too late! See history collectively repeating by design!

APPEARING and available for radio, testimony, or interviews. Petitioning US Supreme Court, under threat with proof CIA covert ops behind scenes SSP & black budgets! Remote Viewing started in the American homes and jobs, and with our children since Apollo 7 witnesses never returned (Satellite)!

Death Ray” for planes-Tesla’s invention in 1940 and a $2,000,000,00 device to zap and melt an airplane motor 250 miles away and an Invisible Chinese Wall of defense was built around the Country, no matter how large an attack, (Teleforce, manifests FREE energy and creates rays; zapping beams, the new “Invisible war” (Dr. Becker, Naomi Wolf, and Sharon Weinberger “Imaginary Weapons). Warden cliff Tower in full action in Long Island NY, as 36 other stations globally, that beam massive volume of Free Energy. (The New York Times, Sunday September 22, 1940-Science and Patents, Education News) One costly, energy zap causes confusion, mistakes, trip, fall, body temp-freeze, heat, fatigue, focus, mis- communication, concentration, sleep (Kucinich-US patent MKDELTA), stalling any engine. HAARP, Body Electric, and Mass Control Human Engineering.

Israel-framed while dividing all people to conquer! CIA predicts, (no creating) to carry out- water (WAR) and pricing shortage, 2015-mind control transmissions zaps dry heat in body and energy-taking us down, Israel, Middle East, Africa. Overpopulation video from Pentagon staging us for the next invasion-ASSASSINATED Allison Des Forges in Hudson River mind control plane Crash-Staged and Senator Ed Ted Kennedy zapped IN 2008. Both Civil rights Africa, Water and Dry Land zapped already planning to invade them and brainwash one world govt. Emulating the Torah scriptures! Manchurians, and IRS, CIA bldgs!

Major cities experiment to increase crime in the 70’s by mind control never ceased since MLK GENERATING BIGGER GOVT, INDUCING MISHAPS-MISFORTUNES, entrapment and now TERRORISM? Infiltrations of BRAINWASHING SCHOOLS-WEAKEN their ARMY take down ISRAEL and America going Global Domination.

Egypt largest Military, Turkey Sibel gagged SSP created doubts and to hide conspiracy agenda of NWO) CIA masterminds. A public brainwashed to allow it unwittingly, in the White House, to next calamity and Global Domination Conspiracy of the minds!  General Anthony Zinni (wikepidia) and changed minds! (Brainwash on the job as many others, see how it’s done) CIA Predicts The Future 2015 – Water Resources. 2007 video comments. (Unwitting agents channeled to Infiltrate) “Waging War” since the Church Commission 1974! “May be drawn into the fight trying to stop it” John McWethy. Taking over the Globe under the disguise of helping others tactics. An unwitting population targeted in advance! DARPA deployed for 50 yrs. PSYOPS DEPLOYED ON CIVILIANS!

Bowart, Walter, “Leading Psychiatrist Blows Whistle on Profession: Proves 50 + years of Mind Control“Were we Controlled?” JFK Adventures and False Memory Syndrome Foundation, Cancer Jim Keith-Mass Control Human Engineering. (Pushed/fell??? to his death) Cults in sheep skin! Duplicitous sabotaging behind the scenes APA and AMA to Medical books also for 50 years. FALSE RECORDS and Character/Perception!

Larry Silverstein OWNER of 911 TOWER 7, set up in advance to get insurance and transmittedto “pull” firefighters as if involved-NSA transmissions-SABOTAGED as Russell Tice Article “ forced speech of Is the NSA conducting war on Americans” (YES, tip of iceberg) 2006 and Media asked, why press didn’t pick it up other than NBC? Operation Mockingbird propaganda unwittingly, updated remote viewing. CIA OFFICES were among WTC 7.

Sunstein’s ReportCognitive impairment infiltration is unwitting NOT hired Gangs, creating illusion-Un-realized Kinesthetic! Creating false perception for decades on civilians. Reagan erased with Alzheimer mind control (NLP) CIA programming.

Un-Covered documentary congress marionettes not reading info zapped,to invade Iraq. Mind controlled Out-Foxed video for years-media mockingbird unwittingly, UNREALIZED, updated! The joke culture, misfits in the pentagon cult of intelligence and a dysfunctional country!

Hadassah 90 Billions in Ponzi sabotage away from Jersusalem HOSP funding. Re-Distributing the WEALTH from the Jewish People manipulating our economy further than Corporations. Always keeping their enemies close and destroying their CIA files & buildings. How they took down the economy behind the scenes!

Ariel Sharon zapped into coma (as I), Directed Energy Weapons as planes; because he knew the CIA was corrupt Sabotaging Israel. Kay Griggs Military whistleblower with MIND JABBING attacks (Secret Societies)

1967 USS liberty-Project Philadelphia (Hallucinations) blaming ISRAEL- mistake in identity set up-framed, cutting off investigations & news coverage (as usual until exposed 2008 as the shuttle satellite cover up) Start of Anti-Semitism fanned unwittingly since 1947 Act.

Alien UFO Hallucinations Scapegoating with LSD (that CIA brought in and sold to kids). Making Millions off the Pharmaceutical now being sued from synthetic side effects and transmitted Synthetic illnesses. VETS Agent Orange non-traceable! Military Cancer and Leukemia, lumps, to all under the disguise of microwaves. “Science under Siege” and infiltrating crimes and wars! (Explains FDA corruptions)

Playing GOD (Project Voice of GOD) & devil-The CIA Cult of Intelligence born with National Security Act in 1947, Weapons Stations need to be dismantled ASAP. Buzz in Pentagon “Synthetic Telepathy and Psychotronics” predicted in 1967 instant communication, after…

Public Speeches “staying the course” to brainwash invaded Countries with (excuses), GULF war, “The ENERGY will be just fine“, (Not at all)”we will help one soul at a time”. Hillary “I will not channel my husband” (as in ghost-like transmissions sabotaged Clinton… Rumsfeld: “There is what you know, you don’t know………..” “Didn’t mean to say that or that’s not what I meant”…

“Secretary Geithner also highlighted …Bear Stearns former Chief Operating Officer of Fixed Income, Paul Friedman, stated rumors were untrue until the telling of rumors made them true.” This is how they do it (Project Stargate research and playing psychic).

1997 DoD Briefing: ‘Others’ can set off earthquakes, volcanoes remotely using electromagnetic waves By Lori Price 28 Feb 2010 Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen, 28 April 1997: (WAVES, Seismic, radio frying us…) BP mind control transmitted human error!

GUANTANAMO scapegoats displays and focused on the wrong Weapons of mass destruction, brainwash and intelligence masterminded. (Nano thermal debris removed quickly) and Cathy O’Brien, SSP impeding truth. Never getting to the truth—MINDS! Time for false confessions with thoughts transmitted.

Press release below June 2008 was impeded from going out in Boston. The sender reported-disappeared;

“A growing number of Americans have reported symptoms that include but are not limited to severe physical trauma such as shocks, stings, burning, nausea, and sleep deprivation. Targeted individuals of domestic terrorism originate from many different backgrounds and are affected in a physical, psychological, social, and financial manner as a result of directed energy weapons assaults. “The average American would be astonished to learn the extent to which secret surveillance technology has advanced from remote viewing and manipulation; torture of the human mind and body horrendous abuses. Measures must be taken to free…”

How the CIA Missed Stalin’s Bomb, 1946-50-printed 2007 but updated 2008. —Remote Viewing and surveillance London Subway Bombing-Staged!!! Water and Odd/even days Petrol, CIA sabotage since 70’s as drugs and crime all un-natural-inducing more plans for Florida and NY.

Judge Napolitano, “Lies the Government told you” unwittingly until 2008 cover up pre-empted allegations with political and media transparency… DELUSIONS and CONDONING corruptions!

Summary information: CIA brainwashing “We the People” for decades engineering our lives and culture unwittingly with mind and body control, corruptions to destroy humanity (jacketing) one against the other divide and conquer world Communism selecting who will live (Covert condos built miles underground and worse). Jesse Ventura-Ron Paul. Wake up America. Wake up Washington! What’s going on! Our future and every life targeted one way or another witting or unwitting in what is known as, the secret holocaust. Un-realized and programmed not to believe! DATA-MINING, why and SINCE 1974 admittedly?

Tortured, Impeded, Staged, pre-empted (2008), gagged, and threatened for 4 years. Please keep freedom of speech alive not the Opposite News of truths for decades unwittingly setting up the Media in its’ role.

Market inflations and real estate pricing and gouging was all induced from the mind on each individual and as a mass, and part of conspiracy agenda. Corrupting American Minds. And, the suicide??? of a Jewish CFO after 3 months as interim accountant at FANNIE MAE fraud.

Did you know CIA operates on the ground wearing Yamakas to frame Jews, destroying fruit trees and crops against the Torah scriptures, as with our organic natural farms in the U.S. Why?

Did you know that the ISRAELI ART STUDENTS were framed and mind controlled where to live and accepted only in the areas to live as guided to set up and look involved. CONTRARY OF CIA GUILT CREATING DOUBT and so much more BEARING FALSE WITNESS from a neighbor, false memory, fake gov’t help spinning their wheels. INTERNET & Google lawsuit, libraries, false accusations & false detainments? Capable and do manipulate all Internet remotely with passwords and minds from spying surveillance. As with False imprisoned masses. Sabotaged 911 Commission never to see the light, as 9 Attorneys asking questions-Fired.

Did you know Mind Controlled People and Media is set up with tricks of false thoughts transmittedduring conversation and output of written documents to put a SPIN on JOURNALISTS & civilians thus unknowingly creating PROPAGANDA, until now covering their tracks with blatant lies from our government? Decades of news from misunderstanding mind games, disputes, & slanders. No one high enough Q clearance!


Search for Manchurian by John Marks for UPDATES Collectively

April 3, 2011

See ending notes and JFK of this book and updated facts at and the reasons why Helms ordered docs destroyed beyond experiments 1973 and against NSA Director of the Central Intelligence has the responsibility to protect from unauthorized disclosure pursuant to section 102 (d) (3) of the National Security Act of 1947.”

(Text Box comment Released by RareReactor) Office of Research and development

Author’s Note

This book has grown out of the 16,000 pages of documents that the CIA released to me under the Freedom of Information Act. Without these documents, the best investigative reporting in the world could not have produced a book, and the secrets of CIA mind-control work would have remained buried forever, as the men who knew them had always intended. From the documentary base, I was able to expand my knowledge through interviews and readings in the behavioral sciences. Nevertheless, the final result is not the whole story of the CIA’s attack on the mind. Only a few insiders could have written that, and they choose to remain silent. I have done the best I can to make the book as accurate as possible, but I have been hampered by the refusal of most of the principal characters to be interviewed and by the CIA’s destruction in 1973 of many of the key documents.

I want to extend special thanks to the congressional sponsors of the Freedom of Information Act. I would like to think that they had my kind of research in mind when they passed into law the idea that information about the government belongs to the people, not to the bureaucrats. I am also grateful to the CIA officials who made what must have been a rather unpleasant decision to release the documents and to those in the Agency who worked on the actual mechanics of release. From my point of view, the system has worked extremely well.

I must acknowledge that the system worked almost not at all during the first six months of my three-year

Freedom of Information struggle. Then in late 1975, Joseph Petrillo and Timothy Sullivan, two skilled and energetic lawyers with the firm of Fried, Frank, Shriver, Harris and Kampelman, entered the case. I had the distinct impression that the government attorneys took me much more seriously when my requests for documents started arriving on stationery with all those prominent partners at the top. An author should not need lawyers to write a book, but I would have had great difficulty without mine. I greatly appreciate their assistance.

What an author does need is editors, a publisher, researchers, consultants, and friends, and I have been

particularly blessed with good ones. My very dear friend Taylor Branch edited the book, and I continue to be impressed with his great skill in making my ideas and language coherent. Taylor has also served as my agent, and in this capacity, too, he has done me great service.

I had a wonderful research team, without which I never could have sifted through the masses of material

and run down leads in so many places. I thank them all, and I want to acknowledge their contributions. Diane St. Clair was the mainstay of the group. She put together a system for filing and cross-indexing that worked beyond all expectations. (Special thanks to Newsday’s Bob Greene, whose suggestions for organizing a large investigation came to us through the auspices of Investigative Reporters and Editors, Inc.) Not until a week before the book was finally finished did I fail to find a document which I needed; naturally, it was something I had misfiled myself. Diane also contributed greatly to the Cold War chapter. Richard Sokolow made similar contributions to the Mushroom and Safehouse chapters. His work was solid, and his energy boundless. Jay Peterzell delved deeply into Dr. Cameron’s “depatterning” work in Montreal and stayed with it when others might have quit. Jay also did first-rate studies of brainwashing and sensory deprivation. Jim Mintz and Ken Cummins provided excellent assistance in the early research stage. The Center for National Security Studies, under my good friend Robert Borosage, provided physical support and research aid, and I would like to express my appreciation. My thanks also to Morton Halperin who continued the support when he became director of the Center. I also appreciated the help of Penny Bevis, Hannah Delaney, Florence Oliver, Aldora Whitman, Nick Fiore, and Monica Andres.

My sister, Dr. Patricia Greenfield, did excellent work on the CIA’s interface with academia and on the

Personality Assessment System. I want to acknowledge her contribution to the book and express my thanks and love. There has been a whole galaxy of people who have provided specialized help, and I would like to thank them all: Jeff Kohan, Eddie Becker, Sam Zuckerman, Matthew Messelson, Julian Robinson, Milton Kline, Marty Lee, M. J. Conklin, Alan Scheflin, Bonnie Goldstein, Paul Avery,

Bill Mills, John Lilly, Humphrey Osmond, Julie Haggerty, Patrick Oster, Norman Kempster, Bill Richards, Paul Magnusson, Andy Sommer, Mark Cheshire, Sidney Cohen, Paul Altmeyer, Fred and Elsa Kleiner, Dr. John Cavanagh, and Senator James Abourezk and his staff.

I sent drafts of the first ten chapters to many of the people I interviewed (and several who refused to be

interviewed). My aim was to have them correct any inaccuracies or point out material taken out of context. The comments of those who responded aided me considerably in preparing the final book. My thanks for their assistance to Albert Hofmann, Telford Taylor, Leo Alexander, Walter Langer, John Stockwell, William Hood, Samuel Thompson, Sidney Cohen, Milton Greenblatt, Gordon Wasson, James Moore, Laurence Hinkle, Charles Osgood, John Gittinger (for Chapter 10 only), and all the others who asked not to be identified.

Finally, I would like to express my appreciation to my publisher, Times Books, and especially to my editor John J. Simon. John, Tom Lipscomb, Roger Jellinek, Gyorgyi Voros, and John Gallagher all believed in this book from the beginning and provided outstanding support. Thanks also go to Judith H. McQuown, who copyedited the manuscript, and Rosalyn T. Badalamenti, Times Books’ Production Editor, who oversaw the whole production process.

John Marks

Washington, D.C. October 26, 1978



World War II

On the outskirts of Basel, Switzerland, overlooking the Rhine, lies the worldwide headquarters of the Sandoz drug and chemical empire. There, on the afternoon of April 16, 1943, Dr. Albert Hofmann made an extraordinary discovery—by accident.

At 37, with close-cropped hair and rimless glasses, Hofmann headed the company’s research program to develop marketable drugs out of natural products. He was hard at work in his laboratory that warm April day when a wave of dizziness suddenly overcame him. The strange sensation was not unpleasant, and Hofmann felt almost as though he were drunk.

But he became quite restless. His nerves seemed to run off in different directions. The inebriation was

unlike anything he had ever known before. Leaving work early, Hofmann managed a wobbly bicycle-ride home. He lay down and closed his eyes, still unable to shake the dizziness. Now the light of day was disagreeably bright.

With the external world shut out, his mind raced along. He experienced what he would later describe as “an uninterrupted stream of fantastic images of extraordinary plasticity and vividness…. accompanied by an intense, kaleidoscope-like play of colors.”

These visions subsided after a few hours, and Hofmann, ever the inquiring scientist, set out to find

what caused them. He presumed he had somehow ingested one of the drugs with which he had been working that day, and his prime suspect was d-lysergic acid diethylamide, or LSD, a substance that he himself had first produced in the same lab five years earlier. As part of his search for a circulation stimulant, Hofmann had been examining derivatives of ergot, a fungus that attacks rye.

Ergot had a mysterious, contradictory reputation. In China and some Arab countries, it was thought to have medicinal powers, but in Europe it was associated with the horrible malady from the Middle Ages called St. Anthony’s Fire, which struck periodically like the plague. The disease turned fingers and toes into blackened stumps and led to madness and death.

Hofmann guessed that he had absorbed some ergot derivative through his skin, perhaps while changing the filter paper in a suction bottle. To test his theory, he spent three days making up a fresh batch of LSD.

Cautiously he swallowed 250 micrograms (less than 1/100,000 of an ounce). Hofmann planned to take more gradually through the day to obtain a result, since no known drug had any effect on the human body in such infinitesimal amounts. He had no way of knowing that because of LSD’s potency, he had already taken several times what would later be termed an ordinary dose.

Unexpectedly, this first speck of LSD took hold after about 40 minutes, and Hofmann was off on the first self-induced “trip” of modern times.[1]

Hofmann recalls he felt “horrific… I was afraid. I feared I was becoming crazy. I had the idea I was out of my body. I thought I had died. I did not know how it would finish. If you know you will come back from this very strange world, only then can you enjoy it.” Of course, Hofmann had no way of knowing that he would return. While he had quickly recovered from his accidental trip three days earlier, he did not know how much LSD had caused it or whether the present dose was more than his body could detoxify. His mind kept veering off into an unknown dimension, but he was unable to appreciate much beyond his own terror.

Less than 200 miles from Hofmann’s laboratory, doctors connected to the S.S. and Gestapo were doing

experiments that led to the testing of mescaline (a drug which has many of the mind-changing qualities of LSD) on prisoners at Dachau. Germany’s secret policemen had the notion, completely alien to Hofmann, that they could use drugs like mescaline to bring unwilling people under their control. According to research team member Walter Neff, the goal of the Dachau experiments was “to eliminate the will of the person examined.” At Dachau, Nazis took the search for scientific knowledge of military value to its most awful extreme. There, in a closely guarded, fenced-off part of the camp, S.S. doctors studied such questions as the amount of time a downed airman could survive in the North Atlantic in February. Information of this sort was considered important to German security, since skilled pilots were

in relatively short supply. So, at Heinrich Himmler’s personal order, the doctors at Dachau simply sat by huge tubs of ice water with stopwatches and timed how long it took immersed prisoners to die. In other experiments, under the cover of “aviation medicine,” inmates were crushed to death in high-altitude pressure chambers (to learn how high pilots could safely fly), and prisoners were shot, so that special blood coagulants could be tested on their wounds. The mescaline tests at Dachau run by Dr. Kurt Plotner

were not nearly so lethal as the others in the “aviation” series, but the drug could still cause grave damage,

particularly to anyone who already had some degree of mental instability. The danger was increased by the fact that the mescaline was administered covertly by S.S. men who spiked the prisoners’ drinks. Unlike Dr. Hofmann, the subjects had no idea that a drug was causing their extreme disorientation. Many must have feared they had gone stark mad all on their own. Always, the subjects of these experiments were Jews, gypsies, Russians, and other groups on whose lives the Nazis placed little or no value. In no way were any of them true volunteers, although some may have come forward under the delusion that they would receive better treatment.

After the war, Neff told American investigators that the subjects showed a wide variety of reactions. Some became furious; others were melancholy or gay, as if they were drunk. Not surprisingly, “sentiments of hatred and revenge were exposed in every case.” Neff’ noted that the drug caused certain people to reveal their “most intimate secrets.” Still, the Germans were not ready to accept mescaline as a substitute for their more physical methods of interrogation. They went on to try hypnosis in combination with the drug, but they apparently never felt confident that they had found a way to assume command of their victim’s mind.

Even as the S.S. doctors were carrying on their experiments at Dachau, the Office of Strategic Services

(OSS), America’s wartime intelligence agency, set up a “truth drug” committee under Dr. Winfred Overholser, head of St. Elizabeth’s Hospital in Washington. The committee quickly tried and rejected mescaline, several barbiturates, and scopolamine. Then, during the spring of 1943, the committee decided that Cannabis indica—or marijuana—showed the most promise, and it started a testing program in cooperation with the Manhattan Project, the TOP SECRET effort to build an atomic bomb.

It is not clear why OSS turned to the bomb makers for help, except that, as one former Project official puts it, “Our secret was so great, I guess we were safer than anyone else.” Apparently, top Project leaders, who went to incredible lengths to preserve security, saw no danger in trying out drugs on their personnel.

The Manhattan Project supplied the first dozen test subjects, who were asked to swallow a concentrated,

liquid form of marijuana that an American pharmaceutical company furnished in small glass vials. A Project man who was present recalls: “It didn’t work the way we wanted.

Apparently the human system would not take it all at once orally. The subjects would lean over and vomit.” What is more, they disclosed no secrets, and one subject wound up in the hospital.

Back to the drawing board went the OSS experts. They decided that the best way to administer the marijuana was inhalation of its fumes. Attempts were made to pour the solution on burning charcoal, and an OSS officer named George White (who had already succeeded in knocking himself out with an overdose of the relatively potent substance) tried out the vapor, without sufficient effect, at St. Elizabeth’s. Finally, the OSS group discovered a delivery system which had been known for years to jazz musicians and other users: the cigarette. OSS documents reported that smoking a mix of tobacco and the marijuana essence brought on a “state of irresponsibility, causing the subject to be loquacious and free in his impartation of information.” The first field test of these marijuana-laced cigarettes took place on May 27, 1943. The subject was one August Del Gracio, who was described in OSS documents as a “notorious New York gangster.”[2] George White, an Army captain who had come to OSS from the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, administered the drug by inviting Del Gracio up to his apartment for a smoke and a chat. White

had been talking to Del Gracio earlier about securing the Mafia’s cooperation to keep Axis agents out of the New York waterfront and to prepare the way for the invasion of Sicily.[3]

Del Gracio had already made it clear to White that he personally had taken part in killing informers who had squealed to the Feds. The gangster was as tough as they came, and if he could be induced to talk under the influence of a truth drug, certainly German prisoners could—or so the reasoning went. White plied him with cigarettes until “subject became high and extremely garrulous.” Over the next two hours, Del Gracio told the Federal agent about the ins and outs of the drug trade (revealing information so sensitive that the CIA deleted it from the OSS documents it released 34 years later). At one point in the conversation, after Del Gracio had begun to talk, the gangster told White, “Whatever you do, don’t ever use any of the stuff I’m telling you.” In a subsequent session, White packed the cigarettes with so much marijuana that Del Gracio became unconscious for about an hour. Yet, on the whole the experiment was

considered a success in “loosening the subject’s tongue.”

While members of the truth-drug committee never believed that the concentrated marijuana could compel a person to confess his deepest secrets, they authorized White to push ahead with the testing. On the next stage, he and a Manhattan Project counterintelligence man borrowed 15 to 18 thick dossiers from the FBI and went off to try the marijuana on suspected Communist soldiers stationed in military camps outside Atlanta, Memphis, and New Orleans. According to White’s Manhattan Project sidekick, a Harvard Law graduate and future judge, they worked out a standard interrogation technique: Before we went in, George and I would buy cigarettes, remove them from the bottom of the pack, use a hypodermic needle to put in the fluid, and leave the cigarettes in a shot glass to dry. Then, we resealed the pack…. We sat down with a particular soldier and tried to win his confidence. We would say something like “This is better than being overseas and getting shot at,” and we would try to break them. We started asking questions from their [FBI] folder, and we would let them see that we had the folder on them… We had a pitcher of ice water on the table, and we knew the drug had taken effect when they reached for a glass. The stuff actually worked…. Everyone but one—and he didn’t smoke—gave us more information than we had before.

The Manhattan Project lawyer remembers this swing through the South with George White as a “good time.” The two men ate in the best restaurants and took in all the sights. “George was quite a guy,” he says. “At the Roosevelt Hotel in New Orleans after we had interviewed our men, we were lying on the beds when George took out his pistol and shot his initials into the molding that ran along the ceiling. He used his.22 automatic, equipped with a silencer, and he emptied several clips.” Asked if he tried out the truth drug himself, the lawyer says, “Yes. The cigarettes gave you a feeling of walking a couple of feet off the floor. I had a pleasant sensation of well-being. … The fellows from my office wouldn’t take a cigarette from me for the rest of the war.”

Since World War II, the United States government, led by the Central Intelligence Agency, has searched secretly for ways to control human behavior. This book is about that search, which had its origins in World War II. The CIA programs were not only an extension of the OSS quest for a truth drug, but they also echoed such events as the Nazi experiments at Dachau and Albert Hofmann’s discovery of LSD.

By probing the inner reaches of consciousness, Hofmann’s research took him to the very frontiers of

knowledge. As never before in history, the warring powers sought ideas from scientists capable of reaching those frontiers—ideas that could make the difference between victory and defeat. While Hofmann himself remained aloof, in the Swiss tradition, other scientists, like Albert Einstein, helped turned the abstractions of the laboratory into incredibly destructive weapons. Jules Verne’s notions of spaceships touching the moon stopped being absurd when Wernher von Braun’s rockets started pounding London. With their creations, the scientists reached beyond the speculations of science fiction. Never

before had their discoveries been so breathtaking and so frightening. Albert Hofmann’s work touched upon the fantasies of the mind—accessible, in ancient legends, to witches and wizards who used spells and potions to bring people under their sway. In the early scientific age, the dream of controlling the brain took on a modern form in Mary Shelley’s creation, Dr. Frankenstein’s monster. The dream would be updated again during the Cold War era to become the Manchurian Candidate, the assassin whose mind

was controlled by a hostile government.[4] Who could say for certain that such a fantasy would not be turned into a reality like Verne’s rocket stories or Einstein’s calculations? And who should be surprised to learn that government agencies—specifically the CIA—would swoop down on Albert Hofmann’s lab in an effort to harness the power over the mind that LSD seemed to hold?

From the Dachau experiments came the cruelty that man was capable of heaping upon his fellows in the name of advancing science and helping his country gain advantage in war. To say that the Dachau experiments are object lessons of how far people can stretch ends to justify means is to belittle by cliché what occurred in the concentration camps. Nothing the CIA ever did in its postwar search for mind-control technology came close to the callous killing of the Nazi “aviation research.”

Nevertheless, in their attempts to find ways to manipulate people, Agency officials and their agents

crossed many of the same ethical barriers. They experimented with dangerous and unknown techniques

on people who had no idea what was happening. They systematically violated the free will and mental dignity of their subjects, and, like the Germans, they chose to victimize special groups of people whose existence they considered, out of prejudice and convenience, less worthy than their own. Wherever their extreme experiments went, the CIA sponsors picked for subjects their own equivalents of the Nazis’ Jews and gypsies: mental patients, prostitutes, foreigners, drug addicts, and prisoners, often from minority ethnic groups.

In the postwar era, American officials straddled the ethical and the cutthroat approaches to scientific

research. After an Allied tribunal had convicted the first echelon of surviving Nazi war criminals—the Görings and Speers—American prosecutors charged the Dachau doctors with “crimes against humanity” at a second Nuremberg trial. None of the German scientists expressed remorse. Most claimed that someone else had carried out the vilest experiments. All said that issues of moral and personal responsibility are moot in state-sponsored research. What is critical, testified Dr. Karl Brandt, Hitler’s personal physician, is “whether the experiment is important or unimportant.” Asked his attitude toward killing human beings in the course of medical research, Brandt replied, “Do you think that one can obtain any worthwhile fundamental results without a definite toll of lives?” The judges at Nuremberg rejected such defenses and put forth what came to be known as the Nuremberg Code on scientific research.[5] Its main points were simple: Researchers must obtain full voluntary consent from all

subjects; experiments should yield fruitful results for the good of society that can be obtained in no other way; researchers should not conduct tests where death or serious injury might occur, “except, perhaps” when the supervising doctors also serve as subjects. The judges— all Americans— sentenced seven of the Germans, including Dr. Brandt, to death by hanging. Nine others received long prison sentences. Thus, the U.S. government put its full moral force behind the idea that there were limits on what scientists could do to human subjects, even when a country’s security was thought to hang in the balance.

The Nuremberg Code has remained official American policy ever since 1946, but, even before the verdicts were in, special U.S. investigating teams were sifting through the experimental records at Dachau for information of military value. The report of one such team found that while part of the data was “inaccurate,” some of the conclusions, if confirmed, would be “an important complement to existing knowledge.” Military authorities sent the records, including a description of the mescaline and hypnosis experiments, back to the United States. None of the German mind-control research was ever made public.

Immediately after the war, large political currents began to shift in the world, as they always do. Allies

became enemies and enemies became allies. Other changes were fresh and yet old. In the United States, the new Cold War against communism carried with it a piercing sense of fear and a sweeping sense of mission—at least as far as American leaders were concerned. Out of these feelings and out of that overriding American faith in advancing technology came the CIA’s attempts to tame hostile minds and make spy fantasies real. Experiments went forward and the CIA’s scientists—bitten, sometimes obsessed—kept going back to their laboratories for one last adjustment. Some theories were crushed, while others emerged in unexpected ways that would have a greater impact outside the CIA than in the world of covert operations. Only one aspect remained constant during the quarter-century of active research: The CIA’s interest in controlling the human mind had to remain absolutely secret.

World War II provided more than the grand themes of the CIA’s behavioral programs. It also became the

formative life experience of the principal CIA officials and, indeed, of the CIA itself as an institution. The

secret derring-do of the OSS was new to the United States, and the ways of the OSS would grow into the ways of the CIA. OSS leaders would have their counterparts later in the Agency. CIA officials tended to have known the OSS men, to think like them, to copy their methods, and even, in some cases, to be the same people. When Agency officials wanted to launch their massive effort for mind control, for instance, they got out the old OSS documents and went about their goal in many of the same ways the OSS had. OSS leaders enlisted outside scientists; Agency officials also went to the most prestigious ones in academia and industry, soliciting aid for the good of the country. They even approached the same George White who had shot his initials in the hotel ceiling while on OSS assignment.

Years later, White’s escapades with OSS and CIA would carry with them a humor clearly unintended at the time. To those directly involved, influencing human behavior was a deadly serious business, but qualities like bumbling and pure craziness shine through in hindsight. In the CIA’s campaign, some of America’s most distinguished behavioral scientists would stick all kinds of drugs and wires into their experimental subjects—often dismissing the obviously harmful effects with theories reminiscent of the learned nineteenth-century physicians who bled their patients with leeches and belittled the ignorance of anyone who questioned the technique. If the schemes of these scientists to control the mind had met

with more success, they would be much less amusing. But so far, at least, the human spirit has apparently kept winning. That—if anything—is the saving grace of the mind-control campaign.

World War II signaled the end of American isolation and innocence, and the United States found it had a huge gap to close, with its enemies and allies alike, in applying underhanded tactics to war. Unlike Britain, which for hundreds of years had used covert operations to hold her empire together, the United States had no tradition of using subversion as a secret instrument of government policy. The Germans, the French, the Russians, and nearly everyone else had long been involved in this game, although no one seemed as good at it as the British.

Clandestine lobbying by British agents in the United States led directly to President Franklin Roosevelt’s

creation of the organization that became OSS in 1942. This was the first American agency set up to wage secret, unlimited war. Roosevelt placed it under the command of a Wall Street lawyer and World War I military hero, General William “Wild Bill” Donovan. A burly, vigorous Republican millionaire with great intellectual curiosity, Donovan started as White House intelligence adviser even before Pearl Harbor, and he had direct access to the President.

Learning at the feet of the British who made available their expertise, if not all their secrets, Donovan put together an organization where nothing had existed before. A Columbia College and Columbia Law

graduate himself, he tended to turn to the gentlemanly preserves of the Eastern establishment for recruits. (The initials OSS were said to stand for “Oh So Social.”) Friends—or friends of friends—could be trusted. “Old boys” were the stalwarts of the British secret service, and, as with most other aspects of OSS, the Americans followed suit.

One of Donovan’s new recruits was Richard Helms, a young newspaper executive then best known for having gained an interview with Adolf Hitler in 1936 while working for United Press. Having gone to Le Rosey, the same Swiss prep school as the Shah of Iran, and then on to clubby Williams College Helms moved easily among the young OSS men. He was already more taciturn than the jovial Donovan, but he was equally ambitious and skilled as a judge of character. For Helms, OSS spywork began a lifelong career. He would become the most important sponsor of mind-control research within the CIA, nurturing and promoting it throughout his steady climb to the top position in the Agency.

Like every major wartime official from President Roosevelt down, General Donovan believed that World War II was in large measure a battle of science and organization. The idea was to mobilize science for

defense, and the Roosevelt administration set up a costly, intertwining network of research programs to deal with everything from splitting the atom to preventing mental breakdowns in combat. Donovan named Boston industrialist Stanley Lovell to head OSS Research and Development and to be the secret agency’s liaison with the government scientific community.

A Cornell graduate and a self-described “saucepan chemist,” Lovell was a confident energetic man with a

particular knack for coming up with offbeat ideas and selling them to others Like most of his generation, he was an outspoken patriot. He wrote in his diary shortly after Pearl Harbor: “As James Hilton said, ‘Once at war, to reason is treason.’ My job is clear—to do all that is in me to help America.”

General Donovan minced no words in laying out what he expected of Lovell: “I need every subtle device and every underhanded trick to use against the Germans and Japanese—by our own people—but especially by the underground resistance programs in all the occupied countries. You’ll have to invent them all, Lovell, because you’re going to be my man.” Thus Lovell recalled his marching orders from Donovan, which he instantly received on being introduced to the blustery, hyperactive OSS chief. Lovell had never met anyone with Donovan’s personal magnetism.

Lovell quickly turned to some of the leading lights in the academic and private sectors. A special group— called Division 19—within James Conant’s National Defense Research Committee was set up to produce “miscellaneous weapons” for OSS and British intelligence. Lovell’s strategy, he later wrote, was “to stimulate the Peck’s Bad Boy beneath the surface of every American scientist and to say to him, ‘Throw all your normal law-abiding concepts out the window. Here’s a chance to raise merry hell.'”

Dr. George Kistiakowsky, the Harvard chemist who worked on explosives research during the war (and who became science adviser to Presidents Eisenhower and Kennedy) remembers Stanley Lovell well: “Stan came to us and asked us to develop ways for camouflaging explosives which could be smuggled into enemy countries.” Kistiakowsky and an associate came up with a substance which was dubbed “Aunt Jemima” because it looked and tasted like pancake mix. Says Kistiakowsky: “You could bake bread or other things out of it. I personally took it to a high-level meeting at the War Department and ate cookies in front of all those characters to show them what a wonderful invention it was. All you had to do was attach a powerful detonator, and it exploded with the force of dynamite.” Thus disguised, “Aunt Jemima” could

be slipped into occupied lands. It was credited with blowing up at least one major bridge in China.

Lovell encouraged OSS behavioral scientists to find something that would offend Japanese cultural

sensibilities. His staff anthropologists reported back that nothing was so shameful to the Japanese soldier as his bowel movements. Lovell then had the chemists work up a skatole compound which duplicated the odor of diarrhea. It was loaded into collapsible tubes, flown to China, and distributed to children in enemy-occupied cities. When a Japanese officer appeared on a crowded street, the kids were encouraged to slip up behind him and squirt the liquid on the seat of his pants. Lovell named the product “Who? Me?” and he credited it with costing the Japanese “face.”

Unlike most weapons, “Who? Me?” was not designed to kill or maim. It was a “harassment substance” designed to lower the morale of individual Japanese. The inspiration came from academicians who tried to make a science of human behavior. During World War II, the behavioral

sciences were still very much in their infancy, but OSS— well before most of the outside world—recognized their potential in warfare. Psychology and psychiatry, sociology, and anthropology all seemed to offer insights that could be exploited to manipulate the enemy.

General Donovan himself believed that the techniques of psychoanalysis might be turned on Adolf Hitler to get a better idea of “the things that made him tick,” as Donovan put it. Donovan gave the job of being the Fuhrer’s analyst to Walter Langer, a Cambridge, Massachusetts psychoanalyst whose older brother William had taken leave from a chair of history at Harvard to head OSS Research and Analysis.[6] Langer protested that a study of Hitler based on available data would be highly uncertain and that conventional psychiatric and psychoanalytic methods could not be used without direct access to the patient. Donovan was not the sort to be deterred by such details. He told Langer to go ahead anyway.

With the help of a small research staff, Langer looked through everything he could find on Hitler and

interviewed a number of people who had know the German leader. Aware of the severe limitations on his

information, but left no choice by General Donovan, Langer plowed ahead and wrote up a final study. It pegged Hitler as a “neurotic psychopath” and proceeded to pick apart the Führer’s psyche. Langer, since retired to Florida, believes he came “pretty close” to describing the real Adolf Hitler. He is particularly proud of his predictions that the Nazi leader would become increasingly disturbed as Germany suffered more and more defeats and that he would commit suicide rather than face capture.

One reason for psychoanalyzing Hitler was to uncover vulnerabilities that could be covertly exploited. Stanley Lovell seized upon one of Langer’s ideas—that Hitler might have feminine tendencies—and got permission from the OSS hierarchy to see if he could push the Führer over the gender line.[7] “The hope was that his moustache would fall off and his voice become soprano,” Lovell wrote. Lovell used OSS’s agent network to try to slip female sex hormones into Hitler’s food, but nothing apparently came of it. Nor was there ever any payoff to other Lovell schemes to blind Hitler permanently with mustard gas or to use a drug to exacerbate his suspected epilepsy. The main problem in these operations—all of which were tried—was to get Hitler to take the medicine. Failure of the delivery schemes also kept Hitler alive—

OSS was simultaneously trying to poison him.[8]

Without question, murdering a man was a decisive way to influence his behavior, and OSS scientists developed an arsenal of chemical and biological poisons that included the incredibly potent botulinus toxin, whose delivery system was a gelatin capsule smaller than the head of a pin. Lovell and his associates also realized there were less drastic ways to manipulate an enemy’s behavior, and they came up with a line of products to cause sickness, itching, baldness, diarrhea, and/or the odor thereof. They had less success finding a drug to compel truth telling, but it was not for lack of trying.

Chemical and biological substances had been used in wartime long before OSS came on the scene. Both sides had used poison gas in World War I; during the early part of World War II, the Japanese had dropped deadly germs on China and caused epidemics; and throughout the war, the Allies and Axis powers alike had built up chemical and biological warfare (CBW) stockpiles, whose main function

turned out, in the end, to be deterring the other side. Military men tended to look on CBW as a way of destroying whole armies and even populations. Like the world’s other secret services, OSS individualized CBW and made it into a way of selectively but secretly embarrassing, disorienting, incapacitating, injuring, or killing an enemy.

As diversified as were Lovell’s scientific duties for OSS, they were narrow in comparison with those of his main counterpart in the CIA’s postwar mind-control program, Dr. Sidney Gottlieb. Gottlieb would preside over investigations that ranged from advanced research in amnesia by electroshock to dragnet searches through the jungles of Latin America for toxic leaves and barks. Fully in the tradition of making Hitler moustacheless, Gottlieb’s office would devise a scheme to make Fidel Castro’s beard fall out; like Lovell, Gottlieb would personally provide operators with deadly poisons to assassinate foreign leaders like the Congo’s Patrice Lumumba, and he would be equally at ease discussing possible applications of new research in neurology. On a much greater scale than Lovell’s, Gottlieb would track down every conceivable gimmick that might give one person leverage over another’s mind. Gottlieb would preside over arcane fields from handwriting analysis to stress creation, and he would rise through the Agency along with his bureaucratic patron, Richard Helms.

Early in the war, General Donovan got another idea from the British, whose psychologists and psychiatrists had devised a testing program to predict the performance of military officers. Donovan thought such a program might help OSS sort through the masses of recruits who were being rushed through training. To create an assessment system for Americans, Donovan called in Harvard psychology professor Henry “Harry” Murray. In 1938 Murray had written Explorations of Personality, a notable book which laid out a whole battery of tests that could be used to size up the personalities of individuals. “Spying is attractive to loonies,” states Murray. “Psychopaths, who are people who spend their lives making up stories, revel in the field.” The program’s prime objective, according to Murray, was keeping out the crazies, as well as the “sloths, irritants, bad actors, and free talkers.”

Always in a hurry, Donovan gave Murray and a distinguished group of colleagues only 15 days until the

first candidates arrived to be assessed. In the interim, they took over a spacious estate outside Washington as their headquarters. In a series of hurried meetings, they put together an assessment system that combined German and British methods with Murray’s earlier research. It tested a recruit’s ability to stand up under pressure, to be a leader, to hold liquor, to lie skillfully, and to read a person’s character by the nature of his clothing.

More than 30 years after the war, Murray remains modest in his claims for the assessment system, saying

that it was only an aid in weeding out the “horrors” among OSS candidates. Nevertheless, the secret agency’s leaders believed in its results, and Murray’s system became a fixture in OSS, testing Americans and foreign agents alike. Some of Murray’s young behavioral scientists, like John Gardner,[9] would go on to become prominent in public affairs, and, more importantly, the OSS assessment program would be recognized as a milestone in American psychology. It was the first systematic effort to evaluate an individual’s personality in order to predict his future behavior. After the war, personality assessment would become a new field in itself, and some of Murray’s assistants would go on to establish OSS-like systems at large corporations, starting with AT&T. They also would set up study programs at universities, beginning with the University of California at Berkeley.[10] As would happen repeatedly with the CIA’s mind-control research, OSS was years ahead of public developments in behavioral theory and application.

In the postwar years, Murray would be superseded by a young Oklahoma psychologist John Gittinger, who would rise in the CIA on the strength of his ideas about how to make a hard science out of personality assessment and how to use it to manipulate people. Gittinger would build an office within CIA that refined both Murray’s assessment function and Walter Langer’s indirect analysis of foreign leaders. Gittinger’s methods would become an integral part of everyday Agency operations, and he would become Sid Gottlieb’s protégé.

Stanley Lovell reasoned that a good way to kill Hitler—and the OSS man was always looking for ideas—would be to hypnotically control a German prisoner to hate the Gestapo and the Nazi regime and then to give the subject a hypnotic suggestion to assassinate the Führer. The OSS candidate would be let loose in Germany where he would take the desired action, “being under a compulsion that might not be denied,” as Lovell wrote.

Lovell sought advice on whether this scheme would work from New York psychiatrist Lawrence Kubie and from the famed Menninger brothers, Karl and William. The Menningers reported that the weight of the evidence showed hypnotism to be incapable of making people do anything that they would not otherwise do. Equally negative, Dr. Kubie added that if a German prisoner had a logical reason to kill Hitler or anyone else, he would not need hypnotism to motivate him.

Lovell and his coworkers apparently accepted this skeptical view of hypnosis, as did the overwhelming

majority of psychologists and psychiatrists in the country. At the time, hypnosis was considered a fringe activity, and there was little recognition of either its validity or its usefulness for any purpose—let alone covert operations. Yet there were a handful of serious experimenters in the field who believed in its military potential. The most vocal partisan of this view was the head of the Psychology Department at Colgate University, George “Esty” Estabrooks. Since the early 1930s, Estabrooks had periodically ventured out from his sleepy upstate campus to advise the military on applications of hypnotism.

Estabrooks acknowledged that hypnosis did not work on everyone and that only one person in five made a good enough subject to be placed in a deep trance, or state of somnambulism. He believed that only these subjects could be induced to such things against their apparent will as reveal secrets or commit crimes. He had watched respected members of the community make fools of themselves in the hands of stage hypnotists, and he had compelled his own students to reveal fraternity secrets and the details of private love affairs—all of which the subjects presumably did not want to do.

Still his experience was limited. Estabrooks realized that the only certain way to know whether a person would commit a crime like murder under hypnosis was to have the person kill someone. Unwilling to settle the issue on his own by trying the experiment, he felt that government sanction of the process would relieve the hypnotist of personal responsibility. “Any ‘accidents’ that might occur during the experiments will simply be charged to profit and loss,” he wrote, “a very trifling portion of that enormous wastage in human life which is part and parcel of war.”

After Pearl Harbor, Estabrooks offered his ideas to OSS, but they were not accepted by anyone in government willing to carry them to their logical conclusion. He was reduced to writing books about the potential use of hypnotism in warfare. Cassandra-like, he tried to warn America of the perils posed by hypnotic control. His 1945 novel, Death in the Mind, concerned a series of seemingly treasonable acts committed by Allied personnel: an American submarine captain torpedoes one of our own battleships, and the beautiful heroine starts acting in an irrational way which serves the enemy. After a perilous investigation, secret agent Johnny Evans learns that the Germans have been hypnotizing Allied personnel and conditioning them to obey Nazi commands. Evans and his cohorts, shaken by the many ways hypnotism can be used against them, set up elaborate countermeasures and then cannot resist going on the offensive. Objections are heard from the heroine, who by this time has been brutally and rather graphically tortured. She complains that “doing things to people’s minds” is “a loathsome way to fight.” Her qualms are brushed aside by Johnny Evans, her lover and boss. He sets off after the Germans—”to

tamper with their minds; Make them traitors; Make them work for us.”

In the aftermath of the war, as the U.S. national security apparatus was being constructed, the leaders of

the Central Intelligence Agency would adopt Johnny Evans’ mission—almost in those very words. Richard Helms, Sid Gottlieb, John Gittinger, George White, and many others would undertake a far-flung and complicated assault on the human mind. In hypnosis and many other fields, scientists even more eager than George Estabrooks would seek CIA approval for the kinds of experiments they would not dare perform on their own. Sometimes the Agency men concurred; on other occasions, they reserved such experiments for themselves. They would tamper with many minds and inevitably cause some to be damaged. In the end, they would minimize and hide their deeds, and they would live to see doubts raised about the health of their own minds.


The information on Albert Hofmann’s first LSD trip and background on LSD came from an interview by the author with Hofmann, a paper by Hofmann called “The Discovery of LSD and Subsequent investigations on Naturally Occurring Hallucinogens,” another interview with Hofmann by Michael Horowitz printed in the June 1976 High Times magazine, and from a CIA document on LSD produced by the Office of Scientific Intelligence, August 30, 1955, titled “The Strategic Medical Significance of LSD-25.” Information on the German mescaline and hypnosis experiments at Dachau came from “Technical Report no. 331-45, German Aviation Research at the Dachau Concentration Camp,” October, 1945, US Naval Technical Mission in Europe, found in the papers of Dr. Henry Beecher. Additional information came from Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuremberg Tribunal, the book Doctors of Infamy by Alexander Mitscherlich and Fred Mielke (New York: H. Schuman, 1949), interviews with prosecution team members Telford Taylor, Leo Alexander, and James McHaney, and an article by Dr. Leo Alexander, “Sociopsychologic Structure of the SS,” Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, May, 1948, Vol. 59, pp. 622-34.

The OSS experience in testing marijuana was described in interviews with several former Manhattan Project counterintelligence men, an OSS document dated June 21, 1943, Subject: Development of “truth drug,” given the CIA identification number A/B, I, 12/1; from document A/B, I, 64/34, undated, Subject: Memorandum Relative to the use of truth drug in interrogation; document dated June 2, 1943, Subject: Memorandum on T. D. A “confidential memorandum,” dated April 4, 1954, found in the papers of George White, also was helpful. The quote on US prisoners passing through Manchuria came from document 19, 18 June 1953, Subject: ARTICHOKE Conference.

The information on Stanley Lovell came from his book, Of Spies and Strategems (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.:

Prentice-Hall, 1963), from interviews with his son Richard, a perusal of his remaining papers, interviews

with George Kistiakowsky and several OSS veterans, and from “Science in World War II, the Office of Scientific Research and Development” in Chemistry: A History of the Chemistry Components of the National Defense Research Committee, edited by W. A. Noyes, Jr. (Boston: Little, Brown & Company, 1948).

Dr. Walter Langer provided information about his psychoanalytic portrait of Hitler, as did his book, The

Mind of Adolf Hitler (New York: Basic Books, 1972). Dr. Henry Murray also gave an interview, as did several OSS men who had been through his assessment course. Murray’s work is described at length in a book published after the war by the OSS Assessment staff, Assessment of Men (New York: Rinehart & Company, 1948).

Material on George Estabrooks came from his books, Hypnotism (New York: E. P. Dutton and Co., 1945) and Death in the Mind, co-authored with Richard Lockridge (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1945), and interviews with his daughter, Doreen Estabrooks Michl, former colleagues, and Dr. Milton Kline.


1. While Hofmann specifically used the word “trip” in a 1977 interview to describe his consciousness-altering experience, the word obviously had no such meaning in 1943 and is used here anachronistically.

2. Del Gracio’s name was deleted by the CIA from the OSS document that described the incident, but his identity was learned from the papers of George White, whose widow donated them to Foothills College in Los Altos, California. CIA officials cut virtually all the names from the roughly 16,000 pages of its own papers and the few score pages from OSS that it released to me under the Freedom of Information Act. However, as in this case, many of the names could be found through collateral sources.

3. Naval intelligence officers eventually made a deal in which mob leaders promised to cooperate, and as a direct result, New York Governor Thomas Dewey ordered Del Gracio’s chief, boss of bosses, Charles “Lucky” Luciano freed from jail in 1946.

4. The term “Manchurian Candidate” came into the language in 1959 when author Richard Condon made it the title of his best-selling novel that later became a popular movie starring Laurence Harvey and Frank Sinatra. The story was about a joint Soviet-Chinese plot to take an American soldier captured in Korea, condition him at a special brainwashing center located in Manchuria, and create a remote-controlled assassin who was supposed to kill the President of the United States. Condon consulted with a wide variety of experts while researching the book, and some inside sources may well have filled him in on the gist of a discussion that took place at a 1953 meeting at the CIA on behavior control. Said one participant, “… individuals who had come out of North Korea across the Soviet Union to freedom recently apparently had a blank period of disorientation while passing through a special zone in Manchuria.” The CIA and military men at this session promised to seek more information, but the matter never came up again in either the documents released by the Agency or in the interviews done for this book.

5. The Code was suggested in essentially its final form by prosecution team consultant, Dr. Leo Alexander, a Boston psychiatrist.

6. Four months before Pearl Harbor, Donovan had enlisted Walter Langer to put together a nationwide

network of analysts to study the morale of the country’s young men, who, it was widely feared, were not

enthusiastic about fighting a foreign war. Pearl Harbor seemed to solve this morale problem, but Langer stayed with Donovan as a part-time psychoanalytic consultant.

7. Langer wrote that Hitler was “masochistic in the extreme inasmuch as he derives sexual pleasure from

punishment inflicted on his own body. There is every reason to suppose that during his early years, instead of identifying himself with his father as most boys do, he identified with his mother. This was perhaps easier for him than for most boys since, as we have seen, there is a large feminine component in his physical makeup…. His extreme sentimentality, his emotionality, his occasional softness, and his weeping, even after he became Chancellor, may be regarded as manifestations of a fundamental pattern that undoubtedly had its origin in his relationship to his mother.”

8. Although historians have long known that OSS men had been in touch with the German officers who tried to assassinate Hitler in 1944, the fact that OSS independently was trying to murder him has eluded

scholars of the period. Stanley Lovell gave away the secret in his 1963 book, Of Spies and Strategems, but he used such casual and obscure words that the researchers apparently did not notice. Lovell wrote: “I supplied now and then a carbamate or other quietus medication, all to be injected into der Führer’s carrots, beets, or whatever.” A “quietus medicine” is a generic term for a lethal poison, of which carbamates are one type.

9. Gardner, a psychologist teaching at Mount Holyoke College, helped Murray set up the original program and went on to open the West Coast OSS assessment site at a converted beach club in San Juan Capistrano. After the war, he would become Secretary of HEW in the Johnson administration and founder of Common Cause.

10. Murray is not at all enthusiastic with the spinoffs. “Some of the things done with it turn your

stomach,” he declares.

CIA officials started preliminary work on drugs and hypnosis shortly after the Agency’s creation in 1947, but the behavior-control program did not really get going until the Hungarian government put Josef Cardinal Mindszenty on trial in 1949. With a glazed look in his eyes, Mindszenty confessed to crimes of treason he apparently did not commit. His performance recalled the Moscow purge trials of 1937 and 1938 at which tough and dedicated party apparatchiks had meekly pleaded guilty to long series of improbable offenses. These and a string of postwar trials in other Eastern European countries seemed staged, eerie, and unreal. CIA men felt they had to know how the Communists had rendered the defendants zombielike. In the Mindszenty case, a CIA Security Memorandum declared that “some unknown force” had controlled the Cardinal, and the memo speculated that the communist authorities had used hypnosis on him. In the summer of 1949, the Agency’s head of Scientific Intelligence made a special trip to Western Europe to find out more about what the Soviets were doing and “to apply special methods of interrogation for the purpose of evaluation of Russian practices.” In other words, fearful that the communists might have used drugs and hypnosis on prisoners, a senior CIA official used exactly the same techniques on refugees and returned prisoners from Eastern Europe. On returning to the United States, this official recommended two courses of action: first, that the Agency consider setting up an escape

operation to free Mindszenty; and second, that the CIA train and send to Europe a team skilled in special”

interrogation methods of the type he had tried out in Europe.

By the spring of 1950, several other CIA branches were contemplating the operational use of hypnosis. The Office of Security, whose main job was to protect Agency personnel and facilities from enemy penetration, moved to centralize all activity in this and other behavioral fields. The Security chief, Sheffield Edwards, a former army colonel who a decade later would personally handle joint CIA-Mafia operations, took the initiative by calling a meeting of all interested Agency parties and proposing that interrogation teams be formed under Security’s command. Security would use the teams to check out agents and defectors for the whole CIA. Each team would consist of a psychiatrist, a polygraph (lie detector) expert trained in hypnosis, and a technician. Edwards agreed not to use the teams operationally without the permission of a high-level committee. He called the project BLUEBIRD, a code name which, like all Agency names, had no significance except perhaps to the person who chose it. Edwards classified the program TOP SECRET and stressed the extraordinary need for secrecy. On April 20, 1950, CIA director Roscoe Hillenkoetter approved BLUEBIRD and authorized the use of unvouchered funds to pay for its most sensitive areas. The CIA’s behavior-control program now had a bureaucratic structure.

The chief of Scientific Intelligence attended the original BLUEBIRD meeting in Sheffield Edwards’ office

and assured those present that his office would keep trying to gather all possible data on foreign—

particularly Russian—efforts in the behavioral field. Not long afterward, his representative arranged to inspect the Nuremberg Tribunal records to see if they contained anything useful to BLUEBIRD. According to a CIA psychologist who looked over the German research, the Agency did not find much of specific help. “It was a real horror story, but we learned what human beings were capable of,” he recalls. “There were some experiments on pain, but they were so mixed up with sadism as not to be useful…. How the victim coped was very interesting.”

At the beginning, at least, there was cooperation between the scientists and the interrogators in the CIA.

Researchers from Security (who had no special expertise but who were experienced in police work) and researchers from Scientific Intelligence (who lacked operational background but who had academic training) pored jointly over all the open literature and secret reports. They quickly realized that the only way to build an effective defense against mind control was to understand its offensive possibilities. The line between offense and defense—if it ever existed—soon became so blurred as to be meaningless. Nearly every Agency document stressed goals like “controlling an individual to the point where he will do our bidding against his will and even against such fundamental laws of nature as self-preservation.” On reading one such memo, an Agency officer wrote to his boss: “If this is supposed to be covered up as a

defensive feasibility study, it’s pretty damn transparent.”

Three months after the Director approved BLUEBIRD, the first team traveled to Japan to try out behavioral techniques on human subjects—probably suspected double agents. The three men arrived in Tokyo in July 1950, about a month after the start of the Korean War. No one needed to impress upon them the importance of their mission. The Security Office ordered them to conceal their true purpose from even the U.S. military authorities with whom they worked in Japan, using the cover that they would be performing “intensive polygraph” work. In stifling, debilitating heat and humidity, they tried out combinations of the depressant sodium amytal with the stimulant benzedrine on each of four subjects,

the last two of whom also received a second stimulant, picrotoxin. They also tried to induce amnesia. The team considered the tests successful, but the CIA documents available on the trip give only the sketchiest outline of what happened.[1] Then around October 1950, the BLUEBIRD team used “advanced” techniques on 25 subjects, apparently North Korean prisoners of war.

By the end of that year, a Security operator, Morse Allen, had become the head of the BLUEBIRD program. Forty years old at the time, Allen had spent most of his earlier career rooting out the domestic communist threat, starting in the late 1930s when he had joined the Civil Service Commision and set up its first security files on communists. (“He knows their methods,” wrote a CIA colleague.) During World War II, Allen had served with Naval intelligence, first pursuing leftists in New York and then landing with the Marines on Okinawa. After the war, he went to the State Department, only to leave in the late 1940s because he felt the Department was whitewashing certain communist cases. He soon joined the

CIA’s Office of Security. A suspicious man by inclination and training, Allen took nothing at face value. Like all counterintelligence or security operators, his job was to show why things are not what they seem to be. He was always thinking ahead and behind, punching holes in surface realities. Allen had no academic training for behavioral research (although he did take a short course in hypnotism, a subject that fascinated him). He saw the BLUEBIRD job as one that called for studying every last method the communists might use against the United States and figuring out ways to counter them.

The CIA had schooled Morse Allen in one field which in the CIA’s early days became an important part of covert operations: the use of the polygraph. Probably more than any intelligence service in the world, the Agency developed the habit of strapping its foreign agents—and eventually, its own employees— into the “box.” The polygraph measures physiological changes that might show lying—heartbeat, blood pressure, perspiration, and the like. It has never been foolproof. In 1949 the Office of Security estimated that it worked successfully on seven out of eight cases, a very high fraction but not one high enough for those in search of certainty. A psychopathic liar, a hypnotized person, or a specially trained professional can “beat” the machine. Moreover, the skill of the person running the polygraph and asking the questions determines how well the device will work. “A good operator can make brilliant use of the polygraph

without plugging it in,” claims one veteran CIA case officer. Others maintain only somewhat less extravagantly that its chief value is to deter agents tempted to switch loyalties or reveal secrets. The power of the machine— real and imagined—to detect infidelity and dishonesty can be an intimidating factor.[2] Nevertheless, the polygraph cannot compel truth. Like Pinocchio’s nose, it only indicates lying. In addition, the machine requires enough physical control over the subject to strap him in. For years, the CIA tried to overcome this limitation by developing a “super” polygraph that could be aimed from afar or concealed in a chair. In this field, as in many others, no behavior control scheme was too farfetched to investigate, and Agency scientists did make some progress.

In December 1950, Morse Allen told his boss, Paul Gaynor, a retired brigadier general with a long

background in counterintelligence and interrogation that he had heard of experiments with an “electro-sleep” machine in a Richmond, Virginia hospital. Such an invention appealed to Allen because it supposedly put people to sleep without shock or convulsions. The BLUEBIRD team had been using drugs to bring on a state similar to a hypnotic trance, and Allen hoped this machine would allow an operator to put people into deep sleep without having to resort to chemicals. In theory, all an operator had to do was to attach the electrode-tipped wires to the subject’s head and let the machine do the rest. It cost about $250 and was about twice the size of a table-model dictating machine. “Although it would not be feasible to use it on any of our own people because there is at least a theoretical danger of temporary brain damage,” Morse Allen wrote, “it would possibly be of value in certain areas in connection with POW interrogation or on individuals of interest to this Agency.” The machine never worked well enough to get into the testing stage for the CIA.

At the end of 1951, Allen talked to a famed psychiatrist (whose name, like most of the others, the CIA has deleted from the documents released) about a gruesome but more practical technique. This psychiatrist, a cleared Agency consultant, reported that electroshock treatments could produce amnesia for varying lengths of time and that he had been able to obtain information from patients as they came out of the stupor that followed shock treatments. He also reported that a lower setting of the Reiter electroshock machine produced an “excruciating pain” that, while nontherapeutic, could be effective as “a third degree method” to make someone talk. Morse Allen asked if the psychiatrist had ever taken advantage of the “groggy” period that followed normal electroshock to gain hypnotic control of his patients. No, replied the psychiatrist, but he would try it in the near future and report back to the Agency. The psychiatrist also mentioned that continued electroshock treatments could gradually reduce a subject to the “vegetable level,” and that these treatments could not be detected unless the subject was given EEG tests within two weeks. At the end of a memo laying out this information, Allen noted that portable, battery-driven electroshock machines had come on the market.

Shortly after this Morse Allen report, the Office of Scientific Intelligence recommended that this same

psychiatrist be given $100,000 in research funds “to develop electric shock and hypnotic techniques.” While Allen thought this subject worth pursuing, he had some qualms about the ultimate application of the shock treatments: “The objections would, of course, apply to the use of electroshock if the end result was creation of a ‘vegetable.’ [I] believe that these techniques should not be considered except in gravest emergencies, and neutralization by confinement and/or removal from the area would be far more appropriate and certainly safer.”

In 1952 the Office of Scientific Intelligence proposed giving another private doctor $100,000 to

develop BLUEBIRD-related “neurosurgical techniques”— presumably lobotomy-connected.[3] Similarly, the Security office planned to use outside consultants to find out about such techniques as ultrasonics, vibrations, concussions, high and low pressure, the uses of various gases in airtight chambers, diet variations, caffeine, fatigue, radiation, heat and cold, and changing light. Agency officials looked into all these areas and many others. Some they studied intensively; others they merely discussed with consultants.

The BLUEBIRD mind-control program began when Stalin was still alive, when the memory of Hitler was fresh, and the terrifying prospect of global nuclear war was just sinking into popular consciousness. The Soviet Union had subjugated most of Eastern Europe, and a Communist party had taken control over the world’s most populous nation, China. War had broken out in Korea, and Senator Joseph McCarthy’s anti-Communist crusade was on the rise in the United States. In both foreign and domestic politics, the prevailing mood was one of fear even paranoia.

American officials have pointed to the Cold War atmosphere ever since as an excuse for crimes and

excesses committed then and afterward. One recurring litany in national security investigations has been the testimony of the exposed official citing Cold War hysteria to justify an act that he or she would not otherwise defend. The apprehensions of the Cold War do not provide a moral or legal shield for such acts, but they do help explain them. Even when the apprehensions were not well founded, they were no less real to the people involved.

It was also a time when the United States had achieved a new preeminence in the world. After World War

II, American officials wielded the kind of power that diplomats frequently dream of. They established new alliances, new rulers, and even new nations to suit their purposes. They dispensed guns, favors, and aid to scores of nations. Consequently, American officials were noticed, respected, and pampered wherever they went—as never before. Their new sense of importance and their Cold War fears often made a dangerous combination—it is a fact of human nature that anyone who is both puffed up and afraid is someone to watch out for.

In 1947 the National Security Act created not only the CIA but also the National Security Council—in sum, the command structure for the Cold War. Wartime OSS leaders like William Donovan and Allen Dulles lobbied feverishly for the Act. Officials within the new command structure soon put their fear and their grandiose notions to work. Reacting to the perceived threat, they adopted a ruthless and warlike posture toward anyone they considered an enemy—most especially the Soviet Union. They took it upon themselves to fight communism and things that might lead to communism everywhere in the world. Few citizens disagreed with them; they appeared to express the sentiments of most Americans in that era, but national security officials still preferred to act in secrecy. A secret study commission under former President Hoover captured the spirit of their call to clandestine warfare:

It is now clear we are facing an implacable enemy whose avowed objective is world domination by whatever means and at whatever cost. There are no rules in such a game. Hitherto acceptable long-standing American concepts of “fair play” must be reconsidered. We must develop effective espionage and counterespionage services and must learn to subvert, sabotage, and destroy our enemies by more clever, more sophisticated, and more effective methods than those used against us.

The men in the new CIA took this job quite seriously. “We felt we were the first line of defense in the anti-Communist crusade,” recalls Harry Rositzke, an early head of the Agency’s Soviet Division. “There was a clear and heady sense of mission—a sense of what a huge job this was.” Michael Burke, who was chief of CIA covert operations in Germany before going on to head the New York Yankees and Madison Square Garden, agrees: “It was riveting…. One was totally absorbed in something that has become misunderstood now, but the Cold War in those days was a very real thing with hundreds of thousands of

Soviet troops, tanks, and planes poised on the East German border, capable of moving to the English Channel in forty-eight hours.” Hugh Cunningham, an Agency official who stayed on for many years, remembers that survival itself was at stake, “What you were made to feel was that the country was in desperate peril and we had to do whatever it took to save it.”

BLUEBIRD and the CIA’s later mind-control programs sprang from such alarm. As a matter of course, the CIA was also required to learn the methods and intentions of all possible foes. “If the CIA had not tried to find out what the Russians were doing with mind-altering drugs in the early 1950s, I think the then-Director should have been fired,” says Ray Cline, a former Deputy Director of the Agency.

High Agency officials felt they had to know what the Russians were up to. Nevertheless, a careful reading of the contemporaneous CIA documents almost three decades later indicates that if the Russians were scoring breakthroughs in the behavior-control field—whose author they almost certainly were not—the CIA lacked intelligence to prove that. For example, a 1952 Security document, which admittedly had an ax to grind with the Office of Scientific Intelligence, called the data gathered on the Soviet programs “extremely poor.” The author noted that the Agency’s information was based on “second- or third-hand rumors, unsupported statements and non-factual data.”[4] Apparently, the fears and fantasies aroused by the Mindszenty trial and the subsequent Korean War “brainwashing” furor outstripped the facts on hand.

The prevalent CIA notion of a “mind-control gap” was as much of a myth as the later bomber and missile “gaps.” In any case, beyond the defensive curiosity, mind control took on a momentum of its own.

As unique and frightening as the Cold War was, it did not cause people working for the government to react much differently to each other or power than at other times in American history. Bureaucratic squabbling went on right through the most chilling years of the behavior-control program. No matter how alarmed CIA officials became over the Russian peril, they still managed to quarrel with their internal rivals over control of Agency funds and manpower. Between 1950 and 1952, responsibility for mind

control went from the Office of Security to the Scientific Intelligence unit back to Security again. In

the process, BLUEBIRD was rechristened ARTICHOKE. The bureaucratic wars were drawn-out affairs, baffling to outsiders; yet many of the crucial turns in behavioral research came out of essentially bureaucratic considerations on the part of the contending officials. In general, the Office of Security was full of pragmatists who were anxious to weed out communists (and homosexuals) everywhere. They believed the intellectuals from Scientific Intelligence had failed to produce “one new, usable paper, suggestion, drug, instrument, name of an individual, etc., etc.,” as one document puts it. The learned gentlemen from Scientific Intelligence felt that the former cops, military men, and investigators in Security lacked the technical background to handle so awesome a task as controlling the human mind.

“Jurisdictional conflict was constant in this area,” a Senate committee would state in 1976. A 1952 report to the chief of the CIA’s Medical Staff (itself a participant in the infighting) drew a harsher conclusion:

“There exists a glaring lack of cooperation among the various intra-Agency groups fostered by petty jealousies and personality differences that result in the retardation of the enhancing and advancing of the Agency as a body.” When Security took ARTICHOKE back from Scientific Intelligence in 1952, the victory lasted only two and one-half years before most of the behavioral work went to yet another CIA outfit, full of Ph.D.s with operational experience—the Technical Services Staff (TSS).[5]

There was bureaucratic warfare outside the CIA as well, although there were early gestures toward

interagency cooperation. In April 1951 the CIA Director approved liaison with Army, Navy, and Air Force intelligence to avoid duplication of effort. The Army and Navy were both looking for truth drugs, while the prime concern of the Air Force was interrogation techniques used on downed pilots. Representatives of each service attended regular meetings to discuss ARTICHOKE matters. The Agency also invited the FBI, but J. Edgar Hoover’s men stayed away.

During their brief period of cooperation, the military and the CIA also exchanged information with the

British and Canadian governments. At the first session in June 1951, the British representative announced at the outset that there had been nothing new in the interrogation business since the days of the Inquisition

and that there was little hope of achieving valuable results through research. He wanted to concentrate on

propaganda and political warfare as they applied to such threats as communist penetration of trade unions. The CIA’s minutes of the session record that this skeptical Englishman finally agreed to the importance of behavioral research, but one doubts the sincerity of this conversion. The minutes also record a consensus of “no conclusive evidence” that either Western countries or the Soviets had made any “revolutionary progress” in the field, and describe Soviet methods as “remarkably similar . . . to the age-old methods.” Nonetheless, the representatives of the three countries agreed to continue investigating behavior-control methods because of their importance to “cold war operations.” To what extent the British and Canadians continued cannot be told. The CIA did not stop until the 1970s.

Bureaucratic conflict was not the only aspect of ordinary government life that persisted through the Cold

War. Officials also maintained their normal awareness of the ethical and legal consequences of their decisions. Often they went through contorted rationalizations and took steps to protect themselves, but at least they recognized and paused over the various ethical lines before crossing them. It would be unfair to say that all moral awareness evaporated. Officials agonized over the consequences of their acts, and much of the bureaucratic record of behavior control is the history of officials dealing with moral conflicts as they arose. The Security office barely managed to recruit the team psychiatrist in time for the first mission to Japan, and for years, Agency officials had trouble attracting qualified medical men to the project. Speculating why, one Agency memo listed such reasons as the CIA’s comparatively low salaries for doctors and ARTICHOKE’s narrow professional scope, adding that a candidate’s “ethics might be such that he might not care to cooperate in certain more revolutionary phases of our project.” This consideration became explicit in Agency recruiting. During the talent search, another CIA memo stated hy

another doctor seemed suitable: “His ethics are such that he would be completely cooperative in any phase of our program, regardless of how revolutionary it may be.”

The matter was even more troublesome in the task of obtaining guinea pigs for mind-control experiments. “Our biggest current problem,” noted one CIA memo, “is to find suitable subjects.” The men from ARTICHOKE found their most convenient source among the flotsam and jetsam of the international spy trade: “individuals of dubious loyalty, suspected agents or plants, subjects having known reason for deception, etc.” as one Agency document described them. ARTICHOKE officials looked on these

people as “unique research material,” from whom meaningful secrets might be extracted while the

experiments went on.

It is fair to say that the CIA operators tended to put less value on the lives of these subjects than they

did on those of American college students, upon whom preliminary, more benign testing was done. They tailored the subjects to suit the ethical sensitivity of the experiment. A psychiatrist who worked on an ARTICHOKE team stresses that no one from the Agency wanted subjects to be hurt. Yet he and his colleagues were willing to treat dubious defectors and agents in a way which not only would be professionally unethical in the United States but also an indictable crime. In short, these subjects were, if not expendable, at least not particularly prized as human beings. As a CIA psychologist who worked for a decade in the behavior-control program, puts it, “One did not put a high premium on the civil rights of a person who was treasonable to his own country or who was operating effectively to destroy us.” Another ex-Agency psychologist observes that CIA operators did not have “a universal concept of mankind” and thus were willing to do things to foreigners that they would have been reluctant to try on Americans. “It was strictly a patriotic vision,” he says.

ARTICHOKE officials never seemed to be able to find enough subjects. The professional operators—particularly the traditionalists—were reluctant to turn over agents to the Security men with their unproved methods. The field men did not particularly want outsiders, such as the ARTICHOKE crew, getting mixed up in their operations. In the spy business, agents are very valuable property indeed, and operators tend to be very protective of them. Thus the ARTICHOKE teams were given mostly the dregs of the clandestine underworld to work on.

Inexorably, the ARTICHOKE men crossed the clear ethical lines. Morse Allen believed it proved little or

nothing to experiment on volunteers who gave their informed consent. For all their efforts to act naturally,

volunteers still knew they were playing in a make-believe game. Consciously or intuitively, they understood that no one would allow them to be harmed. Allen felt that only by testing subjects “for whom much is at stake (perhaps life and death),” as he wrote, could he get reliable results relevant to operations. In documents and conversation, Allen and his coworkers called such realistic tests “terminal experiments”—terminal in the sense that the experiment would be carried through to completion. It would not end when the subject felt like going home or when he or his best interest was about to be harmed. Indeed, the subject usually had no idea that he had ever been part of an experiment.

In every field of behavior control, academic researchers took the work only so far. From Morse Allen’s

perspective, somebody then had to do the terminal experiment to find out how well the technique worked in the real world: how drugs affected unwitting subjects, how massive electroshock influenced memory, how prolonged sensory deprivation disturbed the mind. By definition, terminal experiments went beyond conventional ethical and legal limits. The ultimate terminal experiments caused death, but ARTICHOKE sources state that those were forbidden.

For career CIA officials, exceeding these limits in the name of national security became part of the job,

although individual operators usually had personal lines they would not cross. Most academics wanted no part of the game at this stage—nor did Agency men always like having these outsiders around. If academic and medical consultants were brought along for the terminal phase, they usually did the work overseas, in secret. As Cornell Medical School’s famed neurologist Harold Wolff explained in a research proposal he made to the CIA, when any of the tests involved doing harm to the subjects, “We expect the Agency to make available suitable subjects and a proper place for the performance of the necessary experiments.” Any professional caught trying the kinds of things the Agency came to sponsor—holding subjects prisoner, shooting them full of unwanted drugs—probably would have been arrested for kidnapping or aggravated assault. Certainly such a researcher would have been disgraced among his peers. Yet, by performing the same experiment under the CIA’s banner, he had no worry from the law. His colleagues could not censure him because they had no idea what he was doing. And he could take pride in helping his country.

Without having been there in person, no one can know exactly what it felt like to take part in a terminal

experiment. In any case, the subjects probably do not have fond memories of the experience. While the

researchers sometimes resembled Alphonse and Gastone, they took themselves and their work very seriously. Now they are either dead, or, for their own reasons, they do not want to talk about the tests. Only in the following case have I been able to piece together anything approaching a firsthand account of a terminal experiment, and this one is quite mild compared to the others the ARTICHOKE men planned.


The origins of the CIA’s ARTICHOKE program and accounts of the early testing came from the following agency Documents # 192, 15 January 1953; #3,17 May 1949; A/B, I,8/1,24 February 1949; February 10, 1951 memo on Special Interrogations (no document #); A/B, II, 30/2, 28 September 1949; #5, 15 August 1949; #8, 27 September 1949; #6, 23 August 1949; #13, 5 April 1950; #18, 9 May 1950; #142 (transmittal slip), 19 May 1952; #124, 25 January 1952; A/B, IV, 23/32, 3 March 1952; #23, 21 June 1950; #10, 27 February 1950; #37, 27 October 1950; A/B, I, 39/1, 12 December 1950; A/B, II, 2/2, 5 March 1952; A/B, II, 2/1, 15 February 1952; A/B, V, 134/3, 3 December 1951; A/B, I, 38/5, 1 June 1951; and #400, undated, “Specific Cases of Overseas Testing and Applications of Behavioral Drugs.”

The documents were supplemented by interviews with Ray Cline, Harry Rositzke, Michael Burke, Hugh

Cunningham, and several other ex-CIA men who asked to remain anonymous. The Final Report of the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence (henceforth called the Church Committee Report) provided useful background.

Documents giving background on terminal experiments include #A/B, II, 10/57; #A/B, II, 10/58, 31 August, 1954; #A/B, II, 10/ 17, 27 September 1954; and #A/B, I, 76/4, 21 March 1955.


1. For a better-documented case of narcotherapy and narcohypnosis, see Chapter 3.

2.While the regular polygraphing of CIA career employees apparently never has turned up a penetration

agent in the ranks, it almost certainly has a deterrent effect on those considering coming out of the homosexual closet or on those considering dipping into the large sums of cash dispensed from proverbial black bags.

3. Whether the Agency ultimately funded this or the electric-shock proposal cited above cannot be determined from the documents.

4. The CIA refused to supply either a briefing or additional material when I asked for more background on Soviet behavior-control programs.

5. This Agency component, responsible for providing the supporting gadgets disguises, forgeries, secret

writing, and weapons, has been called during its history the Technical Services Division and the Office of

Technical Services as well as TSS, the name which will be used throughout this book.

The Professor and the “A” Treatment The three men were all part of the same Navy team, traveling together to Germany. Their trip was so sensitive that they had been ordered to ignore each other, even as they waited in the terminal at Andrews Air Force Base outside Washington on a sweltering August morning in 1952. Just the month before, Gary Cooper had opened in High Noon, and the notion of showdown—whether with outlaws or communists—was in the air. With war still raging in Korea, security consciousness was high. Even so, the secrecy surrounding this Navy mission went well beyond ordinary TOP SECRET restrictions, for the team was slated to link up in Frankfurt with a contingent from the most hush-hush agency of all, the CIA. Then the combined group was going to perform dangerous experiments on human subjects. Both Navy and CIA officials believed that any disclosure about these tests would cause grave harm to the American national interest.

The Navy team sweated out a two-hour delay at Andrews before the four-engine military transport finally took off. Not until the plane touched down at the American field in the Azores did one of the group, a

representative of Naval intelligence, flash a prearranged signal indicating that they were not being watched and they could talk. “It was all this cloak-and-dagger crap,” recalls another participant, Dr. Samuel Thompson, a psychiatrist, physiologist, and pharmacologist who was also a Navy commander.

The third man in the party was G. Richard Wendt, chairman of the Psychology Department at the University of Rochester and a part-time Navy contractor. A small 46yearold man with graying blond hair and a fair-sized paunch, Wendt had been the only one with companionship during the hours of decreed silence. He had brought along his attractive young assistant, ostensibly to help him with the experiments. She was not well received by the Navy men, nor would she be appreciated by the CIA operators in Frankfurt. The behavior-control field was very much a man’s world, except when women subjects were

used. The professor’s relationship with this particular lady was destined to become a source of friction with his fellow experimenters, and, eventually, a topic of official CIA reporting.

In theory, Professor Wendt worked under Dr. Thompson’s supervision in a highly classified Navy

program called Project CHATTER, but the strong-minded psychologist did not take anyone’s orders easily. Very much an independent spirit, Wendt ironically, had accepted CHATTER’s goal of weakening, if not eliminating, free will in others. The Navy program, which had started in 1947, was aimed at developing a truth drug that would force people to reveal their innermost secrets.

Thompson, who inherited Wendt and CHATTER in 1951 when he became head of psychiatric research at the Naval Medical Research Institute, remembers Naval intelligence telling him of the need for a truth drug in case “someone planted an A-bomb in one of our cities and we had twelve hours to find out from a person where it was. What could we do to make him talk?” Thompson concedes he was always “negative” about the possibility that such a drug could ever exist, but he cites the fear that the Russians might develop their own miracle potion as reason enough to justify the program. Also, Thompson and the other U.S. officials could not resist looking for a pill or panacea that would somehow make their side all-knowing or all-powerful.

Professor Wendt had experimented with drugs for the Navy before he became involved in the search for a truth serum. His earlier work had been on the use of Dramamine and other methods to prevent motion sickness, and now that he was doing more sensitive research, the Navy hid it under the cover of continuing his “motion sickness” study. At the end of 1950, the Navy gave Wendt a $300,000 contract to study such substances as barbiturates, amphetamines, alcohol, and heroin. To preserve secrecy, which often reached fetish proportions in mind-control research, the money flowed to him not through Navy

channels but out of the Secretary of Defense’s contingency fund. For those drugs that were not available

from pharmaceutical companies, Navy officials went to the Federal Bureau of Narcotics. The commissioner of Narcotics personally signed the papers, and special couriers carried pouches of illegal drugs through Washington streets and then up to the professor at Rochester. Receipts show that the Bureau sent the Navy 30 grams of pure heroin and 11 pounds of “Mexican grown” marijuana, among other drugs.

Like most serious drug researchers, Wendt sampled everything first before testing on assistants and

students. The drug that took up the most space in his first progress report was heroin. He had became his own prime subject. At weekly intervals, he told the Navy, the psychologist gave himself heroin injections and then wrote down his reactions as he moved through the “full range” of his life: driving, shopping, recreation, manual work, family relations, and sexual activity. He noted in himself “slight euphoria . . . heightened aesthetic appreciation . . . absentminded behavior . . . lack of desire to operate at full speed . . . lack of desire for alcohol . . . possibly reduced sex interest . . . feeling of physical well-being.” He concluded in his report that heroin could have “some, but slight value for interrogation” if used on someone “worked on for a long period of time.”[1]

Wendt never had any trouble getting student volunteers. He simply posted a notice on a campus

bulletin board, and he wound up with a long waiting list. He chose only men subjects over 21, and he paid everyone accepted after a long interview $1.00 an hour. With so much government money to spend, he hired over 20 staff assistants, and he built a whole new testing facility in the attic of the school library. Wendt was cautious with his students, and he apparently did not share the hard drugs with them. He usually tested subjects in small groups—four to eight at a time. He and his associates watched through a two-way mirror and wrote down the subjects’ reactions. He always used both placebos (inert substances) and drugs; the students never knew what—if anything—they were taking. According to Dr. Thompson, to have alerted them in advance and thus given themselves a chance to steel themselves up “would have spoiled the experiment.”

Nonetheless, Wendt’s procedure was a far cry from true unwitting testing. Any drug that was powerful enough to break through an enemy’s resistance could have a traumatic effect on the person taking it—particularly if the subject was totally unaware of what was happening. The Navy research plan was to do preliminary studies on subjects like Wendt’s students, and then, as soon as the drug showed promise, to try it under field conditions. Under normal scientific research, the operational tests would not have been run before the basic work was finished. But the Navy could not wait. The drugs were to be tested on involuntary subjects. Thompson readily admits that this procedure was “unethical,” but he says, “We felt we had to do it for the good of country.”

During the summer of 1952, Professor Wendt announced that he had found a concoction “so special” that it would be “the answer” to the truth-drug problem, as Thompson recalls it. “I thought it would be a good idea to call the Agency,” says Thompson. “I thought they might have someone with something to spill.” Wendt was adamant on one point: He would not tell anyone in the Navy or the CIA what his potion contained. He would only demonstrate. Neither the CHATTER nor ARTICHOKE teams could resist the

bait. The Navy had no source of subjects for terminal experiments, but the CIA men agreed to furnish the human beings—in Germany—even though they had no idea what Wendt had in store for his guinea pigs. The CIA named the operation CASTIGATE.

After settling into a Frankfurt hotel, Wendt, Thompson, and the Naval Intelligence man set out to meet

the ARTICHOKE crew at the local CIA headquarters. It was located in the huge, elongated building that had housed the I. G. Farben industrial complex until the end of the war. The frantic bustle of a U.S. military installation provided ideal cover for this CIA base, and the arrival of a few new Americans attracted no special attention. The Navy group passed quickly through the lobby and rode up the elevator. At the CIA outer office, the team members had to show identification, and Thompson says they were frisked. The Naval Intelligence man had to check his revolver.

A secretary ushered the Navy group in to meet the ARTICHOKE contingent, which had arrived earlier from Washington. The party included team leader Morse Allen, his boss in the Office of Security, Paul Gaynor, and a prominent Washington psychiatrist who regularly left his private practice to fly off on special missions for the Agency. Also present were case officers from the CIA’s Frankfurt base who had taken care of the support arrangements—the most important of which was supplying the subjects.

Everyone at the meeting wanted to know what drugs Wendt was going to use on the five selected subjects, who included one known double agent, one suspected double, and the three defectors. The professor still was not talking. Dr. Thompson asked what would happen if something went wrong and the subject died. He recalls one of the Frankfurt CIA men replying, “Disposal of the body would be no problem.”

After the session ended, Thompson took Wendt aside and pointed out that since the professor, unlike

Thompson, was neither a psychiatrist nor a pharmacologist, he was acting irresponsibly in not having

a qualified physician standing by with antidotes in case of trouble. Wendt finally relented and confided in

Thompson that he was going to slip the subjects a combination of the depressant Seconal, the stimulant

Dexedrine, and tetrahydrocannabinol, the active ingredient in marijuana. Thompson was dumbfounded. He remembers wanting to shoot Wendt on the spot. These were all well-known drugs that had been thoroughly tested. Indeed, even the idea of mixing Seconal and Dexedrine was not original: The combined drug already had its own brand name—Dexamyl (and it would eventually have a street name,

“the goofball”). Thompson quickly passed on to the CIA men what Wendt had in mind.[2] They, too, were more than a little disappointed. Nevertheless, there was never any thought of stopping the experiments. The ARTICHOKE team had its own methods to try, even if Wendt’s proved a failure, and the whole affair had developed its own momentum. Since this was one of the early ARTICHOKE trips into the field, the team was still working to perfect the logistics of testing. It had reserved two CIA “safehouses” in the countryside not far from Frankfurt, and Americans had been assigned to guard

the experimental sites. Agency managers had already completed the paperwork for the installation of hidden microphones and two-way mirrors, so all the team members could monitor the interrogations.

The first safehouse proved to be a solid old farmhouse set picturesquely in the middle of green

fields, far from the nearest dwelling. The ARTICHOKE and CHATTER groups drove up just as the CIA’s carpenters were cleaning up the mess they had made in ripping a hole through the building’s thick walls. The house had existed for several hundred years without an observation glass peering in on the sitting room, and it had put up some structural resistance to the workmen.

Subject #1 arrived in the early afternoon, delivered in a CIA sedan by armed operators, who had and cuffed him, shackled his feet, and made him lie down on the floor of the back seat. Agency officials described him as a suspected Russian agent, about 40 years old, who had a “Don Juan complex.” One can only imagine how the subject must have reacted to these rather inconsistent Americans who only a few hours earlier had literally grabbed him out of confinement, harshly bound him, and sat more or less on top of him as they wandered through idyllic German farm country, and who now were telling him to

relax as they engaged him in friendly conversation and offered him a beer. He had no way of knowing that it would be the last unspiked drink he would have for quite some time.

On the following morning, the testing started in earnest. Wendt put 20 mg. of Seconal in the subject’s

breakfast and then followed up with 50 mg. of Dexedrine in each of his two morning cups of coffee. Wendt gave him a second dose of Seconal in his luncheon beer. The subject was obviously not his normal self—whatever that was. What was clear was that Wendt was in way over his head, and even the little professor seemed to realize it. “I don’t know how to deal with these people,” he told the CIA psychiatric consultant. Wendt flatly refused to examine the subject, leaving the interrogation to the consultant. For his part, the consultant had little success in extracting information not already known to the CIA.

The third day was more of the same: Seconal with breakfast, Dexedrine and marijuana in a glass of water

afterwards. The only break from the previous day’s routine came at 10:10 A.M. when the subject was allowed to play a short poker game. Then he was given more of Wendt’s drugs in two red capsules that were, he was told, “a prescription for his nerves.” By 2:40 P.M., Wendt declared that this subject was not the right personality type for his treatment. He explained to his disgusted colleagues that if someone is determined to lie, these drugs will only make him a better liar. He said that the marijuana extract produced a feeling of not wanting to hold anything back and that it worked best on people who wanted to tell the truth but were afraid to. OSS had discovered the same thing almost a decade earlier.

Wendt retired temporarily from the scene, and the others concluded it would be a shame to waste a good

subject. They decided to give him the “A” (for ARTICHOKE) treatment. This, too, was not very original. It had been used during the war to interrogate prisoners and treat shell-shocked soldiers. As practiced on the suspected Russian agent, it consisted of injecting enough sodium pentothal into the vein of his arm to knock him out and then, twenty minutes later, stimulating him back to semiconsciousness with a shot of Benzedrine. In this case, the benzedrine did not revive the subject enough to suit the psychiatric consultant and he told Dr. Thompson to give the subject another 10 mg. ten minutes later. This put the subject into a state somewhere between waking and sleeping—almost comatose and yet bug-eyed. In hypnotic tones that had to be translated into Russian by an interpreter, the consultant used the technique of “regression” to convince the subject he was talking to his wife Eva at some earlier time in his life. This was no easy trick, since a male interpreter was playing Eva. Nevertheless, the consultant states he could “create any fantasy” with 60 to 70 percent of his patients, using narcotherapy (as in this case) or hypnosis. For roughly an hour, the subject seemed to have no idea he was not speaking with his wife but with CIA operatives trying to find out about his relationship with Soviet intelligence. When the subject started to doze, the consultant had Thompson give him a doubled jolt of Benzedrine. A half hour later, the subject began to weep violently. The consultant decided to end the session, and in his most soothing voice, he urged the subject to fall asleep. As the subject calmed down, the consultant suggested, with

friendly and soothing words, that the subject would remember nothing of the experience when he woke up.

Inducing amnesia was an important Agency goal. “From the ARTICHOKE point of view,” states a 1952 document, “the greater the amnesia produced, the more effective the results.” Obviously if a victim remembered the “A” treatment, it would stop being a closely guarded ARTICHOKE secret. Presumably, some subject who really did work for the Russians would tell them how the Americans had worked him over. This reality made “disposal” of ARTICHOKE subjects a particular problem. Killing them seems to have been ruled out, but Agency officials made sure that some stayed in foreign prisons for long periods of time. While in numerous specific cases, ARTICHOKE team members claimed success in making their subjects forget, their outside consultants had told them “that short of cutting a subject’s throat, a true amnesia cannot be guaranteed.” As early as 1950, the Agency had put out a contract to a private researcher to find a memory-destroying drug, but to no apparent avail.[3] In any case, it would be unreasonable to assume that over the years at least one ARTICHOKE subject did not shake off the amnesic commands and tell the Russians what happened to him. As was so often the case with CIA operations, the enemy probably had a much better idea of the Agency’s activities than the folks back home.

Back at the safehouse, Wendt was far from through. Four more subjects would be brought to him. The next one was an alleged double agent whom the CIA had code-named EXPLOSIVE. Agency documents describe him as a Russian “professional agent type” and “a hard-boiled individual who apparently has the ability to lie consistently but not very effectively.” He was no stranger to ARTICHOKE team members who, a few months before, had plied him with a mixture of drugs and hypnosis under the cover of a “psychiatric-medical” exam. At that time, a professional hypnotist had accompanied the team, and he had given his commands through an elaborate intercom system to an interpreter who, in turn, was apparently able to put EXPLOSIVE under.[4] Afterward, the team reported to the CIA’s Director that EXPLOSIVE had revealed “extremely valuable” information and that he had been made to forget his interrogation through a hypnotically induced amnesia. Since that time EXPLOSIVE had been kept in custody. Now

he was being brought out to give Professor Wendt a crack at him with the Seconal-Dexedrine-marijuana combination.

This time, Wendt gave the subject all three drugs together in one beer, delivered at the cocktail hour.

Next came Seconal in a dinner beer and then all three once more in a postprandial beer. There were little, if any, positive results. Wendt ended the session after midnight and commented, “At least we learned one thing from this experiment. The people you have to deal with here are different from American college students.”

During the next week, the CIA men brought Wendt three more subjects, with little success. The general attitude toward Wendt became, in Thompson’s words, “hostile as all hell.” Both the Agency and the Navy groups questioned his competence. With one subject, the professor declared he had given too strong a dose; with the next, too weak. While he had advertised his drugs as tasteless, the subjects realized they had swallowed something. As one subject in the next room was being interrogated in Russian that no one was bothering to translate, Wendt took to playing the same pattern on the piano over and over for a half hour. While the final subject was being questioned, Wendt and his female assistant got a little tipsy on beer. Wendt became so distracted during this experiment that he finally admitted, “My thoughts are

elsewhere.” His assistant began to giggle. Her presence had become like an open sore—which was made more painful when Mrs. Wendt showed up in Frankfurt and the professor threatened to jump off a church tower, Thompson recalls.

Wendt is not alive to give his version of what happened, but both CIA and Navy sources are consistent in

their description of him. ARTICHOKE team leader Morse Allen felt he had been the victim of “a fraud or at least a gross misinterpretation,” and he described the trip as “a waste of time and money.” A man who usually hid his feelings, Allen became livid when Wendt’s assistant measured drugs out with a penknife. He recommended in his final report that those who develop drugs not be allowed to participate in future field testing. “This, of course, does not mean that experimental work is condemned by the ARTICHOKE team,” he wrote, “but a common sense approach in this direction will preclude arguments, alibis, and

complaints as in the recent situation.” In keeping with this “common sense approach,” he also recommended that as “an absolute rule,” no women be allowed on ARTICHOKE missions—because of the possible danger and because “personal convenience, toilet facilities, etc., are complicated by the presence of women.”

Morse Allen and his ARTICHOKE mates returned to the States still convinced that they could find ways to control human behavior, but the Navy men were shaken. Their primary contractor had turned out to be a tremendous embarrassment. Dr. Thompson stated he could never work with Wendt again. Navy officials soon summoned Wendt to Bethesda and told him they were canceling their support for his research. Adding insult to injury, they told him they expected refund of all unspent money. While the Navy managers made some effort to continue CHATTER at other institutions, the program never recovered from the Wendt fiasco. By the end of the next year, 1953, the Korean War had ended and the Navy abandoned CHATTER altogether.

Over the next two decades, the Navy would still sponsor large amounts of specialized behavioral research, and the Army would invest huge sums in schemes to incapacitate whole armies with powerful drugs. But the CIA clearly pulled far into the lead in mind control. In those areas in which military research continued, the Agency stayed way ahead. The CIA consistently was out on what was called the “cutting edge” of the research, sponsoring the lion’s share of the most harrowing experiments. ARTICHOKE and its successor CIA programs became an enormous effort that harnessed the energies of hundreds of scientists.

The experience of the CIA psychiatric consultant provides a small personal glimpse of how it felt to be a

soldier in the mind-control campaign. This psychiatrist, who insists on anonymity, estimates that he made between 125 and 150 trips overseas on Agency operations from 1952 through his retirement in 1966. “To be a psychiatrist chasing off to Europe instead of just seeing the same patients year after year, that was extraordinary,” he reminisces. “I wish I was back in those days. I never got tired of it.” He says his assignments called for “practicing psychiatry in an ideal way, which meant you didn’t become involved with your patients. You weren’t supposed to.” Asked how he felt about using drugs on unwitting foreigners, he snaps, “Depends which side you were on. I never hurt anyone. . . . We were at war.”

For the most part, the psychiatrist stopped giving the “A” treatment after the mid-1950s but he continued to use his professional skills to assess and manipulate agents and defectors. His job was to help find out if a subject was under another country’s control and to recommend how the person could be switched to the CIA’s. In this work, he was contributing to the mainstream of CIA activity that permeates its institutional existence from its operations to its internal politics to its social life: the notion of controlling people. Finding reliable ways to do that is a primary CIA goal, and the business is often a brutal one. As former CIA Director Richard Helms stated in Senate testimony, “The clandestine operator . . . is trained to believe you can’t count on the honesty of your agent to do exactly what you want or to report accurately unless you own him body and soul.”

Like all the world’s secret services, the CIA sought to find the best methods of owning people and making sure they stayed owned. How could an operator be sure of an agent’s loyalties? Refugees and defectors were flooding Western Europe, and the CIA wanted to exploit them. Which ones were telling the truth? Who was a deception agent or a provocateur. The Anglo-American secret invasion of Albania had failed miserably. Had they been betrayed?[5] Whom could the CIA trust?

One way to try to answer these questions is to use physical duress—or torture. Aside from its ethical

drawbacks, however, physical brutality simply does not work very well. As a senior counterintelligence official explains, “If you have a blowtorch up someone’s ass, he’ll give you tactical information.” Yet he will not be willing or able to play the modern espionage game on the level desired by the CIA. One Agency document excludes the use of torture “because such inhuman treatment is not only out of keeping with the traditions of this country, but of dubious effectiveness as compared with various supplemental psychoanalytical techniques.”

The second and most popular method to get answers is traditional spy tradecraft. Given enough time, a good interrogator can very often find out a person’s secrets. He applies persuasion and mental seduction, mixed with psychological pressures of every description—emotional carrots and sticks. A successful covert operator uses the same sorts of techniques in recruiting agents and making sure they stay in line. While the rest of the population may dabble in this sort of manipulation, the professional operator does it for a living, and he operates mostly outside the system of restraints that normally govern personal relationships. “I never gave a thought to legality or morality,” states a retired and quite cynical Agency case officer with over 20 years’ experience. “Frankly, I did what worked.”

The operator pursues people he can turn into “controlled sources”—agents willing to do his bidding

either in supplying intelligence or taking covert action. He seeks people in a position to do something useful for the Agency—or who someday might be in such a position, perhaps with CIA aid. Once he picks his target, he usually looks for a weakness or vulnerability he can play on. Like a good fisherman, the clever operator knows that the way to hook his prey is to choose an appropriate bait, which the target will think he is seizing because he wants to. The hook has to be firmly implanted; the agent sometimes tries to escape once he understands the implications of betraying his country. While the case officer might try to convince him he is acting for the good of his homeland, the agent must still face up to being branded a traitor.

Does every man have his price? Not exactly, states the senior counterintelligence man, but he believes a

shrewd operator can usually find a way to reach anyone, particularly through his family. In developing countries, the Agency has caused family members to be arrested and mistreated by the local police, given or withheld medical care for a sick child, and, more prosaically, provided scholarships for a relative to study abroad. This kind of tactic does not work as well on a Russian or Western European, who does not live in a society where the CIA can exert pressure so easily.

Like a doctor’s bedside manner or a lawyer’s courtroom style, spy tradecraft is highly personalized.

Different case officers swear by different approaches, and successful methods are carefully observed and copied. Most CIA operators seem to prefer using an ideological lure if they can. John Stockwell, who left the Agency in 1977 to write a book about CIA operations in Angola, believes his best agents were “people convinced they were doing the right thing . . . who disliked communists and felt the CIA was the right organization.” Stockwell recalls his Agency instructors “hammering away at the positive aspect of recruitment. This was where they established the myth of CIA case officers being good guys. They said we didn’t use negative control, and we always made the relationship so that both parties were better off for having worked together.” More cynical operators, like the one quoted above, take a different view: “You can’t create real motivation in a person by waving the flag or by saying this is for the future good of democracy. You’ve got to have a firmer hold than that…. His opinions can change.” This ex-operator favors approaches based either on revenge or helping the gent advance his career:

Those are good motives because they can be created with the individual…. Maybe you start with a Communist party cell member and you help him become a district committee member by eliminating his competition, or you help him get a position where he can get even with someone. At the same time, he’s giving you more and more information as he moves forward, and if you ever surface his reports, he’s out of business. You’ve really got him wrapped up. You don’t even have to tell him. He realizes it himself. No matter what the approach to the prospective agent, the case officer tries to make money a factor in the

relationship. Sometimes the whole recruiting pitch revolves around enrichment. In other instances, the case officer allows the target the illusion that he has sold out for higher motives. Always, however, the operator tries to use money to make the agent dependent. The situation can become sticky with money-minded agents when the case officer insists that part or all of the payments be placed in escrow, to prevent attracting undue attention. But even cash does not create control in the spy business. As the cynical case officer puts it, “Money s tenuous because somebody can always offer more.”

Surprisingly, each of the CIA operators sampled agrees that overt blackmail is a highly overrated form of

control. The senior counterintelligence man notes that while the Russians frequently use some variety of

entrapment—sexual or otherwise—the CIA rarely did. “Very few [Agency] case officers were tough enough” to pull it off and sustain it, he says. “Anytime an agent has been forced to cooperate, you can take it for granted that he has two things on his mind: he is looking for a way out and for revenge. Given the slightest opportunity, he will hit you right between the eyes.” Blackmail could backfire in unexpected ways. John Stockwell remembers an agent in Southeast Asia who wanted to quit: “The case officer

leaned on the guy and said, ‘Look, friend, we still need your intelligence, and we have receipts you signed which we can turn over to the local police.‘ The agent blew his brains out, leaving a suicide note regretting his cooperation with the CIA and telling how the Agency had tried to blackmail him. It caused some problems with the local government.”

The case officer always tries to weave an ever-tightening web of control around his agent. His methods of doing so are so personal and so basic that they often reveal more about the case officer himself than the agent, reflecting his outlook and his personal philosophy. The cynical operator describes his usual technique, which turns out to be a form of false idealism: “You’ve got to treat a man as an equal and convince him you’re partners in this thing. Even if he’s a communist party member, you can’t deal with him like a crumb. You sit down with him and ask how are the kids, and you remember that he told you last time that his son was having trouble in school. You build personal rapport. If you treat him like dirt or an object of use, eventually he’ll turn on you or drop off the bandwagon.”

John Stockwell’s approach relies on the power of imagination in a humdrum world: “I always felt the real

key was that you were offering something special—a real secret life—something that he and you only knew made him different from all the pedestrian paper shufflers in a government office or a boring party cell meeting. Everybody has a little of Walter Mitty in him—what a relief to know you really do work for the CIA in your spare time.”

Sometimes a case officer wants to get the agent to do something he does not think he wants to do. One former CIA operator uses a highly charged metaphor to describe how he did it: “Sometimes one partner in a relationship wants to get into deviations from standard sex. If you have some control, you might be able to force your partner to try different things, but it’s much better to lead her down the road a step at a time, to discuss it and fantasize until eventually she’s saying, ‘Let’s try this thing.’ If her inhibitions and moral reservations are eroded and she is turned on, it’s much more fun and there’s less chance of blowback [exposure, in spy talk]…. It’s the same with an agent.” All case officers—and particularly counterintelligence men—harbor recurring fears that their agents will betray them. The suspicious professional looks for telltale signs like lateness, nervousness, or inconsistency. He relies on his intuition. “The more you’ve been around agents, the more likely you are to sense that something isn’t what it should be,” comments the senior counterintelligence man. “It’s like with children.”

No matter how skillfully practiced, traditional spycraft provides only incomplete answers to the nagging

question of how much the Agency can really trust an agent. All the sixth sense, digging, and deductive

reasoning in the world do not produce certainty in a field that is based on deception and lies. Whereas the British, who invented the game, have historically understood the need for patience and a stiff upper lip, Americans tend to look for quick answers, often by using the latest technology. “We were very gimmick-prone,” says the senior counterintelligence official. Gimmicks— machines, drugs, technical tricks—comprise the third method of behavior control, after torture and tradecraft.

Like safecrackers who swear by the skill in their fingertips, most of the Agency’s mainstream operators

disparage newfangled gadgets. Many now claim that drugs, hypnosis, and other exotic methods actually detract from good tradecraft because they make operators careless and lazy.

Nevertheless, the operators and their high-level sponsors, like Allen Dulles and Richard Helms,

consistently pushed for the magic technique—the deus ex machina—that would solve their problems. Caught in the muck and frustration of ordinary spywork, operators hoped for a miracle tool. Faced with liars and deceivers, they longed for a truth drug. Surrounded by people who knew too much, they sought a way to create amnesia. They dreamed of finding means to make unwilling people carry out specific tasks, such as stealing documents, provoking a fight, killing someone, or otherwise committing an antisocial act. Secret agents recruited by more traditional appeals to idealism, greed, ambition, or fear had always done such deeds, but they usually gave their spymasters headaches in the process Sometimes they balked. Moreover, first they had to agree to serve the CIA. The best tradecraft in the world seldom works against a well-motivated target. (The cynical operator recalls offering the head of Cuban intelligence $1,000,00~in 1966 at a Madrid hotel—only to receive a flat rejection.) Plagued by the unsureness, Agency officials hoped to take the andomness— indeed, the free will—out of agent handling. As one psychologist who worked on behavior control describes it, “The problem of every intelligence operation is how do you remove the human element? The operators would come to us and ask for the human element to be removed.” Thus the impetus toward mind-control research came not only from the lure of science and the fantasies of science fiction, it also came from the heart of the spy business.


The primary sources for the material on Professor Wendt’s trip to Frankfurt were Dr. Samuel V. Thompson then of the Navy, the CIA psychiatric consultant, several of Wendt’s former associates, as well as three CIA documents that described the testing: Document # 168, 19 September 1952, Subject: “Project LGQ”; Document # 168, 18 September 1952, Subject: Field Trip of ARTICHOKE team,20 August-September 1952; and #A/B, II, 33/21, undated, Subject: Special Comments.

Information on the Navy’s Project CHATTER came from the Church Committee Report, Book I, pp. 337-38. Declassified Navy Documents N-23, February 13, 1951, Subject: Procurement of Certain Drugs; N-27, undated, Subject: Project CHATTER; N-29, undated, Subject: Status Report: Studies of Motion Sickness, Vestibular Function, and Effects of Drugs; N-35, October 27, 1951, Interim Report; N-38, 30 September, 1952, Memorandum for File; and N-39, 28 October, 1952, Memorandum for File.

The information on the heroin found in Wendt’s safe comes from the Rochester Democrat and Chronicle, October 2, 1977 and considerable background on Wendt’s Rochester testing program was found in the Rochester Times-Union, January 28, 1955. The CIA quote on heroin came from May 15,1952 OSI Memorandum to the Deputy Director, CIA, Subject: Special Interrogation.

Information on the Agency’s interest in amnesia came from 14 January 1952 memo, Subject: BLUEBIRD/ARTICHOKE, Proposed Research; 7 March 1951, Subject: Informal Discussion with Chief [deleted] Regarding “Disposal”; 1 May 1951, Subject: Recommendation for Disposal of Maximum

Custody Defectors; and #A/B, I, 75/13, undated, Subject: Amnesia.

The quote from Homer on nepenthe was found in Sidney

Cohen’s The Beyond Within: The LSD Story (New York:

Atheneum, 1972).

The section on control came from interviews with John

Stockwell and several other former CIA men.


1. What Wendt appears to have been getting at—namely,

that repeated shots of heroin might have an effect on

interrogation—was stated explicitly in a 1952 CIA

document which declared the drug “can be useful in

reverse because of the stresses produced when . . .

withdrawn from those addicted.” Wendt’s interest in

heroin seems to have lasted to his death in 1977, long

after his experiments had stopped. The woman who cleaned

out his safe at that time told the Rochester Democrat and

Chronicle she found a quantity of the white powder, along

with syringes and a good many other drugs.

2. Being good undercover operators, the CIA men never

let on to Wendt that they knew his secret, and Wendt was

not about to give it away. Toward the end of the trip, he

told the consultant he would feel “unpatriotic” if he

were to share his secret because the ARTICHOKE team was

“not competent” to use the drugs.

3. Homer reported the ancient Greeks had such a

substance—nepenthe—”a drug to lull all pain and anger,

and bring forgetfulness of every sorrow.”

4. Neither Morse Allen nor anyone else on the

ARTICHOKE teams spoke any foreign languages. Allen

believed that the difficulty in communicating with the

guinea pigs hampered ARTICHOKE research.

5. The answer was yes, in the sense that Soviet agent

Harold “Kim” Philby, working as British intelligence’s

liaison with the CIA apparently informed his spymasters

of specific plans to set up anticommunist resistance

movements in Albania and all over Eastern Europe. The

Russians almost certainly learned about CIA plans to

overthrow communist rule in Eastern Europe and in the

Soviet Union itself. Knowing of such operations

presumably increased Soviet hostility.




Albert Hofmann’s discovery of LSD in 1943 may have

begun a new age in the exploration of the human mind, but

it took six years for word to reach America. Even after

Hofmann and his coworkers in Switzerland published their

work in a 1947 article, no one in the United States

seemed to notice. Then in 1949, a famous Viennese doctor

named Otto Kauders traveled to the United States in

search of research funds. He gave a conference at Boston

Psychopathic Hospital,[1] a pioneering mental-health

institution affiliated with Harvard Medical School, and

he spoke about a new experimental drug called d-lysergic

acid diethylamide. Milton Greenblatt, the hospital’s

research director, vividly recalls Kauders’ description

of how an infinitesimally small dose had rendered Dr.

Hofmann temporarily “crazy.” “We were very interested in

anything that could make someone schizophrenic,” says

Greenblatt. If the drug really did induce psychosis for a

short time, the Boston doctors reasoned, an antidote—

which they hoped to find—might cure schizophrenia. It

would take many years of research to show that LSD did

not, in fact, produce a “model psychosis,” but to the

Boston doctors in 1949, the drug showed incredible

promise. Max Rinkel, a neuropsychiatrist and refugee from

Hitler’s Germany, was so intrigued by Kauders’

presentation that he quickly contacted Sandoz, the huge

Swiss pharmaceutical firm where Albert Hofmann worked.

Sandoz officials arranged to ship some LSD across the


The first American trip followed. The subject was

Robert Hyde, a Vermont-born psychiatrist who was Boston

Psychopathic’s number-two man. A bold, innovative sort,

Hyde took it for granted that there would be no testing

program until he tried the drug. With Rinkel and the

hospital’s senior physician, H. Jackson DeShon looking

on, Hyde drank a glass of water with 100 micrograms of

LSD in it—less than half Hofmann’s dose, but still a

hefty jolt. DeShon describes Hyde’s reaction as “nothing

very startling.” The perpetually active Hyde insisted on

making his normal hospital rounds while his colleagues

tagged along. Rinkel later told a scientific conference

that Hyde became “quite paranoiac, saying that we had not

given him anything. He also berated us and said the

company had cheated us, given us plain water. That was

not Dr. Hyde’s normal behavior; he is a very pleasant

man.” Hyde’s first experience was hardly as dramatic as

Albert Hofmann’s, but then the Boston psychiatrist had

not, like Hofmann, set off on a voyage into the complete

unknown. For better or worse, LSD had come to America in

1949 and had embarked on a strange trip of its own.

Academic researchers would study it in search of

knowledge that would benefit all mankind. Intelligence

agencies, particularly the CIA, would subsidize and shape

the form of much of this work to learn how the drug could

be used to break the will of enemy agents, unlock secrets

in the minds of trained spies, and otherwise manipulate

human behavior. These two strains—of helping people and

of controlling them—would coexist rather comfortably

through the 1950s. Then, in the 1960s, LSD would escape

from the closed world of scholar and spy, and it would

play a major role in causing a cultural upheaval that

would have an impact both on global politics and on

intimate personal beliefs. The trip would wind up—to

borrow some hyperbole from the musical Hair— with “the

youth of America on LSD.”

The counterculture generation was not yet out of the

nursery, however, when Bob Hyde went tripping: Hyde

himself would not become a secret CIA consultant for

several years. The CIA and the military intelligence

agencies were just setting out on their quest for drugs

and other exotic methods to take possession of people’s

minds. The ancient desire to control enemies through

magical spells and potions had come alive again, and

several offices within the CIA competed to become the

head controllers. Men from the Office of Security’s

ARTICHOKE program were struggling—as had OSS before them—

to find a truth drug or hypnotic method that would aid in

interrogation. Concurrently, the Technical Services Staff

(TSS) was investigating in much greater depth the whole

area of applying chemical and biological warfare (CBW) to

covert operations. TSS was the lineal descendent of

Stanley Lovell’s Research and Development unit in OSS,

and its officials kept alive much of the excitement and

urgency of the World War II days when Lovell had tried to

bring out the Peck’s Bad Boy in American scientists.

Specialists from TSS furnished backup equipment for

secret operations: false papers, bugs, taps, suicide

pills, explosive seashells, transmitters hidden in false

teeth, cameras in tobacco pouches, invisible inks, and

the like. In later years, these gadget wizards from TSS

would become known for supplying some of history’s more

ludicrous landmarks, such as Howard Hunt’s ill-fitting

red wig; but in the early days of the CIA, they gave

promise of transforming the spy world.

Within TSS, there existed a Chemical Division with

functions that few others—even in TSS—knew about. These

had to do with using chemicals (and germs) against

specific people. From 1951 to 1956, the years when the

CIA’s interest in LSD peaked, Sidney Gottlieb, a native

of the Bronx with a Ph.D. in chemistry from Cal Tech,

headed this division. (And for most of the years until

1973, he would oversee TSS’s behavioral programs from one

job or another.) Only 33 years old when he took over the

Chemical Division, Gottlieb had managed to overcome a

pronounced stammer and a clubfoot to rise through Agency

ranks. Described by several acquaintances as a

“compensator,” Gottlieb prided himself on his ability,

despite his obvious handicaps, to pursue his cherished

hobby, folk dancing. On returning from secret missions

overseas, he invariably brought back a new step that he

would dance with surprising grace. He could call out

instructions for the most complicated dances without a

break in his voice, infecting others with enthusiasm. A

man of unorthodox tastes, Gottlieb lived in a former

slave cabin that he had remodeled himself—with his wife,

the daughter of Presbyterian missionaries in India, and

his four children. Each morning, he rose at 5:30 to milk

the goats he kept on his 15 acres outside Washington. The

Gottliebs drank only goat’s milk, and they made their own

cheese. They also raised Christmas trees which they sold

to the outside world. Greatly respected by his former

colleagues, Gottlieb, who refused to be interviewed for

this book, is described as a humanist, a man of

intellectual humility and strength, willing to carry out,

as one ex-associate puts it, “the tough things that had

to be done.” This associate fondly recalls, “When you

watched him, you gained more and more respect because he

was willing to work so hard to get an idea across. He

left himself totally exposed. It was more important for

us to get the idea than for him not to stutter.” One idea

he got across was that the Agency should investigate the

potential use of the obscure new drug, LSD, as a spy


At the top ranks of the Clandestine Services

(officially called the Directorate of Operations but

popularly known as the “dirty tricks department”), Sid

Gottlieb had a champion who appreciated his qualities,

Richard Helms. For two decades, Gottlieb would move into

progressively higher positions in the wake of Helms’

climb to the highest position in the Agency. Helms, the

tall, smooth “preppie,” apparently liked the way the

Jewish chemist, who had started out at Manhattan’s City

College, could thread his way through complicated

technical problems and make them understandable to

nonscientists. Gottlieb was loyal and he followed orders.

Although many people lay in the chain of command between

the two men, Helms preferred to avoid bureaucratic

niceties by dealing directly with Gottlieb.

On April 3, 1953, Helms proposed to Director Allen

Dulles that the CIA set up a program under Gottlieb for

“covert use of biological and chemical materials.” Helms

made clear that the Agency could use these methods in

“present and future clandestine operations” and then

added, “Aside from the offensive potential, the

development of a comprehensive capability in this field .

. . gives us a thorough knowledge of the enemy’s

theoretical potential, thus enabling us to defend

ourselves against a foe who might not be as restrained in

the use of these techniques as we are.” Once again, as it

would throughout the history of the behavioral programs,

defense justified offense. Ray Cline, often a

bureaucratic rival of Helms, notes the spirit in which

the future Director pushed this program: “Helms fancied

himself a pretty tough cookie. It was fashionable among

that group to fancy they were rather impersonal about

dangers, risks, and human life. Helms would think it

sentimental and foolish to be against something like


On April 13, 1953—the same day that the Pentagon

announced that any U.S. prisoner refusing repatriation in

Korea would be listed as a deserter and shot if caught—

Allen Dulles approved the program, essentially as put

forth by Helms. Dulles took note of the “ultra-sensitive

work” involved and agreed that the project would be

called MKULTRA.[2] He approved an initial budget of

$300,000, exempted the program from normal CIA financial

controls, and allowed TSS to start up research projects

“without the signing of the usual contracts or other

written agreements.” Dulles ordered the Agency’s

bookkeepers to pay the costs blindly on the signatures of

Sid Gottlieb and Willis Gibbons, a former U.S. Rubber

executive who headed TSS.

As is so often the case in government, the activity

that Allen Dulles approved with MKULTRA was already under

way, even before he gave it a bureaucratic structure.

Under the code name MKDELTA, the Clandestine Services had

set up procedures the year before to govern the use of

CBW products. (MKDELTA now became the operational side of

MKULTRA.) Also in 1952, TSS had made an agreement with

the Special Operations Division (SOD) of the Army’s

biological research center at Fort Detrick, Maryland

whereby SOD would produce germ weapons for the CIA’s use

(with the program called MKNAOMI). Sid Gottlieb later

testified that the purpose of these programs was “to

investigate whether and how it was possible to modify an

individual’s behavior by covert means. The context in

which this investigation was started was that of the

height of the Cold War with the Korean War just winding

down; with the CIA organizing its resources to liberate

Eastern Europe by paramilitary means; and with the threat

of Soviet aggression very real and tangible, as

exemplified by the recent Berlin airlift” (which occurred

in 1948).

In the early days of MKULTRA, the roughly six TSS

professionals who worked on the program spent a good deal

of their time considering the possibilities of LSD.[3]

“The most fascinating thing about it,” says one of them,

“was that such minute quantities had such a terrific

effect.” Albert Hofmann had gone off into another world

after swallowing less than 1/100,000 of an ounce.

Scientists had known about the mind-altering qualities of

drugs like mescaline since the late nineteenth century,

but LSD was several thousand times more potent. Hashish

had been around for millennia, but LSD was roughly a

million times stronger (by weight). A two-suiter suitcase

could hold enough LSD to turn on every man, woman, and

child in the United States. “We thought about the

possibility of putting some in a city water supply and

having the citizens wander around in a more or less happy

state, not terribly interested in defending themselves,”

recalls the TSS man. But incapacitating such large

numbers of people fell to the Army Chemical Corps, which

also tested LSD and even stronger hallucinogens. The CIA

was concentrating on individuals. TSS officials

understood that LSD distorted a person’s sense of

reality, and they felt compelled to learn whether it

could alter someone’s basic loyalties. Could the CIA make

spies out of tripping Russians—or vice versa? In the

early 1950s, when the Agency developed an almost

desperate need to know more about LSD, almost no outside

information existed on the subject. Sandoz had done some

clinical studies, as had a few other places, including

Boston Psychopathic, but the work generally had not moved

much beyond the horse-and-buggy stage. The MKULTRA team

had literally hundreds of questions about LSD’s

physiological, psychological, chemical, and social

effects. Did it have any antidotes? What happened if it

were combined with other drugs? Did it affect everyone

the same way? What was the effect of doubling the dose?

And so on.

TSS first sought answers from academic researchers,

who, on the whole, gladly cooperated and let the Agency

pick their brains. But CIA officials realized that no one

would undertake a quick and systematic study of the drug

unless the Agency itself paid the bill. Almost no

government or private money was then available for what

had been dubbed “experimental psychiatry.” Sandoz wanted

the drug tested, for its own commercial reasons, but

beyond supplying it free to researchers, it would not

assume the costs. The National Institutes of Mental

Health had an interest in LSD’s relationship to mental

illness, but CIA officials wanted to know how the drug

affected normal people, not sick ones. Only the military

services, essentially for the same reasons as the CIA,

were willing to sink much money into LSD, and the Agency

men were not about to defer to them. They chose instead

to take the lead—in effect to create a whole new field of


Suddenly there was a huge new market for grants in

academia, as Sid Gottlieb and his aides began to fund LSD

projects at prestigious institutions. The Agency’s LSD

pathfinders can be identified: Bob Hyde’s group at Boston

Psychopathic, Harold Abramson at Mt. Sinai Hospital and

Columbia University in New York, Carl Pfeiffer at the

University of Illinois Medical School, Harris Isbell of

the NIMH-sponsored Addiction Research Center in

Lexington, Kentucky, Louis Jolyon West at the University

of Oklahoma, and Harold Hodge’s group at the University

of Rochester. The Agency disguised its involvement by

passing the money through two conduits: the Josiah Macy,

Jr. Foundation, a rich establishment institution which

served as a cutout (intermediary) only for a year or two,

and the Geschickter Fund for Medical Research, a

Washington, D.C. family foundation, whose head, Dr.

Charles Geschickter, provided the Agency with a variety

of services for more than a decade. Reflexively, TSS

officials felt they had to keep the CIA connection

secret. They could only “assume,” according to a 1955

study, that Soviet scientists understood the drug’s

“strategic importance” and were capable of making it

themselves. They did not want to spur the Russians into

starting their own LSD program or into devising


The CIA’s secrecy was also clearly aimed at the folks

back home. As a 1963 Inspector General’s report stated,

“Research in the manipulation of human behavior is

considered by many authorities in medicine and related

fields to be professionally unethical”; therefore,

openness would put “in jeopardy” the reputations of the

outside researchers. Moreover, the CIA Inspector General

declared that disclosure of certain MKULTRA activities

could result in “serious adverse reaction” among the

American public.

At Boston Psychopathic, there were various levels of

concealment. Only Bob Hyde and his boss, the hospital

superintendent, knew officially that the CIA was funding

the hospital’s LSD program from 1952 on, to the tune of

about $40,000 a year. Yet, according to another member of

the Hyde group, Dr. DeShon, all senior staff understood

where the money really came from. “We agreed not to

discuss it,” says DeShon. “I don’t see any objection to

this. We never gave it to anyone without his consent and

without explaining it in detail.” Hospital officials told

the volunteer subjects something about the nature of the

experiments but nothing about their origins or purpose.

None of the subjects had any idea that the CIA was paying

for the probing of their minds and would use the results

for its own purposes; most of the staff was similarly


Like Hyde, almost all the researchers tried LSD on

themselves. Indeed, many believed they gained real

insight into what it felt like to be mentally ill, useful

knowledge for health professionals who spent their lives

treating people supposedly sick in the head. Hyde set up

a multidisciplinary program—virtually unheard of at the

time—that brought together psychiatrists, psychologists,

and physiologists. As subjects, they used each other,

hospital patients, and volunteers—mostly students—from

the Boston area. They worked through a long sequence of

experiments that served to isolate variable after

variable. Palming themselves off as foundation officials,

the men from MKULTRA frequently visited to observe and

suggest areas of future research. One Agency man, who

himself tripped several times under Hyde’s general

supervision, remembers that he and his colleagues would

pass on a nugget that another contractor like Harold

Abramson had gleaned and ask Hyde to perform a follow-up

test that might answer a question of interest to the

Agency. Despite these tangents, the main body of research

proceeded in a planned and orderly fashion. The

researchers learned that while some subjects seemed to

become schizophrenic, many others did not. Surprisingly,

true schizophrenics showed little reaction at all to LSD,

unless given massive doses. The Hyde group found out that

the quality of a person’s reaction was determined mainly

by the person’s basic personality structure (set) and the

environment (setting) in which he or she took the drug.

The subject’s expectation of what would happen also

played a major part. More than anything else, LSD tended

to intensify the subject’s existing characteristics—often

to extremes. A little suspicion could grow into major

paranoia, particularly in the company of people perceived

as threatening.

Unbeknownst to his fellow researchers, the energetic

Dr. Hyde also advised the CIA on using LSD in covert

operations. A CIA officer who worked with him recalls:

“The idea would be to give him the details of what had

happened [with a case], and he would speculate. As a

sharp M.D. in the old-school sense, he would look at

things in ways that a lot of recent bright lights

couldn’t get…. He had a good sense of make-do.” The

Agency paid Hyde for his time as a consultant, and TSS

officials eventually set aside a special MKULTRA

subproject as Hyde’s private funding mechanism. Hyde

received funds from yet another MKULTRA subproject that

TSS men created for him in 1954, so he could serve as a

cutout for Agency purchases of rare chemicals. His first

buy was to be $32,000 worth of corynanthine, a possible

antidote to LSD, that would not be traced to the CIA.

Bob Hyde died in 1976 at the age of 66, widely hailed

as a pacesetter in mental health. His medical and

intelligence colleagues speak highly of him both

personally and professionally. Like most of his

generation, he apparently considered helping the CIA a

patriotic duty. An Agency officer states that Hyde never

raised doubts about his covert work. “He wouldn’t

moralize. He had a lot of trust in the people he was

dealing with [from the CIA]. He had pretty well reached

the conclusion that if they decided to do something

[operationally], they had tried whatever else there was

and were willing to risk it.”

Most of the CIA’s academic researchers published

articles on their work in professional journals, but

those long, scholarly reports often gave an incomplete

picture of the research. In effect, the scientists would

write openly about how LSD affects a patient’s pulse

rate, but they would tell only the CIA how the drug could

be used to ruin that patient’s marriage or memory. Those

researchers who were aware of the Agency’s sponsorship

seldom published anything remotely connected to the

instrumental and rather unpleasant questions the MKULTRA

men posed for investigation. That was true of Hyde and of

Harold Abramson, the New York allergist who became one of

the first Johnny Appleseeds of LSD by giving it to a

number of his distinguished colleagues. Abramson

documented all sorts of experiments on topics like the

effects of LSD on Siamese fighting fish and snails,[4]

but he never wrote a word about one of his early LSD

assignments from the Agency. In a 1953 document, Sid

Gottlieb listed subjects he expected Abramson to

investigate with the $85,000 the Agency was furnishing

him. Gottlieb wanted “operationally pertinent materials

along the following lines: a. Disturbance of Memory; b.

Discrediting by Aberrant Behavior; c. Alteration of Sex

Patterns; d. Eliciting of Information; e. Suggestibility;

f. Creation of Dependence.”

Dr. Harris Isbell, whose work the CIA funded through

Navy cover with the approval of the Director of the

National Institutes of Health, published his principal

findings, but he did not mention how he obtained his

subjects. As Director of the Addiction Research Center at

the huge Federal drug hospital in Lexington, Kentucky, he

had access to a literally captive population. Inmates

heard on the grapevine that if they volunteered for

Isbell’s program, they would be rewarded either in the

drug of their choice or in time off from their sentences.

Most of the addicts chose drugs—usually heroin or

morphine of a purity seldom seen on the street. The

subjects signed an approval form, but they were not told

the names of the experimental drugs or the probable

effects. This mattered little, since the “volunteers”

probably would have granted their informed consent to

virtually anything to get hard drugs.

Given Isbell’s almost unlimited supply of subjects,

TSS officials used the Lexington facility as a place to

make quick tests of promising but untried drugs and to

perform specialized experiments they could not easily

duplicate elsewhere. For instance, Isbell did one study

for which it would have been impossible to attract

student volunteers. He kept seven men on LSD for 77

straight days.[5] Such an experiment is as chilling as it

is astonishing—both to lovers and haters of LSD. Nearly

20 years after Dr. Isbell’s early work, counterculture

journalist Hunter S. Thompson delighted and frightened

his readers with accounts of drug binges lasting a few

days, during which Thompson felt his brain boiling away

in the sun, his nerves wrapping around enormous barbed

wire forts, and his remaining faculties reduced to their

reptilian antecedents. Even Thompson would shudder at the

thought of 77 days straight on LSD, and it is doubtful he

would joke about the idea. To Dr. Isbell, it was just

another experiment. “I have had seven patients who have

now been taking the drug for more than 42 days,” he wrote

in the middle of the test, which he called “the most

amazing demonstration of drug tolerance I have ever

seen.” Isbell tried to “break through this tolerance” by

giving triple and quadruple doses of LSD to the inmates.

Filled with intense curiosity, Isbell tried out a

wide variety of unproven drugs on his subjects. Just as

soon as a new batch of scopolamine, rivea seeds, or

bufotenine arrived from the CIA or NIMH, he would start

testing. His relish for the task occasionally shone

through the dull scientific reports. “I will write you a

letter as soon as I can get the stuff into a man or two,”

he informed his Agency contact.

No corresponding feeling shone through for the

inmates, however. In his few recorded personal comments,

he complained that his subjects tended to be afraid of

the doctors and were not as open in describing their

experiences as the experimenters would have wished.

Although Isbell made an effort to “break through the

barriers” with the subjects, who were nearly all black

drug addicts, Isbell finally decided “in all probability,

this type of behavior is to be expected with patients of

this type.” The subjects have long since scattered, and

no one apparently has measured the aftereffects of the

more extreme experiments on them.

One subject who could be found spent only a brief

time with Dr. Isbell. Eddie Flowers was 19 years old and

had been in Lexington for about a year when he signed up

for Isbell’s program. He lied about his age to get in,

claiming he was 21. All he cared about was getting some

drugs. He moved into the experimental wing of the

hospital where the food was better and he could listen to

music. He loved his heroin but knew nothing about drugs

like LSD. One day he took something in a graham cracker.

No one ever told him the name, but his description sounds

like it made him trip—badly, to be sure. “It was the

worst shit I ever had,” he says. He hallucinated and

suffered for 16 or 17 hours. “I was frightened. I

wouldn’t take it again.” Still, Flowers earned enough

“points” in the experiment to qualify for his “payoff in

heroin. All he had to do was knock on a little window

down the hall. This was the drug bank. The man in charge

kept a list of the amount of the hard drug each inmate

had in his account. Flowers just had to say how much he

wanted to withdraw and note the method of payment. “If

you wanted it in the vein, you got it there,” recalls

Flowers who now works in a Washington, D.C. drug

rehabilitation center.

Dr. Isbell refuses all request for interviews. He did

tell a Senate subcommittee in 1975 that he inherited the

drug payoff system when he came to Lexington and that “it

was the custom in those days…. The ethical codes were

not so highly developed, and there was a great need to

know in order to protect the public in assessing the

potential use of narcotics…. I personally think we did

a very excellent job.”

For every Isbell, Hyde, or Abramson who did TSS

contract work, there were dozens of others who simply

served as casual CIA informants, some witting and some

not. Each TSS project officer had a skull session with

dozens of recognized experts several times a year. “That

was the only way a tiny staff like Sid Gottlieb’s could

possibly keep on top of the burgeoning behavioral

sciences,” says an ex-CIA official. “There would be no

way you could do it by library research or the Ph.D.

dissertation approach.” The TSS men always asked their

contacts for the names of others they could talk to, and

the contacts would pass them on to other interesting


In LSD research, TSS officers benefited from the

energetic intelligence gathering of their contractors,

particularly Harold Abramson. Abramson talked regularly

to virtually everyone interested in the drug, including

the few early researchers not funded by the Agency or the

military, and he reported his findings to TSS. In

addition, he served as reporting secretary of two

conference series sponsored by the Agency’s sometime

conduit, the Macy Foundation. These series each lasted

over five year periods in the 1950s; one dealt with

“Problems of Consciousness” and the other with

“Neuropharmacology.” Held once a year in the genteel

surroundings of the Princeton Inn, the Macy Foundation

conferences brought together TSS’s (and the military’s)

leading contractors, as part of a group of roughly 25

with the multidisciplinary background that TSS officials

so loved. The participants came from all over the social

sciences and included such luminaries as Margaret Mead

and Jean Piaget. The topics discussed usually mirrored

TSS’s interests at the time, and the conferences served

as a spawning ground for ideas that allowed researchers

to engage in some healthy cross-fertilization.

Beyond the academic world, TSS looked to the

pharmaceutical companies as another source on drugs—and

for a continuing supply of new products to test. TSS’s

Ray Treichler handled the liaison function, and this

secretive little man built up close relationships with

many of the industry’s key executives. He had a

particular knack for convincing them he would not reveal

their trade secrets. Sometimes claiming to be from the

Army Chemical Corps and sometimes admitting his CIA

connection, Treichler would ask for samples of drugs that

were either highly poisonous, or, in the words of the

onetime director of research of a large company, “caused

hypertension, increased blood pressure, or led to other

odd physiological activity.”

Dealing with American drug companies posed no

particular problems for TSS. Most cooperated in any way

they could. But relations with Sandoz were more

complicated. The giant Swiss firm had a monopoly on the

Western world’s production of LSD until 1953. Agency

officials feared that Sandoz would somehow allow large

quantities to reach the Russians. Since information on

LSD’s chemical structure and effects was publicly

available from 1947 on, the Russians could have produced

it any time they felt it worthwhile. Thus, the Agency’s

phobia about Sandoz seems rather irrational, but it

unquestionably did exist.

On two occasions early in the Cold War, the entire

CIA hierarchy went into a dither over reports that Sandoz

might allow large amounts of LSD to reach Communist

countries. In 1951 reports came in through military

channels that the Russians had obtained some 50 million

doses from Sandoz. Horrendous visions of what the

Russians might do with such a stockpile circulated in the

CIA, where officials did not find out the intelligence

was false for several years. There was an even greater

uproar in 1953 when more reports came in, again through

military intelligence, that Sandoz wanted to sell the

astounding quantity of 10 kilos (22 pounds) of LSD enough

for about 100 million doses—on the open market.

A top-level coordinating committee which included CIA

and Pentagon representatives unanimously recommended that

the Agency put up $240,000 to buy it all. Allen Dulles

gave his approval, and off went two CIA representatives

to Switzerland, presumably with a black bag full of cash.

They met with the president of Sandoz and other top

executives. The Sandoz men stated that the company had

never made anything approaching 10 kilos of LSD and that,

in fact, since the discovery of the drug 10 years before,

its total production had been only 40 grams (about 11/2

ounces).[6] The manufacturing process moved quite slowly

at that time because Sandoz used real ergot, which could

not be grown in large quantities. Nevertheless, Sandoz

executives, being good Swiss businessmen, offered to

supply the U.S. Government with 100 grams weekly for an

indefinite period, if the Americans would pay a fair

price. Twice the Sandoz president thanked the CIA men for

being willing to take the nonexistent 10 kilos off the

market. While he said the company now regretted it had

ever discovered LSD in the first place, he promised that

Sandoz would not let the drug fall into communist hands.

The Sandoz president mentioned that various Americans had

in the past made “covert and sideways” approaches to

Sandoz to find out about LSD, and he agreed to keep the

U.S. Government informed of all future production and

shipping of the drug. He also agreed to pass on any

intelligence about Eastern European interest in LSD. The

Sandoz executives asked only that their arrangement with

the CIA be kept “in the very strictest confidence.”

All around the world, the CIA tried to stay on top of

the LSD supply. Back home in Indianapolis, Eli Lilly &

Company was even then working on a process to synthesize

LSD. Agency officials felt uncomfortable having to rely

on a foreign company for their supply, and in 1953 they

asked Lilly executives to make them up a batch, which the

company subsequently donated to the government. Then, in

1954, Lilly scored a major breakthrough when its

researchers worked out a complicated 12- to 15-step

process to manufacture first lysergic acid (the basic

building block) and then LSD itself from chemicals

available on the open market. Given a relatively

sophisticated lab, a competent chemist could now make LSD

without a supply of the hard-to-grow ergot fungus. Lilly

officers confidentially informed the government of their

triumph. They also held an unprecedented press conference

to trumpet their synthesis of lysergic acid, but they did

not publish for another five years their success with the

closely related LSD.

TSS officials soon sent a memo to Allen Dulles,

explaining that the Lilly discovery was important because

the government henceforth could buy LSD in “tonnage

quantities,” which made it a potential chemical-warfare

agent. The memo writer pointed out, however, that from

the MKULTRA point of view, the discovery made no

difference since TSS was working on ways to use the drug

only in small-scale covert operations, and the Agency had

no trouble getting the limited amounts it needed. But now

the Army Chemical Corps and the Air Force could get their

collective hands on enough LSD to turn on the world.

Sharing the drug with the Army here, setting up

research programs there, keeping track of it everywhere,

the CIA generally presided over the LSD scene during the

1950s. To be sure, the military services played a part

and funded their own research programs.[7] So did the

National Institutes of Health, to a lesser extent. Yet

both the military services and the NIH allowed themselves

to be co-opted by the CIA—as funding conduits and

intelligence sources. The Food and Drug Administration

also supplied the Agency with confidential information on

drug testing. Of the Western world’s two LSD

manufacturers, one—Eli Lilly—gave its entire (small)

supply to the CIA and the military. The other—Sandoz—

informed Agency representatives every time it shipped the

drug. If somehow the CIA missed anything with all these

sources, the Agency still had its own network of scholar-

spies, the most active of whom was Harold Abramson who

kept it informed of all new developments in the LSD

field. While the CIA may not have totally cornered the

LSD market in the 1950s, it certainly had a good measure

of control—the very power it sought over human behavior.

Sid Gottlieb and his colleagues at MKULTRA soaked up

pools of information about LSD and other drugs from all

outside sources, but they saved for themselves the

research they really cared about: operational testing.

Trained in both science and espionage, they believed they

could bridge the huge gap between experimenting in the

laboratory and using drugs to outsmart the enemy.

Therefore the leaders of MKULTRA initiated their own

series of drug experiments that paralleled and drew

information from the external research. As practical men

of action, unlimited by restrictive academic standards,

they did not feel the need to keep their tests in strict

scientific sequence. They wanted results now—not next

year. If a drug showed promise, they felt no qualms about

trying it out operationally before all the test results

came in. As early as 1953, for instance, Sid Gottlieb

went overseas with a supply of a hallucinogenic drug—

almost certainly LSD. With unknown results, he arranged

for it to be slipped to a speaker at a political rally,

presumably to see if it would make a fool of him.

These were freewheeling days within the CIA—then a

young agency whose bureaucratic arteries had not started

to harden. The leaders of MKULTRA had high hopes for LSD.

It appeared to be an awesome substance, whose advent,

like the ancient discovery of fire, would bring out

primitive responses of fear and worship in people. Only a

speck of LSD could take a strongwilled man and turn his

most basic perceptions into willowy shadows. Time, space,

right, wrong, order, and the notion of what was possible

all took on new faces. LSD was a frightening weapon, and

it took a swashbuckling boldness for the leaders of

MKULTRA to prepare for operational testing the way they

first did: by taking it themselves. They tripped at the

office. They tripped at safehouses, and sometimes they

traveled to Boston to trip under Bob Hyde’s penetrating

gaze. Always they observed, questioned, and analyzed each

other. LSD seemed to remove inhibitions, and they thought

they could use it to find out what went on in the mind

underneath all the outside acts and pretensions. If they

could get at the inner self, they reasoned, they could

better manipulate a person—or keep him from being


The men from MKULTRA were trying LSD in the early

1950s—when Stalin lived and Joe McCarthy raged. It was a

foreboding time, even for those not professionally

responsible for doomsday poisons. Not surprisingly, Sid

Gottlieb and colleagues who tried LSD did not think of

the drug as something that might enhance creativity or

cause transcendental experiences. Those notions would not

come along for years. By and large, there was thought to

be only one prevailing and hardheaded version of reality,

which was “normal,” and everything else was “crazy.” An

LSD trip made people temporarily crazy, which meant

potentially vulnerable to the CIA men (and mentally ill,

to the doctors). The CIA experimenters did not trip for

the experience itself, or to get high, or to sample new

realities. They were testing a weapon; for their

purposes, they might as well have been in a ballistics


Despite this prevailing attitude in the Agency, at

least one MKULTRA pioneer recalls that his first trip

expanded his conception of reality: “I was shaky at

first, but then I just experienced it and had a high. I

felt that everything was working right. I was like a

locomotive going at top efficiency. Sure there was

stress, but not in a debilitating way. It was like the

stress of an engine pulling the longest train it’s ever

pulled.” This CIA veteran describes seeing all the colors

of the rainbow growing out of cracks in the sidewalk. He

had always disliked cracks as signs of imperfection, but

suddenly the cracks became natural stress lines that

measured the vibrations of the universe. He saw people

with blemished faces, which he had previously found

slightly repulsive. “I had a change of values about

faces,” he says. “Hooked noses or crooked teeth would

become beautiful for that person. Something had turned

loose in me, and all I had done was shift my attitude.

Reality hadn’t changed, but I had. That was all the

difference in the world between seeing something ugly and

seeing truth and beauty.”

At the end of this day of his first trip, the CIA man

and his colleagues had an alcohol party to help come

down. “I had a lump in my throat,” he recalls wistfully.

Although he had never done such a thing before, he wept

in front of his coworkers. “I didn’t want to leave it. I

felt I would be going back to a place where I wouldn’t be

able to hold on to this kind of beauty. I felt very

unhappy. The people who wrote the report on me said I had

experienced depression, but they didn’t understand why I

felt so bad. They thought I had had a bad trip.”

This CIA man says that others with his general

personality tended to enjoy themselves on LSD, but that

the stereotypical CIA operator (particularly the extreme

counterintelligence type who mistrusts everyone and

everything) usually had negative reactions. The drug

simply exaggerated his paranoia. For these operators, the

official notes, “dark evil things would begin to lurk

around,” and they would decide the experimenters were

plotting against them.

The TSS team understood it would be next to

impossible to allay the fears of this ever-vigilant,

suspicious sort, although they might use LSD to disorient

or generally confuse such a person. However, they toyed

with the idea that LSD could be applied to better

advantage on more trusting types. Could a clever foe “re

educate” such a person with a skillful application of

LSD? Speculating on this question, the CIA official

states that while under the influence of the drug, “you

tend to have a more global view of things. I found it

awfully hard when stoned to maintain the notion: I am a

U.S. citizen—my country right or wrong…. You tend to

have these good higher feelings. You are more open to the

brotherhood-of-man idea and more susceptible to the seamy

sides of your own society…. I think this is exactly

what happened during the 1960s, but it didn’t make people

more communist. It just made them less inclined to

identify with the U.S. They took a plague-on-both-yourhouses


As to whether his former colleagues in TSS had the

same perception of the LSD experience, the man replies,

“I think everybody understood that if you had a good

trip, you had a kind of above-it-all look into reality.

What we subsequently found was that when you came down,

you remembered the experience, but you didn’t switch

identities. You really didn’t have that kind of feeling.

You weren’t as suspicious of people. You listened to

them, but you also saw through them more easily and

clearly. We decided that this wasn’t the kind of thing

that was going to make a guy into a turncoat to his own

country. The more we worked with it, the less we became

convinced this was what the communists were using for


The early LSD tests—both outside and inside the

Agency—had gone well enough that the MKULTRA scientists

moved forward to the next stage on the road to “field”

use: They tried the drug out on people by surprise. This,

after all, would be the way an operator would give—or

get—the drug. First they decided to spring it on each

other without warning. They agreed among themselves that

a coworker might slip it to them at any time. (In what

may be an apocryphal story, a TSS staff man says that one

of his former colleagues always brought his own bottle of

wine to office parties and carried it with him at all

times.) Unwitting doses became an occupational hazard.

MKULTRA men usually took these unplanned trips in

stride, but occasionally they turned nasty. Two TSS

veterans tell the story of a coworker who drank some LSD-

laced coffee during his morning break. Within an hour,

states one veteran, “he sort of knew he had it, but he

couldn’t pull himself together. Sometimes you take it,

and you start the process of maintaining your composure.

But this grabbed him before he was aware, and it got away

from him.” Filled with fear, the CIA man fled the

building that then housed TSS, located on the edge of the

Mall near Washington’s great monuments. Having lost sight

of him, his colleagues searched frantically, but he

managed to escape. The hallucinating Agency man worked

his way across one of the Potomac bridges and apparently

cut his last links with rationality. “He reported

afterwards that every automobile that came by was a

terrible monster with fantastic eyes, out to get him

personally,” says the veteran. “Each time a car passed,

he would huddle down against the parapet, terribly

frightened. It was a real horror trip for him. I mean, it

was hours of agony. It was like a dream that never stops—

with someone chasing you.”

After about an hour and a half, the victim’s

coworkers found him on the Virginia side of the Potomac,

crouched under a fountain, trembling. “It was awfully

hard to persuade him that his friends were his friends at

that point,” recalls the colleague. “He was alone in the

world, and everyone was hostile. He’d become a full-blown

paranoid. If it had lasted for two weeks, we’d have

plunked him in a mental hospital.” Fortunately for him,

the CIA man came down by the end of the day. This was not

the first, last, or most tragic bad trip in the Agency’s

testing program.[8]

By late 1953, only six months after Allen Dulles had

formally created MKULTRA, TSS officials were already well

into the last stage of their research: systematic use of

LSD on “outsiders” who had no idea they had received the

drug. These victims simply felt their moorings slip away

in the midst of an ordinary day, for no apparent reason,

and no one really knew how they would react.

Sid Gottlieb was ready for the operational

experiments. He considered LSD to be such a secret

substance that he gave it a private code name (“serunim”)

by which he and his colleagues often referred to the

drug, even behind the CIA’s heavily guarded doors. In

retrospect, it seems more than bizarre that CIA

officials—men responsible for the nation’s intelligence

and alertness when the hot and cold wars against the

communists were at their peak—would be sneaking LSD into

each other’s coffee cups and thereby subjecting

themselves to the unknown frontiers of experimental

drugs. But these side trips did not seem to change the

sense of reality of Gottlieb or of high CIA officials,

who took LSD on several occasions. The drug did not

transform Gottlieb out of the mind set of a master

scientist-spy, a protégé of Richard Helms in the CIA’s

inner circle. He never stopped milking his goats at 5:30

every morning.

The CIA leaders’ early achievements with LSD were

impressive. They had not invented the drug, but they had

gotten in on the American ground floor and done nearly

everything else. They were years ahead of the scientific

literature—let alone the public—and spies win by being

ahead. They had monopolized the supply of LSD and

dominated the research by creating much of it themselves.

They had used money and other blandishments to build a

network of scientists and doctors whose work they could

direct and turn to their own use. All that remained

between them and major espionage successes was the

performance of the drug in the field.

That, however, turned out to be a considerable

stumbling block. LSD had an incredibly powerful effect on

people, but not in ways the CIA could predict or control.


The description of Robert Hyde’s first trip came from

interviews with Dr. Milton Greenblatt, Dr. J. Herbert

DeShon, and a talk by Max Rinkel at the 2nd Macy

Conference on Neuropharmacology, pp. 235-36, edited by

Harold A. Abramson, 1955: Madison Printing Company.

The descriptions of TSS and Sidney Gottlieb came from

interviews with Ray Cline, John Stockwell, about 10 other

ex-CIA officers, and other friends of Gottlieb.

Memos quoted on the early MKULTRA program include

Memorandum from ADDP Helms to DCI Dulles, 4/3/53, Tab A,

pp. 1-2 (quoted in Church Committee Report, Book I); APF

A-1, April 13, 1953, Memorandum for Deputy Director

(Administration, Subject: Project MKULTRA—Extremely

Sensitive Research and Development Program; #A/B,I,64/6,

6 February 1952, Memorandum for the Record, Subject:

Contract with [deleted] #A/B,I,64/29, undated, Memorandum

for Technical Services Staff, Subject: Alcohol

Antagonists and Accelerators, Research and Development

Project. The Gottlieb quote is from Hearing before the

Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the

Senate Committee on Human Resources, September 21, 1977,

p. 206.

The background data on LSD came particularly from The

Beyond Within: The LSD Story by Sidney Cohen (New York:

Atheneum,1972). Other sources included Origins of

Psychopharmacology: From CPZ to LSD by Anne E. Caldwell

(Springfield, III.: Charles C. Thomas, 1970) and Document

352, “An OSI Study of the Strategic Medical Importance of

LSD-25,” 30 August 1955.

TSS’s use of outside researchers came from interviews

with four former TSSers. MKULTRA Subprojects 8, 10, 63,

and 66 described Robert Hyde’s work. Subprojects 7, 27,

and 40 concerned Harold Abramson. Hodge’s work was in

subprojects 17 and 46. Carl Pfeiffer’s Agency connection,

along with Hyde’s, Abramson’s, and Isbell’s, was laid out

by Lyman B. Kirkpatrick, Memorandum for the Record, 1

December 1953, Subject: Conversation with Dr. Willis

Gibbons of TSS re Olson Case (found at p. 1030, Kennedy

Subcommittee 1975 Biomedical and Behavioral Research

Hearings). Isbell’s testing program was also described at

those hearings, as it was in Document # 14, 24 July,

1953, Memo For: Liaison & Security Officer/TSS, Subject

#71 An Account of the Chemical Division’s Contacts in the

National Institute of Health; Document #37, 14 July 1954,

subject [deleted]; and Document # 41,31 August,1956,

subject; trip to Lexington, Ky.,21-23 August 1956.

Isbell’s program was further described in a “Report on

ADAMHA Involvement in LSD Research,” found at p. 993 of

1975 Kennedy subcommittee hearings. The firsthand account

of the actual testing came from an interview with Edward

M. Flowers, Washington, D.C.

The section on TSS’s noncontract informants came from

interviews with TSS sources, reading the proceedings of

the Macy Conferences on “Problems of Consciousness” and

“Neuropharmacology,” and interviews with several

participants including Sidney Cohen, Humphrey Osmond, and

Hudson Hoagland.

The material on CIA’s relations with Sandoz and Eli

Lilly came from Document #24, 16 November, 1953, Subject:

ARTICHOKE Conference; Document #268, 23 October, 1953,

Subject: Meeting in Director’s Office at 1100 hours on 23

October with Mr. Wisner and [deleted]; Document # 316,6

January,1954, Subject: Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD25);

and Document #338, 26 October 1954, Subject:

Potential Large Scale Availability of LSD through newly

discovered synthesis by [deleted]; interviews with Sandoz

and Lilly former executives; interviews with TSS sources;

and Sidney Gottlieb’s testimony before Kennedy

subcommittee, 1977, p. 203.

Henry Beecher’s US government connections were

detailed in his private papers, in a report on the Swiss-

LSD death to the CIA at p. 396, Church Committee Report,

Book I, and in interviews with two of his former


The description of TSS’s internal testing progression

comes from interviews with former staff members. The

short reference to Sid Gottlieb’s arranging for LSD to be

given a speaker at a political rally comes from Document

#A/B, II, 26/8, 9 June 1954, Subject: MKULTRA. Henry

Beecher’s report to the CIA on the Swiss suicide is found

at p. 396, Church Committee Report, Book I.


1. During the 1950s, Boston Psychopathic changed its

name to Massachusetts Mental Health Center, the name it

bears today.

2. Pronounced M-K-ULTRA. The MK digraph simply

identified it as a TSS project. As for the ULTRA part, it

may have had its etymological roots in the most closely

guarded Anglo-American World War II intelligence secret,

the ULTRA program, which handled the cracking of German

military codes. While good espionage tradecraft called

for cryptonyms to have no special meaning, wartime

experiences were still very much on the minds of men like

Allen Dulles.

3. By no means did TSS neglect other drugs. It looked

at hundreds of others from cocaine to nicotine, with

special emphasis on special-purpose substances. One 1952

memo talked about the urgent operational need for a

chemical “producing general listlessness and lethargy.”

Another mentioned finding—as TSS later did—a potion to

accelerate the effects of liquor, called an “alcohol


4. As happened to Albert Hofmann the first time,

Abramson once unknowingly ingested some LSD, probably by

swallowing water from his spiked snail tank. He started

to feel bad, but with his wife’s help, he finally

pinpointed the cause. According to brain and dolphin

expert John Lilly, who heard the story from Mrs.

Abramson, Harold was greatly relieved that his discomfort

was not grave. “Oh, it’s nothing serious,” he said. “It’s

just an LSD psychosis. I’ll just go to bed and sleep it


5. Army researchers, as usual running about five

years behind the CIA, became interested in the sustained

use of LSD as an interrogation device during 1961 field

tests (called Operation THIRD CHANCE). The Army men

tested the drug in Europe on nine foreigners and one

American, a black soldier named James Thornwell, accused

of stealing classified documents. While Thornwell was

reacting to the drug under extremely stressful

conditions, his captors threatened “to extend the state

indefinitely, even to a permanent condition of insanity,”

according to an Army document. Thornwell is now suing the

U.S. government for $30 million.

In one of those twists that Washington insiders take

for granted and outsiders do not quite believe, Terry

Lenzner, a partner of the same law firm seeking this huge

sum for Thornwell, is the lawyer for Sid Gottlieb, the

man who oversaw the 77-day trips at Lexington and even

more dangerous LSD testing.

6. A 1975 CIA document clears up the mystery of how

the Agency’s military sources could have made such a huge

error in estimating Sandoz’s LSD supply (and probably

also explains the earlier inaccurate report that the

Russians had bought 50,000,000 doses). What happened,

according to the document, was that the U.S. military

attaché in Switzerland did not know the difference

between a milligram (1/1,000 of a gram) and a kilogram

(1,000 grams). This mix-up threw all his calculations off

by a factor of 1,000,000.

7. Military security agencies supported the LSD work

of such well-known researchers as Amedeo Marrazzi of the

University of Minnesota and Missouri Institute of

Psychiatry, Henry Beecher of Harvard and Massachusetts

General Hospital, Charles Savage while he was at the

Naval Medical Research Institute, James Dille of the

University of Washington, Gerald Klee of the University

of Maryland Medical School, Neil Burch of Baylor

University (who performed later experiments for the CIA),

and Paul Hoch and James Cattell of the New York State

Psychiatric Institute, whose forced injections of a

mescaline derivative led to the 1953 death of New York

tennis professional Harold Blauer. (Dr. Cattell later

told Army investigators, “We didn’t know whether it was

dog piss or what it was we were giving him.”)

8. TSS officials had long known that LSD could be

quite dangerous. In 1952, Harvard Medical School’s Henry

Beecher who regularly gave the Agency information on his

talks with European colleagues, reported that a Swiss

doctor had suffered severe depression after taking the

drug and had killed herself three weeks later.

Concerning the Case of Dr. Frank Olsen

In November 1953, Sid Gottlieb decided to test LSD on

a group of scientists from the Army Chemical Corps’

Special Operations Division (SOD) at Fort Detrick in

Frederick, Maryland. Although the Clandestine Services

hierarchy had twice put TSS under strict notice not to

use LSD without permission from above, Gottlieb must have

felt that trying the drug on SOD men was not so different

from giving it to his colleagues at the office. After

all, officials at TSS and SOD worked intimately together,

and they shared one of the darkest secrets of the Cold

War: that the U.S. government maintained the capability—

which it would use at times—to kill or incapacitate

selected people with biological weapons. Only a handful

of the highest CIA officials knew that TSS was paying SOD

about $200,000 a year in return for operational systems

to infect foes with disease.

Gottlieb planned to drop the LSD on the SOD men in

the splendid isolation of a three-day working retreat.

Twice a year, the SOD and TSS men who collaborated on

MKNAOMI, their joint program, held a planning session at

a remote site where they could brainstorm without

interruption. On November 18, 1953, they gathered at Deep

Creek Lodge, a log building in the woods of Western

Maryland. It had been built as a Boy Scout camp 25 years

earlier. Surrounded by the water of a mountain lake on

three sides, with the peaks of the Appalachian chain

looking down over the thick forest, the lodge was

isolated enough for even the most security conscious spy.

Only an occasional hunter was likely to wander through

after the summer months.

Dr. John Schwab, who had founded SOD in 1950, Lt.

Colonel Vincent Ruwet, its current chief, and Dr. Frank

Olson, its temporary head earlier that year, led the

Detrick group. These germ warriors came under the cover

of being wildlife writers and lecturers off on a busman’s

holiday. They carefully removed the Fort Detrick parking

stickers from their cars before setting out. Sid Gottlieb

brought three co-workers from the Agency, including his

deputy Robert Lashbrook.

They met in the living room of the lodge, in front of

a roaring blaze in the huge walk-in fireplace. Then they

split off into smaller groups for specialized meetings.

The survivors among those who attended these sessions

remain as tight-lipped as ever, willing to share a few

details of the general atmosphere but none of the

substance. However, from other sources at Fort Detrick

and from government documents, the MKNAOMI research can

be pieced together. It was this program that was

discussed during the fateful retreat.

Under MKNAOMI, the SOD men developed a whole arsenal

of toxic substances for CIA use. If Agency operators

needed to kill someone in a few seconds with, say, a

suicide pill, SOD provided super-deadly shellfish

toxin.[1] On his ill-fated U-2 flight over the Soviet

Union in 1960, Francis Gary Powers carried—and chose not

to use—a drill bit coated with this poison concealed in a

silver dollar. While perfect for someone anxious to die—

or kill—instantly, shellfish toxin offered no time to

escape and could be traced easily. More useful for

assassination, CIA and SOD men decided, was botulinum.

With an incubation period of 8 to 12 hours, it allowed

the killer time to separate himself from the deed. Agency

operators would later supply pills laced with this lethal

food poison to its Mafia allies for inclusion in Fidel

Castro’s milkshake. If CIA officials wanted an

assassination to look like a death from natural causes,

they could choose from a long list of deadly diseases

that normally occurred in particular countries. Thus in

1960, Clandestine Services chief Richard Bissell asked

Sid Gottlieb to pick out an appropriate malady to kill

the Congo’s Patrice Lumumba. Gottlieb told the Senate

investigators that he selected one that “was supposed to

produce a disease that was . . . indigenous to that area

[of West Africa] and that could be fatal.” Gottlieb

personally carried the bacteria to the Congo, but this

murderous operation was scrubbed before Lumumba could be

infected. (The Congolese leader was killed shortly

thereafter under circumstances that still are not clear.)

When CIA operators merely wanted to be rid of

somebody temporarily, SOD stockpiled for them about a

dozen diseases and toxins of varying strengths. At the

relatively benign end of the SOD list stood Staph.

enterotoxin, a mild form of food poisoning—mild compared

to botulinum. This Staph. infection almost never killed

and simply incapacitated its victim for 3 to 6 hours.

Under the skilled guidance of Sid Gottlieb’s wartime

predecessor, Stanley Lovell, OSS had used this very

substance to prevent Nazi official Hjalmar Schacht from

attending an economic conference during the war. More

virulent in the SOD arsenal was Venezuelan equine

encephalomyelitis virus. It usually immobilized a person

for 2 to 5 days and kept him in a weakened state for

several more weeks. If the Agency wanted to incapacitate

someone for a period of months, SOD had two different

kinds of brucellosis.[2]

A former senior official at Fort Detrick was kind

enough to run me through all the germs and toxins SOD

kept for the CIA, listing their advantages and

disadvantages. Before doing so, he emphasized that SOD

was also trying to work out ways to protect U.S. citizens

and installations from attack with similar substances.

“You can’t have a serious defense,” he says, “unless

someone has thought about offense.” He stated that Japan

made repeated biological attacks against China during

World War II—which was one reason for starting the

American program.[3] He knows of no use since by the

Soviet Union or any other power.

According to the Detrick official, anyone

contemplating use of a biological product had to consider

many other factors besides toxicity and incubation


Can the germ be detected easily and countered with a

vaccine? He notes that anthrax, a fatal disease (when

inhaled) that SOD stored for CIA, has the advantage of

symptoms that resemble pneumonia; similarly, Venezuelan

equine encephalomyelitis can be mistaken for the grippe.

While vaccines do exist for many of the stockpiled

diseases, SOD was forever developing more virulent

strains. “I don’t know of any organism susceptible to a

drug that can’t be made more resistant,” states the

Detrick man.

Did the disease have a high degree of secondary

spread? SOD preferred it not to, because these germ

warfare men did not want to start epidemics—that was the

job of others at Fort Detrick.

Was the organism stable? How did humidity affect it?

SOD considered these and many other factors.

To the CIA, perhaps the most important question was

whether it could covertly deliver the germ to infect the

right person. One branch of SOD specialized in building

delivery systems, the most famous of which now is the

dart gun fashioned out of a .45 pistol that ex-CIA

Director William Colby displayed to the world at a 1975

Senate hearing. The Agency had long been after SOD to

develop a “non-discernible microbioinoculator” which

could give people deadly shots that, according to a CIA

document, could not be “easily detected upon a detailed

autopsy.” SOD also rigged up aerosol sprays that could be

fired by remote control, including a fluorescent starter

that was activated by turning on the light, a cigarette

lighter that sprayed when lit, and an engine head bolt

that shot off as the engine heated. “If you’re going to

infect people, the most likely way is respiratory,” notes

the high Detrick official. “Everybody breathes, but you

might not get them to eat.”

Frank Olson specialized in the airborne delivery of

disease. He had been working in the field ever since

1943, when he came to Fort Detrick as one of the original

military officers in the U. S. biological warfare

program. Before the end of the war, he developed a

painful ulcer condition that led him to seek a medical

discharge from the uniformed military, but he had stayed

on as a civilian. He joined SOD when it started in 1950.

Obviously good at what he did, Olson served for several

months as acting chief of SOD in 1952-53 but asked to be

relieved when the added stress caused his ulcer to flare

up. He happily returned to his lesser post as a branch

chief, where he had fewer administrative duties and could

spend more time in the laboratory. A lover of practical

jokes, Olson was very popular among his many friends. He

was an outgoing man, but, like most of his generation, he

kept his inner feelings to himself. His great passion was

his family, and he spent most of his spare time playing

with his three kids and helping around the house. He had

met his wife while they both studied at the University of


Olson attended all the sessions and apparently did

everything expected of him during the first two days at

the lodge. After dinner on Thursday, November 19, 1953—

the same day that a Washington Post editorial decried the

use of dogs in chemical experiments—Olson shared a drink

of Cointreau with all but two of the men present. (One

had a heart condition; the other, a reformed alcoholic,

did not drink.) Unbeknownst to the SOD men, Sid Gottlieb

had decided to spike the liqueur with LSD.[4]

“To me, everyone was pretty normal,” says SOD’s

Benjamin Wilson. “No one was aware anything had happened

until Gottlieb mentioned it. [20 minutes after the drink]

Gottlieb asked if we had noticed anything wrong. Everyone

was aware, once it was brought to their attention.” They

tried to continue their discussion, but once the drug

took hold, the meeting deteriorated into laughter and

boisterous conversation. Two of the SOD men apparently

got into an all-night philosophical conversation that had

nothing to do with biological warfare. Ruwet remembers it

as “the most frightening experience I ever had or hope to

have.” Ben Wilson recalls that “Olson was psychotic. He

couldn’t understand what happened. He thought someone was

playing tricks on him…. One of his favorite expressions

was ‘You guys are a bunch of thespians.'”

Olson and most of the others became increasingly

uncomfortable and could not sleep.[5] When the group

gathered in the morning, Olson was still agitated,

obviously disturbed, as were several of his colleagues.

The meeting had turned sour, and no one really wanted to

do more business. They all straggled home during the day.

Alice Olson remembers her husband coming in before

dinner that evening: “He said nothing. He just sat there.

Ordinarily when he came back from a trip, he’d tell me

about the things he could—what they had to eat, that sort

of thing. During dinner, I said, ‘It’s a damned shame the

adults in this family don’t communicate anymore.’ He

said, ‘Wait until the kids get to bed and I’ll talk to

you.’ ” Later that night, Frank Olson told his wife he

had made “a terrible mistake,” that his colleagues had

laughed at him and humiliated him. Mrs. Olson assured him

that the others were his friends, that they would not

make fun of him. Still, Olson would not tell her any

more. He kept his fears bottled up inside, and he shared

nothing of his growing feeling that someone was out to

get him. Alice Olson was accustomed to his keeping

secrets. Although she realized he worked on biological

warfare, they never talked about it. She had had only

little glimpses of his profession. He complained about

the painful shots he was always taking.[6] He almost

never took a bath at home because he showered upon

entering and leaving his office every day. When a Detrick

employee died of anthrax (one of three fatalities in the

base’s 27-year history), Frank Olson told his wife the

man had died of pneumonia.

Alice Olson had never even seen the building where

her husband worked. Fort Detrick was built on the

principle of concentric circles, with secrets concealed

inside secrets. To enter the inner regions where SOD

operated, one needed not only the highest security

clearance but a “need to know” authorization. Her husband

was not about to break out of a career of government

imposed secrecy to tell her about the TOP SECRET

experiment that Sid Gottlieb had performed on him.

The Olsons spent an uncommunicative weekend together.

On Sunday they sat on the davenport in their living room,

holding hands—something they had not done for a long

time. “It was a rotten November day,” recalls Mrs. Olson.

“The fog outside was so thick you could hardly see out

the front door. Frank’s depression was dreadful.”

Finally, she recalls, they packed up the three young

children, and went off to the local theater. The film

turned out to be Luther. “It was a very serious movie,”

remembers Mrs. Olson, “not a good one to see when you’re


The following day, Olson appeared at 7:30 A.M. in the

office of his boss, Lieutenant Colonel Ruwet, To Ruwet,

Olson seemed “agitated.” He told Ruwet he wanted either

to quit or be fired. Taken aback, Ruwet reassured Olson

that his conduct at the lodge had been “beyond reproach.”

Seemingly satisfied and relieved, Olson agreed to stay on

and spent the rest of the day on routine SOD business.

That evening, the Olsons spent their most lighthearted

evening since before the retreat to Deep Creek Lodge, and

they planned a farewell party for a colleague the

following Saturday night.

Tuesday morning, Ruwet again arrived at his office to

find a disturbed Frank Olson waiting for him. Olson said

he felt “all mixed up” and questioned his own competence.

He said that he should not have left the Army during the

war because of his ulcer and that he lacked the ability

to do his present work. After an hour, Ruwet decided

Olson needed “psychiatric attention.” Ruwet apparently

felt that the CIA had caused Olson’s problem in the first

place, and instead of sending him to the base hospital,

he called Gottlieb’s deputy Robert Lashbrook to arrange

for Olson to see a psychiatrist.

After a hurried conference, Lashbrook and Gottlieb

decided to send Olson to Dr. Harold Abramson in New York.

Abramson had no formal training in psychiatry and did not

hold himself out to be a psychiatrist. He was an

allergist and immunologist interested in treating the

problems of the mind. Gottlieb chose him because he had a

TOP SECRET CIA security clearance and because he had been

working with LSD—under Agency contract—for several years.

Gottlieb was obviously protecting his own bureaucratic

position by not letting anyone outside TSS know what he

had done. Having failed to observe the order to seek

higher approval for LSD use, Gottlieb proceeded to

violate another CIA regulation. It states, in effect,

that whenever a potential flap arises that might

embarrass the CIA or lead to a break in secrecy, those

involved should immediately call the Office of Security.

For health problems like Olson’s, Security and the CIA

medical office keep a long list of doctors (and

psychiatrists) with TOP SECRET clearance who can provide


Gottlieb had other plans for Frank Olson, and off to

New York went the disturbed SOD biochemist in the company

of Ruwet and Lashbrook. Olson alternately improved and

sank deeper and deeper into his feelings of depression,

inadequacy, guilt, and paranoia. He began to think that

the CIA was putting a stimulant like Benzedrine in his

coffee to keep him awake and that it was the Agency that

was out to get him. That first day in New York, Abramson

saw Olson at his office. Then at 10:30 in the evening,

the allergist visited Olson in his hotel room, armed with

a bottle of bourbon and a bottle of the sedative

Nembutal—an unusual combination for a doctor to give to

someone with symptoms like Olson’s.

Before Olson’s appointment with Dr. Abramson the

following day, he and Ruwet accompanied Lashbrook on a

visit to a famous New York magician named John

Mulholland, whom TSS had put under contract to prepare a

manual that would apply “the magician’s art to covert

activities.” An expert at pulling rabbits out of hats

could easily find new and better ways to slip drugs into

drinks, and Gottlieb signed up Mulholland to work on,

among other things, “the delivery of various materials to

unwitting subjects.” Lashbrook thought that the magician

might amuse Olson, but Olson became “highly suspicious.”

The group tactfully cut their visit short, and Lashbrook

dropped Olson off at Abramson’s office. After an hour’s

consultation with Abramson that afternoon the allergist

gave Olson permission to return to Frederick the

following day, Thanksgiving, to be with his family.

Olson, Ruwet, and Lashbrook had plane reservations

for Thursday morning, so that night, in a preholiday

attempt to lift spirits, they all went to see the Rodgers

and Hammerstein hit musical, Me and Juliet. Olson became

upset during the first act and told Ruwet that he knew

people were waiting outside the theater to arrest him.

Olson and Ruwet left the show at intermission, and the

two old friends walked back to the Statler Hotel, near

Penn Station. Later, while Ruwet slept in the next bed,

Olson crept out of the hotel and wandered the streets.

Gripped by the delusion that he was following Ruwet’s

orders, he tore up all his paper money and threw his

wallet down a chute. At 5:30 A.M., Ruwet and Lashbrook

found him sitting in the Statler lobby with his hat and

coat on.

They checked out of the hotel and caught the plane

back to Washington. An SOD driver picked Olson and Ruwet

up at National Airport and started to drive them back to

Frederick. As they drove up Wisconsin Avenue, Olson had

the driver pull into a Howard Johnson’s parking lot. He

told Ruwet that he was “ashamed” to see his family in his

present state and that he feared he might become violent

with his children. Ruwet suggested he go back to see

Abramson in New York, and Olson agreed. Ruwet and Olson

drove back to Lashbrook’s apartment on New Hampshire

Avenue off Dupont Circle, and Lashbrook summoned Sid

Gottlieb from Thanksgiving dinner in Virginia. All agreed

that Lashbrook would take Olson back to New York while

Ruwet would go back to Frederick to explain the situation

to Mrs. Olson and to see his own family. (Ruwet was

Olson’s friend, whereas Lashbrook was no more than a

professional acquaintance. Olson’s son Eric believes that

his father’s mental state suffered when Ruwet left him in

the hands of the CIA’s Lashbrook, especially since Olson

felt the CIA was “out to get him.”) Olson and Lashbrook

flew to LaGuardia airport and went to see Abramson at his

Long Island office. Then the two men ate a joyless

Thanksgiving dinner at a local restaurant. Friday morning

Abramson drove them into Manhattan. Abramson, an

allergist, finally realized that he had more on his hands

with Olson than he could handle, and he recommended

hospitalization. He wrote afterward that Olson “was in a

psychotic state . . . with delusions of persecution.”

Olson agreed to enter Chestnut Lodge, a Rockville,

Maryland sanitarium that had CIA-cleared psychiatrists on

the staff. They could not get plane reservations until

the next morning, so Olson and Lashbrook decided to spend

one last night at the Statler. They took a room on the

tenth floor. With his spirits revived, Olson dared to

call his wife for the first time since he had left

originally for New York. They had a pleasant talk, which

left her feeling better.

In the early hours of the morning, Lashbrook woke up

just in time to see Frank Olson crash through the drawn

blinds and closed window on a dead run.

Within seconds, as a crowd gathered around Olson’s

shattered body on the street below, the cover-up started.

Lashbrook called Gottlieb to tell him what had happened

before he notified the police. Next, Lashbrook called

Abramson, who, according to Lashbrook, “wanted to be kept

out of the thing completely.” Abramson soon called back

and offered to assist. When the police arrived, Lashbrook

told them he worked for the Defense Department. He said

he had no idea why Olson killed himself, but he did know

that the dead man had “suffered from ulcers.” The

detectives assigned to the case later reported that

getting information out of Lashbrook was “like pulling

teeth.” They speculated to each other that the case could

be a homicide with homosexual overtones, but they soon

dropped their inquiries when Ruwet and Abramson verified

Lashbrook’s sketchy account and invoked high government


Back in Washington, Sid Gottlieb finally felt

compelled to tell the Office of Security about the Olson

case. Director Allen Dulles personally ordered Inspector

General Lyman Kirkpatrick to make a full investigation,

but first, Agency officials tried to make sure that no

outsider would tie Olson’s death either to the CIA or

LSD. Teams of Security officers were soon scurrying

around New York and Washington, making sure the Agency

had covered its tracks. One interviewed Lashbrook and

then accompanied him to a meeting with Abramson. When

Lashbrook and Abramson asked the security officer to

leave them alone, he complied and then, in the best

traditions of his office, listened in on the conversation

covertly. From his report on their talk, it can safely be

said that Lashbrook and Abramson conspired to make sure

they told identical stories. Lashbrook dictated to

Abramson, who made a recording of the symptoms that Olson

was supposed to be suffering from and the problems that

were bothering him. Lashbrook even stated that Mrs. Olson

had suggested her husband see a psychiatrist months

before the LSD incident.[7] Lashbrook’s comments appeared

in three reports Abramson submitted to the CIA, but these

reports were internally inconsistent. In one memo,

Abramson wrote that Olson’s “psychotic state . . . seemed

to have been crystallized by [the LSD] experiment.” In a

later report, Abramson called the LSD dose “therapeutic”

and said he believed “this dosage could hardly have had

any significant role in the course of events that


The CIA officially—but secretly—took the position

that the LSD had “triggered” Olson’s suicide. Agency

officials worked industriously behind the scenes to make

sure that Mrs. Olson received an adequate government

pension—two-thirds of her husband’s base pay. Ruwet, who

had threatened to expose the whole affair if Mrs. Olson

did not get the pension, submitted a form saying Olson

had died of a “classified illness.” Gottlieb and

Lashbrook kept trying to have it both ways in regard to

giving Olson LSD, according to the CIA’s General Counsel.

They acknowledged LSD’s triggering function in his death,

but they also claimed it was “practically impossible” for

the drug to have harmful aftereffects. The General

Counsel called these two positions “completely

inconsistent,” and he wrote he was “not happy with what

seems to me a very casual attitude on the part of TSS

representatives to the way this experiment was conducted

and to their remarks that this is just one of the risks

running with scientific investigation.”

As part of his investigation, Inspector General

Kirkpatrick sequestered Gottlieb’s LSD files, which

Kirkpatrick remembers did not make Gottlieb at all happy.

“I brought out his stutter,” says Kirkpatrick with a wry

smile. “He was quite concerned about his future.”

Kirkpatrick eventually recommended that some form of

reprimand be given to Gottlieb, TSS chief Willis Gibbons,

and TSS deputy chief James “Trapper” Drum, who had waited

20 days after Olson’s death to admit that Gottlieb had

cleared the experiment with him. Others opposed

Kirkpatrick’s recommendation. Admiral Luis deFlorez, the

Agency’s Research Chairman, sent a personal memo to Allen

Dulles saying reprimands would be an “injustice” and

would hinder “the spirit of initiative and enthusiasm so

necessary in our work.” The Director’s office went along,

and Kirkpatrick began the tortuous process of preparing

letters for Dulles’ signature that would say Gottlieb,

Gibbons, and Drum had done something wrong, but nothing

too wrong. Kirkpatrick went through six drafts of the

Gottlieb letter alone before he came up with acceptable

wording. He started out by saying TSS officials had

exercised “exceedingly bad judgment.” That was too harsh

for high Agency officials, so Kirkpatrick tried “very

poor judgment.” Still too hard. He settled for “poor

judgment.” The TSS officials were told that they should

not consider the letters to be reprimands and that no

record of the letters would be put in their personnel

files where they could conceivably harm future careers.

The Olson family up in Frederick did not get off so

easily. Ruwet told them Olson had jumped or fallen out of

the window in New York, but he mentioned not a word about

the LSD, whose effects Ruwet himself believed had led to

Olson’s death. Ever the good soldier, Ruwet could not

bring himself to talk about the classified experiment—

even to ease Alice Olson’s sorrow. Mrs. Olson did not

want to accept the idea that her husband had willfully

committed suicide. “It was very important to me—almost

the core of my life—that my children not feel their

father had walked out on them,” recalls Mrs. Olson.

For the next 22 years, Alice Olson had no harder

evidence than her own belief that her husband did not

desert her and the family. Then in June 1975, the

Rockefeller Commission studying illegal CIA domestic

operations reported that a man fitting Frank Olson’s

description had leaped from a New York hotel window after

the CIA had given him LSD without his knowledge. The

Olson family read about the incident in the Washington

Post. Daughter Lisa Olson Hayward and her husband went to

see Ruwet, who had retired from the Army and settled in

Frederick. In an emotional meeting, Ruwet confirmed that

Olson was the man and said he could not tell the family

earlier because he did not have permission. Ruwet tried

to discourage them from going public or seeking

compensation from the government, but the Olson family

did both. [9] On national television, Alice Olson and

each of her grown children took turns reading from a

prepared family statement:

We feel our family has been violated by the CIA in two

ways,” it said. “First, Frank Olson was experimented upon

illegally and negligently. Second, the true nature of his

death was concealed for twenty-two years…. In telling

our story, we are concerned that neither the personal

pain this family has experienced nor the moral and

political outrage we feel be slighted. Only in this way

can Frank Olson’s death become part of American memory

and serve the purpose of political and ethical reform so

urgently needed in our society.

The statement went on to compare the Olsons with

families in the Third World “whose hopes for a better

life were destroyed by CIA intervention.” Although Eric

Olson read those words in behalf of the whole family,

they reflected more the politics of the children than the

feelings of their mother, Alice Olson. An incredibly

strong woman who seems to have made her peace with the

world, Mrs. Olson went back to college after her

husband’s death, got a degree, and held the family

together while she taught school. She has no malice in

her heart toward Vin Ruwet, her friend who withheld that

vital piece of information from her all those years. He

comforted her and gave support during the most difficult

of times, and she deeply appreciates that. Mrs. Olson

defends Ruwet by saying he was in “a bad position,” but

then she stops in mid-sentence and says, “If I had only

been given some indication that it was the pressure of

work…. If only I had had something I could have told

the kids. I don’t know how [Ruwet] could have done it

either. It was a terrible thing for a man who loved him.”

“I’m not vindicative toward Vin [Ruwet],” reflects

Mrs. Olson. “Gottlieb is a different question. He was

despicable.” She tells how Gottlieb and Lashbrook both

attended Olson’s funeral in Frederick and contributed to

a memorial fund. A week or two later, the two men asked

to visit her. She knew they did not work at Detrick, but

she did not really understood where they came from or

their role. “I didn’t want to see them,” she notes. “Vin

told me it would make them feel better. I didn’t want an

ounce of flesh from them. I didn’t think it was

necessary, but, okay, I agreed. In retrospect, it was so

bizarre, it makes me sick . . . I was a sucker for them.”

Gottlieb and Lashbrook apparently never returned to

the biological warfare offices at SOD. Little else

changed, however. Ray Treichler and Henry Bortner took

over CIA’s liaison with SOD. SOD continued to manufacture

and stockpile bacteriological agents for the CIA until

1969, when President Richard Nixon renounced the use of

biological warfare tactics.

And presumably, someone replaced Frank Olson.


The description of the CIA’s relationship with SOD at

Fort Detrick comes from interviews with several ex-Fort

Detrick employees; Church Committee hearings on

“Unauthorized Storage of Toxic Agents, Volume 1; Church

Committee “Summary Report on CIA Investigation of

MKNAOMI” found in Report, Book I, pp. 360-63; and/

Kennedy subcommittee hearings on Biological Testing

Involving Human Subjects by the Department of Defense,

1977. The details of Sid Gottlieb’s involvement in the

plot to kill Patrice Lumumba are found in the Church

Committee’s Interim Report on “Alleged Assassination

Plots Involving Foreign Leaders,” pp. 20-21. The Church

committee allowed Gottlieb to be listed under the

pseudonym Victor Scheider, but several sources confirm

Gottlieb’s true identity, as does the biographic data on

him submitted to the Kennedy subcommittee by the CIA,

which puts him in the same job attributed to “Scheider”

at the same time. The plot to give botulinum to Fidel

Castro is outlined in the Assassination report, pp. 79

83. The incident with the Iraqi colonel is on p. 181 of

the same report.

The several inches of CIA documents on the Olson case

were released by the Olson family in 1976 and can be

found in the printed volume of the 1975 Kennedy

subcommittee hearings on Biomedical

and Behavioral Resarch, pp.1005-1132. They form the

base of much of the narrative, along with interviews with

Alice Olson, Eric Olson, Benjamin Wilson, and several

other ex-SOD men (who added next to nothing). Information

also was gleaned from Vincent Ruwet’s testimony before

the Kennedy subcommittee in 1975, pp. 138-45 and the

Church committee’s summary of the affair, Book I, pp.

394-403. The quote on Harold Abramson’s intention to give

his patients unwitting doses of LSD is found in MKULTRA

subproject 7, June 8, 1953, letter to Dr. [deleted].

Magician John Mulholland’s work for the Agency is

described in MKULTRA subprojects 19 and 34.


1. Toxins are chemical substances, not living

organisms, derived from biological agents. While they can

make people sick or dead, they cannot reproduce

themselves like bacteria. Because of their biological

origin, toxins came under the responsibility of Fort

Detrick rather than Edgewood Arsenal, the facility which

handled the chemical side of America’s chemical and

biological warfare (CBW) programs.

2. Brucellosis may well have been the disease that

Gottlieb selected in the spring of 1960 when the

Clandestine Services’ Health Alteration Committee

approved an operation to disable an Iraqi colonel, said

to be “promoting Soviet-bloc political interests” for at

least three months. Gottlieb told the Church committee

that he had a monogrammed handkerchief treated with the

incapacitating agency, and then mailed it to the colonel.

CIA officials told the committee that the colonel was

shot by a firing squad—which the Agency had nothing to do

with—before the handkerchief arrived.

3. For some reason, the U.S. government has made it a

point not to release information about Japanese use of

biological warfare. The senior Detrick source says, “We

knew they sprayed Manchuria. We had the results of how

they produced and disseminated [the biological agents,

including anthrax]…. I read the autopsy reports myself.

We had people who went over to Japan after the war.”

4. Gottlieb stated just after Olson’s death, at a

time when he was trying to minimize his own culpability,

that he had talked to the SOD men about LSD and that they

had agreed in general terms to the desirability of

unwitting testing. Two of the SOD group in interviews and

a third in congressional testimony flatly deny the

Gottlieb version. Gottlieb and the SOD men all agree

Gottlieb gave no advance warning that he was giving them

a drug in their liqueur.

5. For the very reason that most trips last about

eight hours no matter what time a subject takes the drug,

virtually all experimenters, including TSS’s own

contractors, give LSD in the morning to avoid the

discomfort of sleepless nights.

6. To enter the SOD building, in addition to needing

an incredibly hard-to-get security clearance, one had to

have an up-to-date shot card with anywhere from 10 to 20

immunizations listed. The process was so painful and time

consuming that at one point in the 1960s the general who

headed the whole Army Chemical Corps decided against

inspecting SOD and getting an on-the-spot briefing. When

asked about this incident, an SOD veteran who had earlier

resigned said, “That’s the way we kept them out. Those

[military] types didn’t need to know. Most of the

security violations came from the top level…. He could

have gone in without shots if he had insisted. The safety

director would have protested, but he could have.”

7. Mrs. Olson says that this is an outright lie.

8. Nonpsychiatrist Abramson who allowed chemist

Lashbrook to tell him about his patient’s complexes

clearly had a strange idea what was “therapeutic”—or

psychotherapeutic, for that matter. In Abramson’s 1953

proposal to the CIA for $85,000 to study LSD, he wrote

that over the next year he “hoped” to give hospital

patients “who are essentially normal from a psychiatric

point of view . . . unwitting doses of the drug for

psychotherapeutic purposes.” His treatment brings to mind

the William Burroughs character in Naked Lunch who

states; “Now, boys, you won’t see this operation

performed very often, and there’s a reason for that . . .

you see, it has absolutely no medical value.”

9. President Gerald Ford later personally apologized

to the Olson family, and Congress passed a bill in 1976

to pay $750,000 in compensation to Mrs. Olson and her

three children. The family voluntarily abandoned the


Them Unwitting: The Safehouses

Frank Olson’s death could have been a major setback

for the Agency’s LSD testing, but the program, like Sid

Gottlieb’s career, emerged essentially unscathed. High

CIA officials did call a temporary halt to all

experiments while they investigated the Olson case and

re-examined the general policy. They cabled the two field

stations that had supplies of the drug (Manila and

Atsugi, Japan) not to use it for the time being, and they

even took away Sid Gottlieb’s own private supply and had

it locked up in his boss’ safe, to which no one else had

the combination. In the end, however, Allen Dulles

accepted the view Richard Helms put forth that the only

“operationally realistic” way to test drugs was to try

them on unwitting people. Helms noted that experiments

which gave advance warning would be “pro forma at best

and result in a false sense of accomplishment and

readiness.” For Allen Dulles and his top aides, the

possible importance of LSD clearly outweighed the risks

and ethical problem of slipping the drug to involuntary

subjects. They gave Gottlieb back his LSD.

Once the CIA’s top echelon had made its decision to

continue unwitting testing, there remained, in Richard

Helms’ words, “only then the question of how best to do

it.” The Agency’s role in the Olson affair had come too

perilously close to leaking out for the comfort of the

security-minded, so TSS officials simply had to work out

a testing system with better cover. That meant finding

subjects who could not be so easily traced back to the


Well before Olson’s death, Gottlieb and the MKULTRA

crew had started pondering how best to do unwitting

testing. They considered using an American police force

to test drugs on prisoners, informants, and suspects, but

they knew that some local politicians would inevitably

find out. In the Agency view, such people could not be

trusted to keep sensitive secrets. TSS officials thought

about trying Federal prisons or hospitals, but, when

sounded out, the Bureau of Prisons refused to go along

with true unwitting testing (as opposed to the voluntary,

if coercive, form practiced on drug addicts in Kentucky).

They contemplated moving the program overseas, where they

and the ARTICHOKE teams were already performing

operational experiments, but they decided if they tested

on the scale they thought was necessary, so many

foreigners would have to know that it would pose an

unacceptable security risk.

Sid Gottlieb is remembered as the brainstorming

genius of the MKULTRA group—and the one with a real

talent for showing others, without hurting their

feelings, why their schemes would not work. States an ex-

colleague who admires him greatly, “In the final

analysis, Sid was like a good soldier—if the job had to

be done, he did it. Once the decision was made, he found

the most effective way.”

In this case, Gottlieb came up with the solution

after reading through old OSS files on Stanley Lovell’s

search for a truth drug. Gottlieb noted that Lovell had

used George White, a prewar employee of the Federal

Bureau of Narcotics, to test concentrated marijuana.

Besides trying the drug out on Manhattan Project

volunteers and unknowing suspected Communists, White had

slipped some to August Del Gracio, the Lucky Luciano

lieutenant. White had called the experiment a great

success. If it had not been—if Del Gracio had somehow

caught on to the drugging—Gottlieb realized that the

gangster would never have gone to the police or the

press. His survival as a criminal required he remain

quiet about even the worst indignities heaped upon him by

government agents.

To Gottlieb, underworld types looked like ideal test

subjects. Nevertheless, according to one TSS source, “We

were not about to fool around with the Mafia.” Instead,

this source says they chose “the borderline underworld”—

prostitutes, drug addicts, and other small-timers who

would be powerless to seek any sort of revenge if they

ever found out what the CIA had done to them. In addition

to their being unlikely whistle-blowers, such people

lived in a world where an unwitting dose of some drug—

usually knockout drops—was an occupational hazard anyway.

They would therefore be better equipped to deal with—and

recover from—a surprise LSD trip than the population as a

whole. Or so TSS officials rationalized. “They could at

least say to themselves, ‘Here I go again. I’ve been

slipped a mickey,”‘ says a TSS veteran. Furthermore, this

veteran remembers, his former colleagues reasoned that if

they had to violate the civil rights of anyone, they

might as well choose a group of marginal people.

George White himself had left OSS after the war and

returned to the Narcotics Bureau. In 1952 he was working

in the New York office. As a high-ranking narcotics

agent, White had a perfect excuse to be around drugs and

people who used them. He had proved during the war that

he had a talent for clandestine work, and he certainly

had no qualms when it came to unwitting testing. With his

job, he had access to all the possible subjects the

Agency would need, and if he could use LSD or any other

drug to find out more about drug trafficking, so much the

better. From a security viewpoint, CIA officials could

easily deny any connection to anything White did, and he

clearly was not the crybaby type. For Sid Gottlieb,

George White was clearly the one. The MKULTRA chief

decided to contact White directly to see if he might be

interested in picking up with the CIA where he had left

off with OSS.

Always careful to observe bureaucratic protocol,

Gottlieb first approached Harry Anslinger, the longtime

head of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, and got

permission to use White on a part-time basis. Then

Gottlieb traveled to New York and made his pitch to the

narcotics agent, who stood 5’7”, weighed over 200 pounds,

shaved his head, and looked something like an extremely

menacing bowling ball. After an early-morning meeting,

White scrawled in his sweat-stained, leather-bound diary

for that day, June 9, 1952: “Gottlieb proposed I be a CIA

consultant—I agree.” By writing down such a thing and

using Gottlieb’s true name,[1] White had broken CIA

security regulations even before he started work. But

then, White was never known as a man who followed rules.

Despite the high priority that TSS put on drug

testing, White’s security approval did not come through

until almost a year later. “It was only last month that I

got cleared,” the outspoken narcotics agent wrote to a

friend in 1953. “I then learned that a couple of crewcut,

pipe-smoking punks had either known me—or heard of

me—during OSS days and had decided I was ‘too rough’ for

their league and promptly blackballed me. It was only

when my sponsors discovered the root of the trouble they

were able to bypass the blockade. After all, fellas, I

didn’t go to Princeton.”

People either loved or hated George White, and he had

made some powerful enemies, including New York Governor

Thomas Dewey and J. Edgar Hoover. Dewey would later help

block White from becoming the head of the Narcotics

Bureau in New York City, a job White sorely wanted. For

some forgotten reason, Hoover had managed to stop White

from being hired by the CIA in the Agency’s early days,

at a time when he would have preferred to leave narcotics

work altogether. These were two of the biggest

disappointments of his life. White’s previous exclusion

from the CIA may explain why he jumped so eagerly at

Gottlieb’s offer and why at the same time he privately

heaped contempt on those who worked for the Agency. A

remarkably heavy drinker, who would sometimes finish off

a bottle of gin in one sitting, White often mocked the

CIA crowd over cocktails. “He thought they were a joke,”

recalls one longtime crony. “They were too complicated,

and they had other people do their heavy stuff.”

Unlike his CIA counterparts, White loved the glare of

publicity. A man who gloried in talking about himself and

cultivating a hard-nosed image, White knew how to milk a

drug bust for all it was worth—a skill that grew out of

early years spent as a newspaper reporter in San

Francisco and Los Angeles. In search of a more

financially secure profession, he had joined the

Narcotics Bureau in 1934, but he continued to pal around

with journalists, particularly those who wrote favorably

about him. Not only did he come across in the press as a

cop hero, but he helped to shape the picture of future

Kojaks by serving as a consultant to one of the early-

television detective series. To start a raid, he would

dramatically tip his hat to signal his agents—and to let

the photographers know that the time had come to snap his

picture. “He was sort of vainglorious,” says another good

friend, “the kind of guy who if he did something, didn’t

mind having the world know about it.”[2]

The scientists from TSS, with their Ph.D.s and lack

of street experience, could not help admiring White for

his swashbuckling image. Unlike the men from MKULTRA,

who, for all their pretensions, had never worked as real-

live spies, White had put his life on the line for OSS

overseas and had supposedly killed a Japanese agent with

his bare hands. The face of one ex-TSS man lit up, like a

little boy’s on Christmas morning, as he told of racing

around New York in George White’s car and parking

illegally with no fear of the law. “We were Ivy League,

white, middle-class,” notes another former TSSer. “We

were naive, totally naive about this, and he felt pretty

expert. He knew the whores, the pimps, the people who

brought in the drugs. He’d purportedly been in a number

of shootouts where he’d captured millions of dollars

worth of heroin…. He was a pretty wild man. I know I

was afraid of him. You couldn’t control this guy . . . I

had a little trouble telling who was controlling who in

those days.”

White lived with extreme personal contradictions. As

could be expected of a narcotics agent, he violently

opposed drugs. Yet he died largely because his beloved

alcohol had destroyed his liver. He had tried everything

else, from marijuana to LSD, and wrote an acquaintance,

“I did feel at times I was having a ‘mind-expanding’

experience but this vanished like a dream immediately

after the session.” He was a law-enforcement official who

regularly violated the law. Indeed, the CIA turned to him

because of his willingness to use the power of his office

to ride roughshod over the rights of others—in the name

of “national security,” when he tested LSD for the

Agency, in the name of stamping out drug abuse, for the

Narcotics Bureau. As yet another close associate summed

up White’s attitude toward his job, “He really believed

the ends justified the means.”

George White’s “pragmatic” approach meshed perfectly

with Sid Gottlieb’s needs for drug testing. In May 1953

the two men, who wound up going folk dancing together

several times, formally joined forces. In CIA jargon,

White became MKULTRA subproject #3. Under this

arrangement, White rented two adjacent Greenwich Village

apartments, posing as the sometime artist and seaman

“Morgan Hall.” White agreed to lure guinea pigs to the

“safehouse”—as the Agency men called the apartments—slip

them drugs, and report the results to Gottlieb and the

others in TSS. For its part, the CIA let the Narcotics

Bureau use the place for undercover activities (and often

for personal pleasure) whenever no Agency work was

scheduled, and the CIA paid all the bills, including the

cost of keeping a well-stocked liquor cabinet—a

substantial bonus for White. Gottlieb personally handed

over the first $4,000 in cash, to cover the initial costs

of furnishing the safehouse in the lavish style that

White felt befitted him.

Gottlieb did not limit his interest to drugs. He and

other TSS officials wanted to try out surveillance

equipment. CIA technicians quickly installed see-through

mirrors and microphones through which eavesdroppers could

film, photograph, and record the action. “Things go wrong

with listening devices and two-way mirrors, so you build

these things to find out what works and what doesn’t,”

says a TSS source. “If you are going to entrap, you’ve

got to give the guy pictures [flagrante delicto] and

voice recordings. Once you learn how to do it so that the

whole thing looks comfortable, cozy, and safe, then you

can transport the technology overseas and use it.” This

TSS man notes that the Agency put to work in the bedrooms

of Europe some of the techniques developed in the George

White safehouse operation.

In the safehouse’s first months, White tested LSD,

several kinds of knockout drops, and that old OSS

standby, essence of marijuana. He served up the drugs in

food, drink, and cigarettes and then tried to worm

information—usually on narcotics matters—from his

“guests.” Sometimes MKULTRA men came up from Washington

to watch the action. A September 1953 entry in White’s

diary noted: “Lashbrook at 81 Bedford Street—Owen Winkle

and LSD surprise—can wash.” Sid Gottlieb’s deputy, Robert

Lashbrook, served as “project monitor” for the New York


White had only been running the safehouse six months

when Olson died (in Lashbrook’s company), and Agency

officials suspended the operation for re-evaluation. They

soon allowed him to restart it, and then Gottlieb had to

order White to slow down again. A New York State

commissioner had summoned the narcotics agent to explain

his role in the deal that wound up with Governor Dewey

pardoning Lucky Luciano after the war. The commissioner

was asking questions that touched on White’s use of

marijuana on Del Gracio, and Gottlieb feared that word of

the CIA’s current testing might somehow leak out. This

storm also soon passed, but then, in early 1955, the

Narcotics Bureau transferred White to San Francisco to

become chief agent there. Happy with White’s performance,

Gottlieb decided to let him take the entire safehouse

operation with him to the Coast. White closed up the

Greenwich Village apartments, leaving behind unreceipted

“tips” for the landlord “to clear up any difficulties

about the alterations and damages,” as a CIA document put


White soon rented a suitable “pad” (as he always

called it) on Telegraph Hill, with a stunning view of San

Francisco Bay, the Golden Gate Bridge, and Alcatraz. To

supplement the furniture he brought from the New York

safehouse, he went out and bought items that gave the

place the air of the brothel it was to become: Toulouse-

Lautrec posters, a picture of a French cancan dancer, and

photos of manacled women in black stockings. “It was

supposed to look rich,” recalls a narcotics agent who

regularly visited, “but it was furnished like crap.”

White hired a friend’s company to install bugging

equipment, and William Hawkins, a 25-year-old electronics

whiz then studying at Berkley put in four DD-4

microphones disguised as electrical wall outlets and

hooked them up to two F-301 tape recorders, which agents

monitored in an adjacent “listening post.” Hawkins

remembers that White “kept a pitcher of martinis in the

refrigerator, and he’d watch me for a while as I

installed a microphone and then slip off.” For his own

personal “observation post,” White had a portable toilet

set up behind a two-way mirror, where he could watch the

proceedings, usually with drink in hand.

The San Francisco safehouse specialized in

prostitutes. “But this was before The Hite Report and

before any hooker had written a book,” recalls a TSS man,

“so first we had to go out and learn about their world.

In the beginning, we didn’t know what a john was or what

a pimp did.” Sid Gottlieb decided to send his top staff

psychologist, John Gittinger, to San Francisco to probe

the demimonde.

George White supplied the prostitutes for the study,

although White, in turn, delegated much of the pimping

function to one of his assistants, Ira “Ike” Feldman. A

muscular but very short man, whom even the 5’7″ White

towered over, Feldman tried even harder than his boss to

act tough. Dressed in suede shoes, a suit with flared

trousers, a hat with a turned-up brim, and a huge zircon

ring that was supposed to look like a diamond, Feldman

first came to San Francisco on an undercover assignment

posing as an East Coast mobster looking to make a big

heroin buy. Using a drug-addicted prostitute name Janet

Jones, whose common-law husband states that Feldman paid

her off with heroin, the undercover man lured a number of

suspected drug dealers to the “pad” and helped White make


As the chief Federal narcotics agent in San

Francisco, White was in a position to reward or punish a

prostitute. He set up a system whereby he and Feldman

provided Gittinger with all the hookers the psychologist

wanted. White paid off the women with a fixed number of

“chits.” For each chit, White owed one favor. “So the

next time the girl was arrested with a john,” says an

MKULTRA veteran, “she would give the cop George White’s

phone number. The police all knew White and cooperated

with him without asking questions. They would release the

girl if he said so. White would keep good records of how

many chits each person had and how many she used. No

money was exchanged, but five chits were worth $500 to

$1,000.” Prostitutes were not the only beneficiaries of

White’s largess. The narcotics agent worked out a similar

system to forgive the transgressions of small time drug

pushers when the MKULTRA men wanted to talk to them about

“the rules of their game,” according to the source.

TSS officials wanted to find out everything they

could about how to apply sex to spying, and the

prostitute project became a general learning and then

training ground for CIA carnal operations. After all,

states one TSS official, “We did quite a study of

prostitutes and their behavior…. At first nobody really

knew how to use them. How do you train them? How do you

work them? How do you take a woman who is willing to use

her body to get money out of a guy to get things which

are much more important, like state secrets. I don’t care

how beautiful she is—educating the ordinary prostitute up

to that level is not a simple task.”

The TSS men continually tried to refine their

knowledge. They realized that prostitutes often wheedled

extra money out of a customer by suggesting some

additional service as male orgasm neared. They wondered

if this might not also be a good time to seek sensitive

information. “But no,” says the source, “we found the guy

was focused solely on hormonal needs. He was not thinking

of his career or anything else at that point.” The TSS

experts discovered that the postsexual, light-up-acigarette

period was much better suited to their ulterior

motives. Says the source:

Most men who go to prostitutes are prepared for the fact

that [after the act] she’s beginning to work to get

herself out of there, so she can get back on the street

to make some more money. . . . To find a prostitute who

is willing to stay is a hell of a shock to anyone used to

prostitutes. It has a tremendous effect on the guy. It’s

a boost to his ego if she’s telling him he was really

neat, and she wants to stay for a few more hours…. Most

of the time, he gets pretty vulnerable. What the hell’s

he going to talk about? Not the sex, so he starts talking

about his business. It’s at this time she can lead him

gently. But you have to train prostitutes to do that.

Their natural inclination is to do exactly the opposite.

The men from MKULTRA learned a great deal about

varying sexual preferences. One of them says:

We didn’t know in those days about hidden sadism and all

that sort of stuff. We learned a lot about human nature

in the bedroom. We began to understand that when people

wanted sex, it wasn’t just what we had thought of—you

know, the missionary position…. We started to pick up

knowledge that could be used in operations, but with a

lot of it we never figured out any way to use it

operationally. We just learned…. All these ideas did

not come to us at once. But evolving over three or four

years in which these studies were going on, things

emerged which we tried. Our knowledge of prostitutes’

behavior became pretty damn good. . . . This comes across

now that somehow we were just playing around and we just

found all these exotic ways to waste the taxpayers’ money

on satisfying our hidden urges. I’m not saying that

watching prostitutes was not exciting or something like

that. But what I am saying was there was a purpose to the

whole business.[5]

In the best tradition of Mata Hari, the CIA did use

sex as a clandestine weapon, although apparently not so

frequently as the Russians. While many in the Agency

believed that it simply did not work very well, others

like CIA operators in Berlin during the mid-1960s felt

prostitutes could be a prime source of intelligence.

Agency men in that city used a network of hookers to good

advantage—or so they told visitors from headquarters.

Yet, with its high proportion of Catholics and Mormons—

not to mention the Protestant ethic of many of its top

leaders—the Agency definitely had limits beyond which

prudery took over. For instance, a TSS veteran says that

a good number of case officers wanted no part of

homosexual entrapment operations. And to go a step

further, he recalls one senior KGB man who told too many

sexual jokes about young boys. “It didn’t take too long

to recognize that he was more than a little fascinated by

youths,” says the source. “I took the trouble to point

out he was probably too good, too well-trained, to be

either entrapped or to give away secrets. But he would

have been tempted toward a compromising position by a

preteen. I mentioned this, and they said, ‘As a

psychological observer, you’re probably quite right. But

what the hell are we going to do about it? Where are we

going to get a twelve-year-old boy?’ ” The source

believes that if the Russian had had a taste for older

men, U.S. intelligence might have mounted an operation,

“but the idea of a twelve-year-old boy was just more than

anybody could stomach.”

As the TSS men learned more about the San Francisco

hustlers, they ventured outside the safehouse to try out

various clandestine-delivery gimmicks in public places

like restaurants, bars, and beaches. They practiced ways

to slip LSD to citizens of the demimonde while buying

them a drink or lighting up a cigarette, and they then

tried to observe the effects when the drug took hold.

Because the MKULTRA scientists did not move smoothly

among the very kinds of people they were testing, they

occasionally lost an unwitting victim in a crowd—thereby

sending a stranger off alone with a head full of LSD.

In a larger sense, all the test victims would become

lost. As a matter of policy, Sid Gottlieb ordered that

virtually no records be kept of the testing. In 1973,

when Gottlieb retired from the Agency, he and Richard

Helms agreed to destroy what they thought were the few

existing documents on the program. Neither Gottlieb nor

any other MKULTRA man has owned up to having given LSD to

an unknowing subject, or even to observing such an

experiment—except of course in the case of Frank Olson.

Olson’s death left behind a paper trail outside of

Gottlieb’s control and that hence could not be denied.

Otherwise, Gottlieb and his colleagues have put all the

blame for actual testing on George White, who is not

alive to defend himself. One reason the MKULTRA veterans

have gone to such lengths to conceal their role is

obvious: fear of lawsuits from victims claiming damaged


At the time of the experiments, the subjects’ health

did not cause undue concern. At the safehouse, where most

of the testing took place, doctors were seldom present.

Dr. James Hamilton, a Stanford Medical School

psychiatrist and White’s OSS colleague, visited the place

from time to time, apparently for studies connected to

unwitting drug experiments and deviant sexual practices.

Yet neither Hamilton nor any other doctor provided much

medical supervision. From his perch atop the toilet seat,

George White could do no more than make surface

observations of his drugged victims. Even an experienced

doctor would have had difficulty handling White’s role.

In addition to LSD, which they knew could cause serious,

if not fatal problems, TSS officials gave White even more

exotic experimental drugs to test, drugs that other

Agency contractors may or may not have already used on

human subjects. “If we were scared enough of a drug not

to try it out on ourselves, we sent it to San Francisco,”

recalls a TSS source. According to a 1963 report by CIA

Inspector General John Earman, “In a number of instances,

however, the test subject has become ill for hours or

days, including hospitalization in at least one case, and

[White] could only follow up by guarded inquiry after the

test subject’s return to normal life. Possible sickness

and attendant economic loss are inherent contingent

effects of the testing.”

The Inspector General noted that the whole program

could be compromised if an outside doctor made a “correct

diagnosis of an illness.” Thus, the MKULTRA team not only

made some people sick but had a vested interest in

keeping doctors from finding out what was really wrong.

If that bothered the Inspector General, he did not report

his qualms, but he did say he feared “serious damage to

the Agency” in the event of public exposure. The

Inspector General was only somewhat reassured by the fact

that George White “maintain[ed] close working relations

with local police authorities which could be utilized to

protect the activity in critical situations.”

If TSS officials had been willing to stick with their

original target group of marginal underworld types, they

would have had little to fear from the police. After all,

George White was the police. But increasingly they used

the safehouse to test drugs, in the Inspector General’s

words, “on individuals of all social levels, high and

low, native American and foreign.” After all, they were

looking for an operational payoff, and they knew people

reacted differently to LSD according to everything from

health and mood to personality structure. If TSS

officials wanted to slip LSD to foreign leaders, as they

contemplated doing to Fidel Castro, they would try to

spring an unwitting dose on somebody as similar as

possible. They used the safehouse for “dry runs” in the

intermediate stage between the laboratory and actual


For these dress rehearsals, George White and his

staff procurer, Ike Feldman, enticed men to the apartment

with prostitutes. An unsuspecting john would think he had

bought a night of pleasure, go back to a strange

apartment, and wind up zonked. A CIA document that

survived Sid Gottlieb’s shredding recorded this process.

Its author, Gottlieb himself, could not break a lifelong

habit of using nondescriptive language. For the MKULTRA

chief, the whores were “certain individuals who covertly

administer this material to other people in accordance

with [White’s] instructions.” White normally paid the

women $100 in Agency funds for their night’s work, and

Gottlieb’s prose reached new bureaucratic heights as he

explained why the prostitutes did not sign for the money:

“Due to the highly unorthodox nature of these activities

and the considerable risk incurred by these individuals,

it is impossible to require that they provide a receipt

for these payments or that they indicate the precise

manner in which the funds were spent.” The CIA’s auditors

had to settle for canceled checks which White cashed

himself and marked either “Stormy” or, just as

appropriately, “Undercover Agent.” The program was also

referred to as “Operation Midnight Climax.”

TSS officials found the San Francisco safehouse so

successful that they opened a branch office, also under

George White’s auspices, across the Golden Gate on the

beach in Marin County.[6] Unlike the downtown apartment,

where an MKULTRA man says “you could bring people in for

quickies after lunch,” the suburban Marin County outlet

proved useful for experiments that required relative

isolation. There, TSS scientists tested such MKULTRA

specialties as stink bombs, itching and sneezing powders,

and diarrhea inducers. TSS’s Ray Treichler, the Stanford

chemist, sent these “harassment substances” out to

California for testing by White, along with such delivery

systems as a mechanical launcher that could throw a foul-

smelling object 100 yards, glass ampules that could be

stepped on in a crowd to release any of Treichler’s

powders, a fine hypodermic needle to inject drugs through

the cork in a wine bottle, and a drug-coated swizzle


TSS men also planned to use the Marin County

safehouse for an ill-fated experiment that began when

staff psychologists David Rhodes and Walter Pasternak

spent a week circulating in bars, inviting strangers to a

party. They wanted to spray LSD from an aerosol can on

their guests, but according to Rhodes’ Senate testimony,

“the weather defeated us.” In the heat of the summer,

they could not close the doors and windows long enough

for the LSD to hang in the air and be inhaled. Sensing a

botched operation, their MKULTRA colleague, John

Gittinger (who brought the drug out from Washington) shut

himself in the bathroom and let go with the spray. Still,

Rhodes testified, Gittinger did not get high, and the CIA

men apparently scrubbed the party.[7]

The MKULTRA crew continued unwitting testing until

the summer of 1963 when the Agency’s Inspector General

stumbled across the safehouses during a regular

inspection of TSS activities. This happened not long

after Director John McCone had appointed John Earman to

the Inspector General position.[8] Much to the

displeasure of Sid Gottlieb and Richard Helms, Earman

questioned the propriety of the safehouses, and he

insisted that Director McCone be given a full briefing.

Although President Kennedy had put McCone in charge of

the Agency the year before, Helms—the professional’s

professional—had not bothered to tell his outsider boss

about some of the CIA’s most sensitive activities,

including the safehouses and the CIA-Mafia assassination

plots.[9] Faced with Earman’s demands, Helms—surely one

of history’s most clever bureaucrats—volunteered to tell

McCone himself about the safehouses (rather than have

Earman present a negative view of the program). Sure

enough, Helms told Earman afterward, McCone raised no

objections to unwitting testing (as Helms described it).

A determined man and a rather brave one, Earman countered

with a full written report to McCone recommending that

the safehouses be closed. The Inspector General cited the

risks of exposure and pointed out that many people both

inside and outside the Agency found “the concepts

involved in manipulating human behavior . . . to be

distasteful and unethical.” McCone reacted by putting off

a final decision but suspending unwitting testing in the

meantime. Over the next year, Helms, who then headed the

Clandestine Services, wrote at least three memos urging

resumption. He cited “indications . . . of an apparent

Soviet aggressiveness in the field of covertly

administered chemicals which are, to say the least,

inexplicable and disturbing,” and he claimed the CIA’s

“positive operational capacity to use drugs is

diminishing owing to a lack of realistic testing.”[10] To

Richard Helms, the importance of the program exceeded the

risks and the ethical questions, although he did admit,

“We have no answer to the moral issue.” McCone simply did

nothing for two years. The director’s indecision had the

effect of killing the program, nevertheless. TSS

officials closed the San Francisco safehouse in 1965 and

the New York one in 1966.

Years later in a personal letter to Sid Gottlieb,

George White wrote an epitaph for his role with the CIA:

“I was a very minor missionary, actually a heretic, but I

toiled wholeheartedly in the vineyards because it was

fun, fun, fun. Where else could a red-blooded American

boy lie, kill, cheat, steak rape, and pillage with the

sanction and blessing of the All-Highest?”

After 10 years of unwitting testing, the men from

MKULTRA apparently scored no major breakthroughs with LSD

or other drugs. They found no effective truth drug,

recruitment pill, or aphrodisiac. LSD had not opened up

the mind to CIA control. “We had thought at first that

this was the secret that was going to unlock the

universe,” says a TSS veteran. “We found that human

beings had resources far greater than imagined.”

Yet despite the lack of precision and uncertainty,

the CIA still made field use of LSD and other drugs that

had worked their way through the MKULTRA testing

progression. A 1957 report showed that TSS had already

moved 6 drugs out of the experimental stage and into

active use. Up to that time, CIA operators had utilized

LSD and other psychochemicals against 33 targets in 6

different operations. Agency officials hoped in these

cases either to discredit the subject by making him seem

insane or to “create within the individual a mental and

emotional situation which will release him from the

restraint of self-control and induce him to reveal

information willingly under adroit manipulation.” The

Agency has consistently refused to release details of

these operations, and TSS sources who talk rather freely

about other matters seem to develop amnesia when the

subject of field use comes up. Nevertheless, it can be

said that the CIA did establish a relationship with an

unnamed foreign secret service to interrogate prisoners

with LSD-like drugs. CIA operators participated directly

in these interrogations, which continued at least until

1966. Often the Agency showed more concern for the safety

of its operational targets abroad than it did for its

unwitting victims in San Francisco, since some of the

foreign subjects were given medical examinations before

being slipped the drug.[11]

In these operations, CIA men sometimes brought in

local doctors for reasons that had nothing to do with the

welfare of the patient. Instead, the doctor’s role was to

certify the apparent insanity of a victim who had been

unwittingly dosed with LSD or an even more durable

psychochemical like BZ (which causes trips lasting a week

or more and which tends to induce violent behavior). If a

doctor were to prescribe hospitalization or other severe

treatment, the effect on the subject could be

devastating. He would suffer not only the experience

itself, including possible confinement in a mental

institution, but also social stigma. In most countries,

even the suggestion of mental problems severely damages

an individual’s professional and personal standing (as

Thomas Eagleton, the recipient of some shock therapy, can

testify). “It’s an old technique,” says an MKULTRA

veteran. “You neutralize someone by having their

constituency doubt them.” The Church committee confirms

that the Agency used this technique at least several

times to assassinate a target’s character.[12]

Still, the Clandestine Services did not frequently

call on TSS for LSD or other drugs. Many operators had

practical and ethical objections. In part to overcome

such objections and also to find better ways to use

chemical and biological substances in covert operations,

Sid Gottlieb moved up in 1959 to become Assistant for

Scientific Matters to the Clandestine Services chief.

Gottlieb found that TSS had kept the MKULTRA programs so

secret that many field people did not even know what

techniques were available. He wrote that tight controls

over field use in MKDELTA operations “may have generated

a general defeatism among case officers,” who feared they

would not receive permission or that the procedure was

not worth the effort. Gottlieb tried to correct these

shortcomings by providing more information on the drug

arsenal to senior operators and by streamlining the

approval process. He had less luck in overcoming views

that drugs do not work or are not reliable, and that

their operational use leads to laziness and poor


If the MKULTRA program had ever found that LSD or any

other drug really did turn a man into a puppet, Sid

Gottlieb would have had no trouble surmounting all those

biases. Instead, Gottlieb and his fellow searchers came

frustratingly close but always fell short of finding a

reliable control mechanism. LSD certainly penetrated to

the innermost regions of the mind. It could spring loose

a whole gamut of feelings, from terror to insight. But in

the end, the human psyche proved so complex that even the

most skilled manipulator could not anticipate all the

variables. He could use LSD and other drugs to chip away

at free will. He could score temporary victories, and he

could alter moods, perception—sometimes even beliefs. He

had the power to cause great harm, but ultimately he

could not conquer the human spirit.


The CIA’s reaction to Frank Olson’s death is

described in numerous memos released by the Agency to the

Olson family, which can be found at pp.1005-1132 of the

Kennedy Subcommittee 1975 hearings on Biomedical and

Behavioral Research. See particularly at p. 1077, 18

December 1953, Subject: The Suicide of Frank Olson and at

p. 1027, 1 December 1953, Subject: Use of LSD.

Richard Helms’ views on unwitting testing are found

in Document #448, 17 December 1963, Subject: Testing of

Psychochemicals and Related Materials and in a memorandum

to the CIA Director, June 9, 1964, quoted from on page

402 of the Church Committee Report, Book I.

George White’s diary and letters were donated by his

widow to Foothills Junior College, Los Altos, California

and are the source of a treasure chest of material on

him, including his letter to a friend explaining his

almost being “blackballed” from the CIA, the various

diary entries cited, including references to folk-dancing

with Gottlieb, the interview with Hal Lipset where he

explains his philosophy on chasing criminals, and his

letter to Sid Gottlieb dated November 21, (probably)


The New York and San Francisco safehouses run by

George White are the subjects of MKULTRA subprojects

3,14,16,42, and 149. White’s tips to the landlord are

described in 42-156, his liquor bills in 42-157, “dryruns”

in 42-91. The New York safehouse run by Charles

Siragusa is subproject 132. The “intermediate” tests are

described in document 132-59.

Paul Avery, a San Francisco freelance writer

associated with the Center for Investigative Reporting in

Oakland, California interviewed William Hawkins and

provided assistance on the details of the San Francisco

safehouse and George White’s background. Additional

information on White came from interviews with his widow,

several former colleagues in the Narcotics Bureau,

and other knowledgeable sources in various San Francisco

law-enforcement agencies. An ex-Narcotics Bureau official

told of Dr. James Hamilton’s study of unusual sexual

practices and the description of his unwitting drug

testing comes from MKULTRA subproject 2, which is his


Ray Treichler discussed some of his work with

harassment substances in testimony before the Kennedy

subcommittee on September 20, 1977, pp. 105-8. He

delivered his testimony under the pseudonym “Philip


“The Gang that Couldn’t Spray Straight” article

appeared in the September 20, 1977 Washington Post.

Richard Helms’ decision not to tell John McCone about

the CIA’s connection to the Mafia in assassination

attempts against Castro is described in the Church

Committee’s Assassination report, pp. 102-3.

The 1957 Inspector General’s Report on TSS, Document

#417 and the 1963 inspection of MKULTRA, 14 August 1963,

Document #59 provided considerable detail throughout the

entire chapter. The Church Committee Report on MKULTRA in

Book I, pp. 385-422 also provided considerable


Sid Gottlieb’s job as Assistant to the Clandestine

Services chief for Scientific Matters is described in

Document #74 (operational series) 20 October 1959,

Subject: Application of Imaginative Research on the

Behavioral and Physical Sciences to [deleted] Problems”

and in the 1963 Inspector General’s report.

Interviews with ex-CIA Inspector General Lyman

Kirkpatrick, another former Inspector General’s staff

employee, and several ex-TSS staffers contributed

significantly to this chapter.

Helms’ letter to the Warren Commission on “Soviet

Brainwashing Techniques,” dated 19 June 1964, was

obtained from the National Archives.

The material on the CIA’s operational use of LSD came

from the Church Committee Report, Book I, pp. 399-403 and

from an affidavit filed in the Federal Court case of John

D. Marks v. Central Intelligence Agency, et. al., Civil

Action No. 76-2073 by Eloise R. Page, Chief, Policy and

Coordination Staff of the CIA’s Directorate of

Operations. In listing all the reasons why the Agency

should not provide the operational documents, Ms. Page

gave some information on what was in the documents. The

passages on TSS’s and the Medical Office’s positions on

the use of LSD came from a memo written by James

Angleton, Chief, Counterintelligence Staff on December

12, 1957 quoted in part at p. 401 of the Church Committee

Report, Book I.


1. CIA operators and agents all had cover names by

which they were supposed to be called—even in classified

documents. Gottlieb was “Sherman R. Grifford.” George

White became “Morgan Hall.”

2. One case which put White in every newspaper in the

country was his 1949 arrest of blues singer Billie

Holliday on an opium charge. To prove she had been set up

and was not then using drugs, the singer checked into a

California sanitarium that had been recommended by a

friend of a friend, Dr. James Hamilton. The jury then

acquitted her. Hamilton’s involvement is bizarre because

he had worked with George White testing truth drugs for

OSS, and the two men were good friends. White may have

put his own role in perspective when he told a 1970

interviewer he “enjoyed” chasing criminals. “It was a

game for me,” he said. “I felt quite a bit of compassion

for a number of the people that I found it necessary to

put in jail, particularly when you’d see the things that

would happen to their families. I’d give them a chance to

stay out of jail and take care of their families by

giving me information, perhaps, and they would stubbornly

refuse to do so. They wouldn’t be a rat, as they would

put it.”

3. Despite this indication from White’s diary that

Lashbrook came to the New York safehouse for an “LSD

surprise” and despite his signature on papers authorizing

the subproject, Lashbrook flatly denied all firsthand

knowledge of George White’s testing in 1977 Senate

testimony. Subcommittee chairman Edward Kennedy did not

press Lashbrook, nor did he refer the matter to the

Justice Department for possible perjury charges.

4. This was just one of many expenditures that would

drive CIA auditors wild while going over George White’s

accounts. Others included $44.04 for a telescope, liquor

bills over $1,000 “with no record as to the necessity of

its use,” and $31.75 to make an on-the-spot payment to a

neighborhood lady whose car he hit. The reason stated for

using government funds for the last expense: “It was

important to maintain security and forestall an insurance


5. In 1984, George Orwell wrote about government-

encouraged prostitution: “Mere debauchery did not matter

very much, so long as it was furtive and joyless, and

only involved the women of a submerged and despised


6. In 1961 MKULTRA officials started a third

safehouse in New York, also under the Narcotics Bureau’s

supervision. This one was handled by Charles Siragusa

who, like White, was a senior agent and OSS veteran.

7. Rhodes’ testimony about this incident, which had

been set up in advance with Senator Edward Kennedy’s

staff, brought on the inevitable “Gang That Couldn’t

Spray Straight” headline in the Washington Post. This

approach turned the public perception of a deadly serious

program into a kind of practical joke carried out badly

by a bunch of bumblers.

8. Lyman Kirkpatrick, the longtime Inspector General

who had then recently left the job to take a higher

Agency post, had personally known of the safehouse

operation since right after Olson’s death and had never

raised any noticeable objection. He now states he was

“shocked” by the unwitting testing, but that he “didn’t

have the authority to follow up . . . I was trying to

determine what the tolerable limits were of what I could

do and still keep my job.”

9. Trying to explain why he had specifically decided

not to inform the CIA Director about the Agency’s

relationship with the mob, Helms stated to the Church

committee, “Mr. McCone was relatively new to this

organization, and I guess I must have thought to myself,

well this is going to look peculiar to him . . . This

was, you know not a very savory effort.” Presumably,

Helms had similar reasons for not telling McCone about

the unwitting drug-testing in the safehouses.

10. Helms was a master of telling different people

different stories to suit his purposes. At the precise

time he was raising the Soviet menace to push McCone into

letting the unwitting testing continue, he wrote the

Warren Commission that not only did Soviet behavioral

research lag five years behind the West’s but that “there

is no present evidence that the Soviets have any

singular, new potent, drugs . . . to force a course of

action on an individual.”

11. TSS officials led by Sid Gottlieb, who were

responsible for the operational use of LSD abroad, took

the position that there was “no danger medically” in

unwitting doses and that neither giving a medical exam or

having a doctor present was necessary. The Agency’s

Medical Office disagreed, saying the drug was “medically

dangerous.” In 1957 Inspector General Lyman Kirkpatrick

noted it would be “unrealistic” to give the Medical

Office what amounted to veto power over covert operations

by letting Agency doctors rule on the health hazard to

subjects in the field.

12. While I was doing the research for this book,

many people approached me claiming to be victims of CIA

drugging plots. Although I listened carefully to all and

realized that some might be authentic victims, I had no

way of distinguishing between someone acting strangely

and someone made to act strangely. Perhaps the most

insidious aspect of this whole technique is that anyone

blaming his aberrant behavior on a drug or on the CIA

gets labeled a hopeless paranoid and his case is thrown

into the crank file. There is no better cover than

operating on the edge of madness.

One leftist professor in a Latin American university

who had opposed the CIA says that he was working alone in

his office one day in 1974 when a strange woman entered

and jabbed his wrist with a pin stuck in a small round

object. Almost immediately, he become irrational, broke

glasses, and threw water in colleagues’ faces. He says

his students spotted an ambulance waiting for him out

front. They spirited him out the back door and took him

home, where he tripped (or had psychotic episodes) for

more than a week. He calls the experience a mix of

“heaven and hell,” and he shudders at the thought that he

might have spent the time in a hospital “with nurses and

straitjackets.” Although he eventually returned to his

post at the university, he states that it took him

several years to recover the credibility he lost the day

he “went crazy at the office.” If the CIA was involved,

it had neutralized a foe.


Mushrooms to Counterculture

The MKULTRA scientists reaped little but disaster,

mischief, and disappointment from their efforts to use

LSD as a miracle weapon against the minds of their

opponents. Nevertheless, their insatiable need to try

every possibility led them to test hundreds of other

substances, including all the drugs that would later be

called psychedelic. These drugs were known to have great

potency. They were derived from natural botanical

products, and the men from MKULTRA believed from the

beginning that rare organic materials might somehow have

the greatest effect on the human mind. The most amazing

of the psychedelics came from odd corners of the natural

world. A1bert Hofmann created LSD largely out of ergot, a

fungus that grows on rye; mescaline is nothing more than

the synthetic essence of peyote cactus. Psilocybin, the

drug that Timothy Leary preferred to LSD for his Harvard

experiments, was synthesized from exotic Mexican

mushrooms that occupy a special place in CIA history.

When the MKULTRA team first embarked on its mind-

control explorations, the “magic mushroom” was only a

rumor or fable in the linear history of the Western

world. On nothing more than the possibility that the

legend was based on fact, the Agency’s scientists tracked

the mushroom to the most remote parts of Mexico and then

spent lavishly to test and develop its mind-altering

properties. The results, like the LSD legacy, were as

startling as they were unintended.

Among the botanicals that mankind has always turned

to for intoxicants and poisons, mushrooms stand out.

There is something enchantingly odd about the damp little

buttons that can thrill a gourmet or kill one, depending

on the subtle differences among the countless varieties.

These fungi have a long record in unorthodox warfare. Two

thousand years before the CIA looked to unleash powerful

mushrooms in covert operations, the Roman Empress

Agrippina eliminated her husband Claudius with a dish of

poisonous mushrooms. According to Roman history,

Agrippina wanted the emperor dead so that her son Nero

could take the throne. She planned to take advantage of

Claudius’ love for the delicious Amanita caesarea

mushroom, but she had to choose carefully among its

deadly look-alikes. The poison could not be “sudden and

instantaneous in its operation, lest the desperate

achievement should be discovered,” wrote Gordon and

Valentina Wasson in their monumental and definitive work,

Mushrooms, Russia and History. The Empress settled on the

lethal Amanita phalloides, a fungus the Wassons

considered well suited to the crime: “The victim would

not give away the game by abnormal indispositions at the

meal, but when the seizure came he would be so severely

stricken that thereafter he would no longer be in command

of his own affairs.” Agrippina knew her mushrooms, and

Nero became Emperor.

CIA mind-control specialists sought to emulate and

surpass that kind of sophistication, as it might apply to

any conceivable drug. Their fixation on the “magic

mushroom” grew indirectly out of a meeting between drug

experts and Morse Allen, head of the Agency’s ARTICHOKE

program, in October 1952. One expert told Allen about a

shrub called piule, whose seeds had long been used as an

intoxicant by Mexican Indians at religious ceremonies.

Allen, who wanted to know about anything that distorted

reality, immediately arranged for a young CIA scientist

to take a Mexican field trip and gather samples of piule

as well as other plants of “high narcotic and toxic value

of interest to ARTICHOKE.”

That young scientist arrived in Mexico City early in

1953. He could not advertise the true purpose of his trip

because of ARTICHOKE’s extreme secrecy, so he assumed

cover as a researcher interested in finding native plants

which were anesthetics. Fluent in Spanish and familiar

with Mexico, he had no trouble moving around the country,

meeting with leading experts on botanicals. Then he was

off into the mountains south of the capital with his own

field-testing equipment, gathering specimens and testing

them crudely on the spot. By February, he had collected

sacks full of material, including 10 pounds of piule.

Before leaving Mexico to look for more samples around the

Caribbean, the young scientist heard amazing tales about

special mushrooms that grew only in the hot and rainy

summer months. Such stories had circulated among

Europeans in Mexico since Cortez had conquered the

country early in the sixteenth century. Spanish friars

had reported that the Aztecs used strange mushrooms in

their religious ceremonies, which these converters of the

heathens described as “demonic holy communions.” Aztec

priests called the special mushrooms teonanactl, “God’s

flesh.” But Cortez’s plunderers soon lost track of the

rite, as did the traders and anthropologists who followed

in their wake. Only the legend survived.

Back in Washington, the young scientist’s samples

went straight to the labs, and Agency officials scoured

the historical record for accounts of the strange

mushrooms. Morse Allen himself, though responsible in

ARTICHOKE research for everything from the polygraph to

hypnosis, took the trouble to go through the Indian lore.

“Very early accounts of the ceremonies of some tribes of

Mexican Indians show that mushrooms are used to produce

hallucinations and to create intoxication in connection

with religious festivals,” he wrote. “In addition, this

literature shows that witch doctors or ‘divinators’ used

some types of mushrooms to produce confessions or to

locate stolen objects or to predict the future.” Here was

a possible truth drug, Morse Allen reasoned. “Since it

had been determined that no area of human knowledge is to

be left unexplored in connection with the ARTICHOKE

program, it was therefore regarded as essential that the

peculiar qualities of the mushroom be explored….” Allen

declared. “Full consideration,” he concluded, should be

given to sending an Agency man back to Mexico during the

summer. The CIA had begun its quest for “God’s flesh.”

Characteristically, Morse Allen was planning ahead in

case the CIA’s searchers came up with a mushroom worth

having in large quantities. He knew that the supply from

the tropics varied by season, and, anyway, it would be

impractical to go to Mexico for fungi each time an

operational need popped up. So Allen decided to see if it

were possible to grow the mushrooms at home, either

outdoors or in hothouses. On June 24, 1953, he and an

associate drove from Washington to Toughkenamon,

Pennsylvania, in the heart of “the largest mushroom-

growing area in the world.” At a three-hour session with

the captains of the mushroom industry, Allen explained

the government’s interest in poisonous and narcotic

fungi. Allen reported that the meeting “was primarily

designed to obtain a ‘foothold’ in the center of the

mushroom-growing industry where, if requirements for

mushroom growing were demanded, it would be done by

professionals in the trade.” The mushroom executives were

quite reluctant to grow toxic products because they knew

that any accidental publicity would scare their

customers. In the end, however, their patriotism won out,

and they agreed to grow any kind of fungus the government

desired. Allen considered the trip a great success.

As useful as this commitment might be, an element of

chance remained as long as the CIA had to depend on the

natural process. But if the Agency could find synthetic

equivalents for the active ingredients, it could

manufacture rather than grow its own supply. Toward this

goal of bypassing nature, Morse Allen had little choice

but to turn for help to the man who the following year

would wrest most of the ARTICHOKE functions from his

grasp: Sid Gottlieb. Gottlieb, himself a Ph.D. in

chemistry, had scientists working for him who knew what

to do on the level of test tubes and beakers. Allen ran

ARTICHOKE out of the Office of Security, which was not

equipped for work on the frontiers of science.

Gottlieb and his colleagues moved quickly into the

mysteries of the Mexican hallucinogens. They went to work

on the chemical structures of the piule and other plants

that Morse Allen’s emissary brought back from his field

trip, but they neglected to report their findings to the

bureaucratically outflanked Allen. Gottlieb and the

MKULTRA crew soon got caught up in the search for the

magic mushroom. While TSS had its own limited laboratory

facilities, it depended on secret contractors for most

research and development. Working with an associate, a

cadaverously thin chemistry Ph.D. named Henry Bortner,

Gottlieb passed the tropical plants to a string of

corporate and academic researchers. One of them, Dr.

James Moore, a 29-yearold chemist at Parke, Davis &

Company in Detroit, was destined to be the first man in

the CIA camp to taste the magic mushroom. Moore’s career

was typical of the specialists in the CIA’s vast network

of private contractors. His path to the mushroom led

through several jobs and offbeat assignments, always with

Agency funds and direction behind him. A precise,

meticulous man of scientific habits, Moore was hardly the

sort one would expect to find chasing psychedelic drugs.

Such pursuits began for him in March 1953, when he had

returned to his lab at Parke, Davis after a year of

postdoctoral research at the University of Basel. His

supervisor had called him in with an intriguing proposal:

How would he like to work inside the company on a CIA

contract? “Those were not particularly prosperous times,

and the company was glad to get someone else to pay my

salary [$8,000 a year],” notes Moore 25 years later. “If

I had thought I was participating in a scheme run by a

small band of mad individuals, I would have demurred.”

He accepted the job.

The Agency contracted with Parke, Davis, as it did

with numerous other drug companies, universities, and

government agencies to develop behavioral products and

poisons from botanicals. CIA-funded chemists extracted

deadly substances like the arrow-poison curare from

natural products, while others worked on ways to deliver

these poisons most effectively, like the “nondiscernible

microbioinoculator” (or dart gun) that the Army Chemical

Corps invented. CIA-connected botanists collected—and

then chemists analyzed—botanicals from all over the

tropics: a leaf that killed cattle, several plants deadly

to fish, another leaf that caused hair to fall out, sap

that caused temporary blindness, and a host of other

natural products that could alter moods, dull or

stimulate nerves, or generally disorient people. Among

the plants Moore investigated was Jamaica dogwood, a

plant used by Caribbean natives to stun fish so they

could be easily captured for food. This work resulted in

the isolation of several new substances, one of which

Moore named “lisetin,” in honor of his daughter.

Moore had no trouble adjusting to the secrecy

demanded by his CIA sponsors, having worked on the

Manhattan Project as a graduate student. He dealt only

with his own case officer, Henry Bortner, and two or

three other CIA men in TSS. Once Moore completed his

chemical work on a particular substance, he turned the

results over to Bortner and apparently never learned of

the follow-up. Moore worked in his own little isolated

compartment, and he soon recognized that the Agency

preferred contractors who did not ask questions about

what was going on in the next box.

In 1955 Moore left private industry for academia,

moving from Detroit to the relatively placid setting of

the University of Delaware in Newark. The school made him

an assistant professor, and he moved into a lab in the

Georgian red-brick building that housed the chemistry

department. Along with his family, Moore brought his CIA

contract—then worth $16,000 a year, of which he received

$650 per month, with the rest going to pay research

assistants and overhead. Although the Agency allowed a

few top university officials to be briefed on his secret

connection, Moore appeared to his colleagues and students

to be a normal professor who had a healthy research grant

from the Geschickter Fund for Medical Research in


In the world of natural products—particularly

mushrooms—the CIA soon made Moore a full-service agent.

With some help from his CIA friends, he made contact with

the leading lights in mycology (the study of mushrooms),

attended professional meetings, and arranged for others

to send him samples. From the CIA’s point of view, he

could not have had better cover. As Sid Gottlieb wrote,

Moore “maintains the fiction that the botanical specimens

he collects are for his own use since his field interest

is natural-product chemistry.” Under this pretext, Moore

had a perfect excuse to make and purchase for the CIA

chemicals that the Agency did not want traced. Over the

years, Moore billed the Agency for hundreds of purchases,

including 50 cents for an unidentified pamphlet, $433.13

for a particular shipment of mescaline, $1147.60 for a

large quantity of mushrooms, and $12,000 for a quarter-

ton of fluothane, an inhalation anesthetic. He shipped

his purchases on as Bortner directed.

Moore eventually became a kind of short-order cook

for what CIA documents call “offensive CW, BW” weapons at

“very low cost and in a few days’ time . . .” If there

were an operational need, Bortner had only to call in the

order, and Moore would whip up a batch of a “reputed

depilatory” or hallucinogens like DMT or the incredibly

potent BZ. On one occasion in 1963, Moore prepared a

small dose of a very lethal carbamate poison—the same

substance that OSS used two decades earlier to try to

kill Adolf Hitler. Moore charged the Agency his regular

consulting fee, $100, for this service.

“Did I ever consider what would have happened if this

stuff were given to unwitting people?” Moore asks,

reflecting on his CIA days. “No. Particularly no. Had I

been given that information, I think I would have been

prepared to accept that. If I had been knee-jerk about

testing on unwitting subjects, I wouldn’t have been the

type of person they would have used. There was nothing

that I did that struck me as being so sinister and

deadly…. It was all investigative.”

James Moore was only one of many CIA specialists on

the lookout for the magic mushroom. For three years after

Morse Allen’s man returned from Mexico with his tales of

wonder, Moore and the others in the Agency’s network

pushed their lines of inquiry among contacts and

travelers into Mexican villages so remote that Spanish

had barely penetrated. Yet they found no magic mushrooms.

Given their efforts, it was ironic that the man who beat

them to “God’s flesh” was neither a spy nor a scientist,

but a banker. It was R. Gordon Wasson, vice-president of

J. P. Morgan & Company, amateur mycologist, and co-author

with his wife Valentina of Mushrooms, Russia and History.

Nearly 30 years earlier, Wasson and his Russian-born wife

had become fascinated by the different ways that

societies deal with the mushroom, and they followed their

lifelong obsession with these fungi, in all their glory,

all over the globe.[1] They found whole nationalities,

such as the Russians and the Catalans, were mycophiles,

while others like the Spaniards and the Anglo-Saxons were

not. They learned that in ancient Greece and Rome there

was a belief that certain kinds of mushrooms were brought

into being by lightning bolts. They discovered that

widely scattered peoples, including desert Arabs,

Siberians, Chinese, and Maoris of New Zealand, have

shared the idea that mushrooms have supernatural

connections. Their book appeared in limited edition,

selling new in 1957 for $125. It contains facts and

legends, lovingly told, as well as beautiful photographs

of nearly every known species of mushroom.

Inevitably, the Wassons heard tell of “God’s flesh,”

and in 1953 they started spending their vacations

pursuing it. They took their first unsuccessful trek to

Mexico about the time James Moore got connected to the

CIA and Morse Allen met with the Pennsylvania mushroom

executives. They had no luck until their third

expedition, when Gordon Wasson and his traveling

companion, Allan Richardson, found their holy grail high

in the mountains above Oaxaca. On June 29, 1955, they

entered the town hall in a village called Huautla de

Jimenez. There, they found a young Indian about 35,

sitting by a large table in an upstairs room. Unlike most

people in the village, he spoke Spanish. “He had a

friendly manner,” Wasson later wrote, “and I took a

chance. Leaning over the table, I asked him earnestly and

in a low voice if I could speak to him in confidence.

Instantly curious, he encouraged me. ‘Will you,’ I went

on, ‘help me learn the secrets of the divine mushroom?’

and I used the Indian name nti sheeto, correctly

pronouncing it with glottal stop and tonal

differentiation of the syllables. When [he] recovered

from his surprise he said warmly that nothing could be


Shortly thereafter, the Indian led Wasson and

Richardson down into a deep ravine where mushrooms were

growing in abundance. The white men snapped picture after

picture of the fungi and picked a cardboard box-full.

Then, in the heavy humid heat of the afternoon, the

Indian led them up the mountain to a woman who performed

the ancient mushroom rite. Her name was Maria Sabina. She

was not only a curandera, or shaman, of “the highest

quality,” wrote Wasson, but a “señora sin mancha, a woman

without stain.” Wasson described her as middle-aged and

short, “with a spirituality in her expression that struck

us at once. She had a presence. We showed our mushrooms

to the woman and her daughter. They cried out in rapture

over the firmness, the fresh beauty and abundance of our

young specimens. Through the interpreter we asked if they

would serve us that night. They said yes.”

That night, Wasson, Richardson, and about 20 Indians

gathered in one of the village’s adobe houses. The

natives wore their best clothes and were friendly to the

white strangers. The host provided chocolate drinks,

which evoked for Wasson accounts of similar beverages

being served early Spanish writers. Maria Sabina sat on a

mat before a simple altar table that was adorned with the

images of the Child Jesus and the Baptism in Jordan.

After cleaning the mushrooms, she handed them out to all

the adults present, keeping 26 for herself and giving

Wasson and Richardson 12 each.

Maria Sabina put out the last candle about midnight,

and she chanted haunting, tightly measured melodies. The

Indian celebrants responded with deep feeling. Both

Wasson and Richardson began to experience intense

hallucinations that did not diminish until about 4:00

A.M. “We were never more wide awake, and the visions came

whether our eyes were open or closed,” Wasson wrote:

They emerged from the center of the field of our vision,

opening up as they came, now rushing, now slowly at the

pace that our will chose. They were vivid in color,

always harmonious. They began with art motifs, such as

might decorate carpets or textiles or wallpaper or the

drawing board of an architect. Then they evolved into

palaces with courts, arcades, gardens—resplendent palaces

with semiprecious stones…. Could the miraculous

mobility that I was now enjoying be the explanation for

the flying witches that played some important part in the

folklore and fairy tales of northern Europe? These

reflections passed through my mind at the very time that

I was seeing the vision, for the effect of the mushrooms

is to bring about a fission of the spirit, a split in the

person, a kind of schizophrenia, with the rational side

continuing to reason and to observe the sensations that

the other side is enjoying. The mind is attached by an

elastic cord to the vagrant senses.

Thus Gordon Wasson described the first known mushroom

trip by “outsiders” in recorded history. The CIA’s men

missed the event, but they quickly learned of it, even

though Wasson’s visit was a private noninstitutional one

to a place where material civilization had not reached.

Such swiftness was assured by the breadth of the Agency’s

informant network, which included formal liaison

arrangements with agencies like the Agriculture

Department and the FDA and informal contacts all over the

world. A botanist in Mexico City sent the report that

reached both CIA headquarters and then James Moore. In

the best bureaucratic form, the CIA description of

Wasson’s visions stated sparsely that the New York banker

thought he saw “a multitude of architectural forms.”

Still, “God’s flesh” had been located, and the MKULTRA

leaders snatched up information that Wasson planned to

return the following summer and bring back some


During the intervening winter, James Moore wrote

Wasson—”out of the blue,” as Wasson recalls—and expressed

a desire to look into the chemical properties of Mexican

fungi. Moore eventually suggested that he would like to

accompany Wasson’s party, and, to sweeten the

proposition, he mentioned that he knew a foundation that

might be willing to help underwrite the expedition. Sure

enough, the CIA’s conduit, the Geschickter Fund, made a

$2,000 grant. Inside the MKULTRA program, the quest for

the divine mushroom became Subproject 58.

Joining Moore and Wasson on the 1956 trip were the

world-renowned French mycologist Roger Heim and a

colleague from the Sorbonne. The party made the final leg

of the trip, one at a time, in a tiny Cessna, but when it

was Moore’s turn, the load proved too much for the plane.

The pilot suddenly took a dramatic right angle turn

through a narrow canyon and made an unscheduled stop on

the side of a hill. Immediately on landing, an Indian

girl ran out and slid blocks under the wheels, so the

plane would not roll back into a ravine. The pilot

decided to lighten the load by leaving Moore among the

local Indians, who spoke neither English nor Spanish.

Later in the day, the plane returned and picked up the

shaken Moore.

Finally in Huautla, sleeping on a dirt floor and

eating local food, everyone reveled in the primitiveness

of the adventure except Moore, who suffered. In addition

to diarrhea, he recalls, “I had a terribly bad cold, we

damned near starved to death, and I itched all over.”

Beyond his physical woes, Moore became more and more

alienated from the others, who got on famously. Moore was

a “complainer,” according to Wasson. “He had no empathy

for what was going on,” recalls Wasson. “He was like a

landlubber at sea. He got sick to his stomach and hated

it all.” Moore states, “Our relationship deteriorated

during the course of the trip.”

Wasson returned to the same Maria Sabina who had led

him to the high ground the year before. Again the ritual

started well after dark and, for everyone but Moore, it

was an enchanted evening. Sings Wasson: “I had the most

superb feeling—a feeling of ecstasy. You’re raised to a

height where you have not been in everyday life—not

ever.” Moore, on the other hand, never left the lowlands.

His description: “There was all this chanting in the

dialect. Then they passed the mushrooms around, and we

chewed them up. I did feel the hallucinogenic effect,

although ‘disoriented’ would be a better word to describe

my reaction.”

Soon thereafter, Moore returned to Delaware with a

bag of mushrooms—just in time to take his pregnant wife

to the hospital for delivery. After dropping her off with

the obstetrician, he continued down the hall to another

doctor about his digestion. Already a thin man, Moore had

lost 15 pounds. Over the next week, he slowly nursed

himself back to health. He reported in to Bortner and

started preliminary work in his lab to isolate the active

ingredient in the mushrooms. Bortner urged him on; the

men from MKULTRA were excited at the prospect that they

might be able to create “a completely new chemical

agent.” They wanted their own private supply of “God’s

flesh.” Sid Gottlieb wrote that if Moore succeeded, it

was “quite possible” that the new drugs could “remain an

Agency secret.”

Gottlieb’s dream of a CIA monopoly on the divine

mushroom vanished quickly under the influence of unwanted

competitors, and indeed, the Agency soon faced a control

problem of burgeoning proportions. While Moore toiled in

his lab, Roger Heim in Paris unexpectedly pulled off the

remarkable feat of growing the mushrooms in artificial

culture from spore prints he had made in Mexico. Heim

then sent samples to none other than Albert Hofmann, the

discoverer of LSD, who quickly isolated and chemically

reproduced the active chemical ingredient. He named it


The dignified Swiss chemist had beaten out the

CIA,[2] and the men from MKULTRA found themselves trying

to obtain formulas and supplies from overseas. Instead of

locking up the world’s supply of the drug in a safe

somewhere, they had to keep track of disbursements from

Sandoz, as they were doing with LSD. Defeated by the old

master, Moore laid his own work aside and sent away to

Sandoz for a supply of psilocybin.

This lapse in control still did not quash the hopes

of Agency officials that the mushroom might become a

powerful weapon in covert operations. Agency scientists

rushed it into the experimental stage. Within three

summers of the first trip with James Moore, the CIA’s

queasy professor from America, the mushroom had journeyed

through laboratories on two continents, and its chemical

essence had worked its way back to Agency conduits and a

contractor who would test it. In Kentucky, Dr. Harris

Isbell ordered psilocybin injected into nine black

inmates at the narcotics prison. His staff laid the

subjects out on beds as the drug took hold and measured

physical symptoms every hour: blood pressure, knee-jerk

reflexes, rectal temperature, precise diameter of eye

pupils, and so on. In addition, they recorded the

inmates’ various subjective feelings:

After 30 minutes, anxiety became quite definite and was

expressed as consisting of fear that something evil was

going to happen, fear of insanity, or of death…. At

times patients had the sensation that they could see the

blood and bones in their own body or in that of another

person. They reported many fantasies or dreamlike states

in which they seemed to be elsewhere. Fantastic

experiences, such as trips to the moon or living in

gorgeous castles were occasionally reported…. Two of

the 9 patients . . . felt their experiences were caused

by the experimenters controlling their minds….

Experimental data piled up, with operational testing

to follow.

But the magic mushroom never became a good spy

weapon. It made people behave strangely but no one could

predict where their trips would take them. Agency

officials craved certainty.

On the other hand, Gordon Wasson found revelation.

After a lifetime of exploring and adoring mushrooms, he

had discovered the greatest wonder of all in that remote

Indian village. His experience inspired him to write an

account of his journey for the “Great Adventures” series

in Life magazine. The story, spread across 17 pages of

text and color photographs, was called “Seeking the Magic

Mushroom: A New York banker goes to Mexico’s mountains to

participate in the age-old rituals of Indians who chew

strange growths that produce visions.” In 1957, before

the Russian sputnik shook America later that year, Life

introduced its millions of readers to the mysteries of

hallucinogens, with a tone of glowing but dignified

respect. Wasson wrote movingly of his long search for

mushroom lore, and he became positively rhapsodic in

reflecting on his Mexican “trip”:

In man’s evolutionary past, as he groped his way out from

his lowly past, there must have come a moment in time

when he discovered the secret of the hallucinatory

mushrooms. Their effect on him, as I see it, could only

have been profound, a detonator to new ideas. For the

mushrooms revealed to him worlds beyond the horizons

known to him, in space and time, even worlds on a

different plane of being, a heaven and perhaps a hell.

For the credulous, primitive mind, the mushrooms must

have reinforced mightily the idea of the miraculous. Many

emotions are shared by men with the animal kingdom, but

awe and reverence and the fear of God are peculiar to

men. When we bear in mind the beatific sense of awe and

ecstasy and caritas engendered by the divine mushrooms,

one is emboldened to the point of asking whether they may

not have planted in primitive man the very idea of God.

The article caused a sensation in the United States,

where people had already been awakened to ideas like

these by Aldous Huxley’s The Doors of Perception. It

lured waves of respectable adults—precursors of later

hippie travelers—to Mexico in search of their own

curanderas. (Wasson came to have mixed feelings about the

response to his story, after several tiny Mexican

villages were all but trampled by American tourists on

the prowl for divinity.) One person whose curiosity was

stimulated by the article was a young psychology

professor named Timothy Leary. In 1959, in Mexico on

vacation, he ate his first mushrooms. He recalls he “had

no idea it was going to change my life.” Leary had just

been promised tenure at Harvard, but his life of

conventional prestige lost appeal for him within five

hours of swallowing the mushroom: “The revelation had

come. The veil had been pulled back…. The prophetic

call. The works. God had spoken.”

Having responded to a Life article about an

expedition that was partially funded by the CIA, Leary

returned to a Harvard campus where students and

professors had for years served as subjects for CIA- and

military-funded LSD experiments. His career as a drug

prophet lay before him. Soon he would be quoting in his

own Kamasutra from the CIA’s contractor Harold Abramson

and others, brought together for scholarly drug

conferences by the sometime Agency conduit, the Macy


With LSD, as with mushrooms, the men from MKULTRA

remained oblivious, for the most part, to the rebellious

effect of the drug culture in the United States. “I don’t

think we were paying any attention to it,” recalls a TSS

official. The CIA’s scientists looked at drugs from a

different perspective and went on trying to fashion their

spy arsenal. Through the entire 1960s and into the 1970s,

the Agency would scour Latin America for poisonous and

narcotic plants.[3] Earlier, TSS officials and

contractors actually kept spreading the magic touch of

drugs by forever pressing new university researchers into

the field. Boston Psychopathic’s Max Rinkel stirred up

the interest of Rochester’s Harold Hodge and told him how

to get a grant from the Agency conduit, the Geschickter

Fund. Hodge’s group found a way to put a radioactive

marker into LSD, and the MKULTRA crew made sure that the

specially treated substance found its way to still more

scientists. When a contractor like Harold Abramson spoke

highly of the drug at a new conference or seminar, tens

or hundreds of scientists, health professionals, and

subjects—usually students—would wind up trying LSD.

One day in 1954, Ralph Blum, a senior at Harvard on

his way to a career as a successful author, heard from a

friend that doctors at Boston Psychopathic would pay $25

to anyone willing to spend a day as a happy

schizophrenic. Blum could not resist. He applied, passed

the screening process, took a whole battery of Wechsler

psychological tests, and was told to report back on a

given morning. That day, he was shown into a room with

five other Harvard students. Project director Bob Hyde

joined them and struck Blum as a reassuring father

figure. Someone brought in a tray with six little glasses

full of water and LSD. The students drank up. For Blum,

the drug did not take hold for about an hour and a half—

somewhat longer than the average. While Hyde was in the

process of interviewing him, Blum felt his mind shift

gears. “I looked at the clock on the wall and thought how

well behaved it was. It didn’t pay attention to itself.

It just stayed on the wall and told time.” Blum felt that

he was looking at everything around him from a new

perspective. “It was a very subtle thing,” he says. “My

ego filter had been pretty much removed. I turned into a

very accessible state —accessible to myself. I knew when

someone was lying to me, and the richness of the

experience was such that I didn’t want to suffer fools

gladly.” Twenty-four years later, Blum concludes: “It was

undeniably a very important experience for me. It made a

difference in my life. It began to move the log jam of my

old consciousness. You can’t do it with just one blast.

It was the beginning of realizing it was safe to love

again. Although I wouldn’t use them until much later, it

gave me a new set of optics. It let me know there was

something downstream.”[4]

Many student subjects like Blum thought LSD

transformed the quality of their lives. Others had no

positive feelings, and some would later use the negative

memories of their trips to invalidate the whole drug

culture and stoned thinking process of the 1960s. In a

university city like Boston where both the CIA and the

Army were carrying on large testing programs at hospitals

connected to Harvard, volunteering for an LSD trip became

quite popular in academic circles. Similar reactions,

although probably not as pronounced, occurred in other

intellectual centers. The intelligence agencies turned to

America’s finest universities and hospitals to try LSD,

which meant that the cream of the country’s students and

graduate assistants became the test subjects.

In 1969 the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs

published a fascinating little study designed to curb

illegal LSD use. The authors wrote that the drug’s “early

use was among small groups of intellectuals at large

Eastern and West Coast universities. It spread to

undergraduate students, then to other campuses. Most

often, users have been introduced to the drug by persons

of higher status. Teachers have influenced students;

upperclassmen have influenced lower-classmen.” Calling

this a “trickle-down phenomenon,” the authors seem to

have correctly analyzed how LSD got around the country.

They left out only one vital element, which they had no

way of knowing: That somebody had to influence the

teachers and that up there at the top of the LSD

distribution system could be found the men of MKULTRA.

Harold Abramson apparently got a great kick out of

getting his learned friends high on LSD. He first turned

on Frank Fremont-Smith, head of the Macy Foundation which

passed CIA money to Abramson. In this cozy little world

where everyone knew everybody, Fremont-Smith organized

the conferences that spread the word about LSD to the

academic hinterlands. Abramson also gave Gregory Bateson,

Margaret Mead’s former husband, his first LSD. In 1959

Bateson, in turn, helped arrange for a beat poet friend

of his named Allen Ginsberg to take the drug at a

research program located of f the Stanford campus. No

stranger to the hallucinogenic effects of peyote,

Ginsberg reacted badly to what he describes as “the

closed little doctor’s room full of instruments,” where

he took the drug. Although he was allowed to listen to

records of his choice (he chose a Gertrude Stein reading,

a Tibetan mandala, and Wagner), Ginsberg felt he “was

being connected to Big Brother’s brain.” He says that the

experience resulted in “a slight paranoia that hung on

all my acid experiences through the mid-1960s until I

learned from meditation how to disperse that.”

Anthropologist and philosopher Gregory Bateson then

worked at the Veterans Administration Hospital in Palo

Alto. From 1959 on, Dr. Leo Hollister was testing LSD at

that same hospital. Hollister says he entered the

hallucinogenic field reluctantly because of the

“unscientific” work of the early LSD researchers. He

refers specifically to most of the people who attended

Macy conferences. Thus, hoping to improve on CIA and

military-funded work, Hollister tried drugs out on

student volunteers, including a certain Ken Kesey, in

1960. Kesey said he was a jock who had only been drunk

once before, but on three successive Tuesdays, he tried

different psychedelics. “Six weeks later I’d bought my

first ounce of grass,” Kesey later wrote, adding, “Six

months later I had a job at that hospital as a

psychiatric aide.” Out of that experience, using drugs

while he wrote, Kesey turned out One Flew Over the

Cuckoo’s Nest. He went on to become the counterculture’s

second most famous LSD visionary, spreading the creed

throughout the land, as Tom Wolfe would chronicle in The

Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test.

CIA officials never meant that the likes of Leary,

Kesey, and Ginsberg should be turned on. Yet these men

were, and they, along with many of the lesser-known

experimental subjects, like Harvard’s Ralph Blum, created

the climate whereby LSD escaped the government’s control

and became available by the early sixties on the black

market. No one at the Agency apparently foresaw that

young Americans would voluntarily take the drug—whether

for consciousness expansion or recreational purposes. The

MKULTRA experts were mainly on a control trip, and they

proved incapable of gaining insight from their own LSD

experiences of how others less fixated on making people

do their bidding would react to the drug.

It would be an exaggeration to put all the blame on—

or give all the credit to—the CIA for the spread of LSD.

One cannot forget the nature of the times, the Vietnam

War, the breakdown in authority, and the wide

availability of other drugs, especially marijuana. But

the fact remains that LSD was one of the catalysts of the

traumatic upheavals of the 1960s. No one could enter the

world of psychedelics without first passing, unawares,

through doors opened by the Agency. It would become a

supreme irony that the CIA’s enormous search for weapons

among drugs—fueled by the hope that spies could, like Dr.

Frankenstein, control life with genius and machines—would

wind up helping to create the wandering, uncontrollable

minds of the counterculture.


R. Gordon and Valentina Wasson’s mammoth work,

Mushrooms, Russia and History, (New York: Pantheon,

1957), was the source for the account of the Empress

Agrippina’s murderous use of mushrooms. Wasson told the

story of his various journeys to Mexico in a series of

interviews and in a May 27, 1957 Life magazine article,

“Seeking the Magic Mushroom.”

Morse Allen learned of piule in a sequence described

in document #A/B,I,33/7, 14 November 1952, Subject:

Piule. The sending of the young CIA scientist to Mexico

was outlined in #A/B, I,33/3,5 December 1952. Morse Allen

commented on mushroom history and covert possibilities in

#A/B, I, 34/4, 26 June 1953, Subject: Mushrooms—Narcotic

and Poisonous Varieties. His trip to the American

mushroom-growing capital was described in Document Number

illegible], 25 June 1953, Subject: Trip to Toughkenamon,

Pennsylvania. The failure of TSS to tell Morse Allen

about the results of the botanical lab work is outlined

in #A/B, I, 39/5, 10 August 1954 Subject: Reports;

Request for from TSS [deleted].

James Moore told much about himself in a long

interview and in an exchange of correspondence. MKULTRA

Subproject 51 dealt with Moore’s consulting relationship

with the Agency and Subproject 52 with his ties as a

procurer of chemicals. See especially Document 51-46, 8

April 1963, Subject: MKULTRA Subproject 51; 51-24, 27

August 1956, Subject: MKULTRA Subproject 51-B; 52-94, 20

February 1963, Subject: (BB) Chemical and Physical

Manipulants; 52-19, 20 December 1962; 52-17, 1 March

1963; 52-23, 6 December 1962; 52-64, 24 August 1959.

The CIA’s arrangements with the Department of

Agriculture are detailed in #A/B, I, 34/4, 26 June, 1953,

Subject: Mushrooms—Narcotic and Poisonous varieties and

Document [number illegible], 13 April 1953, Subject:

Interview with Cleared Contacts.

Dr. Harris Isbell’s work with psilocybin is detailed

in Isbell document # 155, “Comparison of the Reaction

Induced by Psilocybin and LSD-25 in Man.”

Information on the counterculture and its interface

with CIA drug-testing came from interviews with Timothy

Leary, Allen Ginsburg, Humphrey Osmond, John Lilly,

Sidney Cohen, Ralph Blum, Herbert Kelman, Leo Hollister,

Herbert DeShon, and numerous others. Ken Kesey described

his first trip in Garage Sale (New York: Viking Press,

1973). Timothy Leary’s Kamasutra was actually a book

hand-produced in four copies and called Psychedelic

Theory: Working Papers from the Harvard IFlF Psychedelic

Research Project, 1960-1963. Susan Berns Wolf Rothchild

kindly made her copy available. The material about Harold

Abramson’s turning on Frank Fremont-Smith and Gregory

Bateson came from the proceedings of a conference on LSD

sponsored by the Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation on April 22,

23, and 24, 1959, pp. 8-22.


1. On their honeymoon, in the summer of 1927, the

Wassons were strolling along a mountain path when

suddenly Valentina abandoned Gordon’s side. “She had

spied wild mushrooms in the forest,” wrote Wasson, “and

racing over the carpet of dried leaves in the woods, she

knelt in poses of adoration before one cluster and then

another of these growths. In ecstasy she called each kind

by an endearing Russian name. Like all good Anglo-Saxons,

I knew nothing about the fungal world and felt the less I

knew about these putrid, treacherous excrescences the

better. For her they were things of grace infinitely

inviting to the perceptive mind.” In spite of his

protests, Valentina gathered up the mushrooms and brought

them back to the lodge were she cooked them for dinner.

She ate them all—alone. Wasson wanted no part of the

fungi. While she mocked his horror, he predicted in the

face of her laughter he would wake up a widower the next

morning. When Valentina survived, the couple decided to

find an explanation for “the strange cultural cleavage”

that had caused them to react so differently to

mushrooms. From then on, they were hooked, and the world

became the richer.

2. Within two years, Albert Hofmann would scoop the

CIA once again, with some help from Gordon Wasson. In

1960 Hofmann broke down and chemically recreated the

active ingredient in hallucinatory ololiuqui seeds sent

him by Wasson before the Agency’s contractor, William

Boyd Cook of Montana State University, could do the job.

Hofmann’s and Wasson’s professional relationship soon

grew into friendship, and in 1962 they traveled together

on horseback to Huautla de Jimenez to visit Maria Sabina.

Hofmann presented the curandera with some genuine Sandoz

psilocybin. Wasson recalls: “Of course, Albert Hofmann is

so conservative he always gives too little a dose, and it

didn’t have any effect.” The crestfallen Hofmann believed

he had duplicated “God’s flesh,” and he doubled the dose.

Then Maria Sabina had her customary visions, and she

reported, according to Wasson, the drug was the “same” as

the mushroom. States Wasson, whose prejudice for real

mushrooms over chemicals is unmistakable, “I don’t think

she said it with very much enthusiasm.”

3. See Chapter 12.

4. Lincoln Clark, a psychiatrist who tested LSD for

the Army at Massachusetts General Hospital, reflects a

fairly common view among LSD researchers when he

belittles drug-induced thinking of the sort described by

Blum. “Everybody who takes LSD has an incredible

experience that you can look at as having positive

characteristics. I view it as pseudo-insight. This is

part of the usual response of intellectually pretentious

people.” On the other hand, psychiatrist Sidney Cohen,

who has written an important book on LSD, noted that to

experience a visionary trip, “the devotee must have faith

in, or at least be open to the possibility of the ‘other

state.’ . . . He must ‘let go,’ not offer too much

resistance to losing his personal identity. The ability

to surrender oneself is probably the most important

operation of all.”




In September 1950, the Miami News published an

article by Edward Hunter titled ” ‘Brain-Washing’ Tactics

Force Chinese into Ranks of Communist Party.” It was the

first printed use in any language of the term

“brainwashing,” which quickly became a stock phrase in

Cold War headlines. Hunter, a CIA propaganda operator who

worked under cover as a journalist, turned out a steady

stream of books and articles on the subject. He made up

his coined word from the Chinese hsi-nao—”to cleanse the

mind”—which had no political meaning in Chinese.

American public opinion reacted strongly to Hunter’s

ideas, no doubt because of the hostility that prevailed

toward communist foes, whose ways were perceived as

mysterious and alien. Most Americans knew something about

the famous trial of the Hungarian Josef Cardinal

Mindszenty, at which the Cardinal appeared zombie-like,

as though drugged or hypnotized. Other defendants at

Soviet “show trials” had displayed similar symptoms as

they recited unbelievable confessions in dull, cliché-

ridden monotones. Americans were familiar with the idea

that the communists had ways to control hapless people,

and Hunter’s new word helped pull together the unsettling

evidence into one sharp fear. The brainwashing

controversy intensified during the heavy 1952 fighting in

Korea, when the Chinese government launched a propaganda

offensive that featured recorded statements by captured

U.S. pilots, who “confessed” to a variety of war crimes

including the use of germ warfare.

The official American position on prisoner

confessions was that they were false and forced. As

expressed in an Air Force Headquarters document,

“Confessions can be of truthful details…. For purposes

of this section, ‘confessions’ are considered as being

the forced admission to a lie.” But if the military had

understandable reasons to gloss over the truth or falsity

of the confessions, this still did not address the fact

that confessions had been made at all. Nor did it lay to

rest the fears of those like Edward Hunter who saw the

confessions as proof that the communists now had

techniques “to put a man’s mind into a fog so that he

will mistake what is true for what is untrue, what is

right for what is wrong, and come to believe what did not

happen actually had happened, until he ultimately becomes

a robot for the Communist manipulator.”

By the end of the Korean War, 70 percent of the 7,190

U.S. prisoners held in China had either made confessions

or signed petitions calling for an end to the American

war effort in Asia. Fifteen percent collaborated fully

with the Chinese, and only 5 percent steadfastly

resisted. The American performance contrasted poorly with

that of the British, Australian, Turkish, and other

United Nations prisoners—among whom collaboration was

rare, even though studies showed they were treated about

as badly as the Americans. Worse, an alarming number of

the prisoners stuck by their confessions after returning

to the United States. They did not, as expected, recant

as soon as they stepped on U.S. soil. Puzzled and

dismayed by this wholesale collapse of morale among the

POWs, American opinion leaders settled in on Edward

Hunter’s explanation: The Chinese had somehow brainwashed

our boys.

But how? At the height of the brainwashing furor,

conservative spokesmen often seized upon the very mystery

of it all to give a religious cast to the political

debate. All communists have been, by definition,

brainwashed through satanic forces, they argued—thereby

making the enemy seem like robots completely devoid of

ordinary human feelings and motivation. Liberals favored

a more scientific view of the problem. Given the

incontrovertible evidence that the Russians and the

Chinese could, in a very short time and often under

difficult circumstances, alter the basic belief and

behavior patterns of both domestic and foreign captives,

liberals argued that there must be a technique involved

that would yield its secrets under objective


CIA Director Allen Dulles favored the scientific

approach, although he naturally encouraged his propaganda

experts to exploit the more emotional interpretations of

brainwashing. Dulles and the heads of the other American

security agencies became almost frantic in their efforts

to find out more about the Soviet and Chinese successes

in mind control. Under pressure for answers, Dulles

turned to Dr. Harold Wolff, a world-famous neurologist

with whom he had developed an intensely personal

relationship. Wolff was then treating Dulles’ own son for

brain damage suffered from a Korean War head wound.

Together they shared the trauma of the younger Dulles’

fits and mental lapses. Wolff, a skinny little doctor

with an overpowering personality, became fast friends

with the tall, patrician CIA Director. Dulles may have

seen brainwashing as an induced form of brain damage or

mental illness. In any case, in late 1953, he asked Wolff

to conduct an official study of communist brainwashing

techniques for the CIA. Wolff, who had become fascinated

by the Director’s tales of the clandestine world, eagerly


Harold Wolff was known primarily as an expert on

migraine headaches and pain, but he had served on enough

military and intelligence advisory panels that he knew

how to pick up Dulles’ mandate and expand on it. He

formed a working partnership with Lawrence Hinkle, his

colleague at Cornell University Medical College in New

York City. Hinkle handled the administrative part of the

study and shared in the substance. Before going ahead,

the two doctors made sure they had the approval of

Cornell’s president, Deane W. Malott and other high

university officials who checked with their contacts in

Washington to make sure the project did indeed have the

great importance that Allen Dulles stated. Hinkle recalls

a key White House aide urging Cornell to cooperate. The

university administration agreed, and soon Wolff and

Hinkle were poring over the Agency’s classified files on

brainwashing. CIA officials also helped arrange

interviews with former communist interrogators and

prisoners alike. “It was done with great secrecy,”

recalls Hinkle. “We went through a great deal of hoop-dedo

and signed secrecy agreements, which everyone took

very seriously.”

The team of Wolff and Hinkle became the chief

brainwashing studiers for the U.S. government, although

the Air Force and Army ran parallel programs.[1] Their

secret report to Allen Dulles, later published in a

declassified version, was considered the definitive U.S.

Government work on the subject. In fact, if allowances

are made for the Cold War rhetoric of the fifties, the

Wolff-Hinkle report still remains one of the better

accounts of the massive political re-education programs

in China and the Soviet Union. It stated flatly that

neither the Soviets nor the Chinese had any magical

weapons—no drugs, exotic mental ray-guns, or other

fanciful machines. Instead, the report pictured communist

interrogation methods resting on skillful, if brutal,

application of police methods. Its portrait of the Soviet

system anticipates, in dry and scholarly form, the work

of novelist Alexander Solzhenitzyn in The Gulag

Archipelago. Hinkle and Wolff showed that the Soviet

technique rested on the cumulative weight of intense

psychological pressure and human weakness, and this

thesis alone earned the two Cornell doctors the enmity of

the more right-wing CIA officials such as Edward Hunter.

Several of his former acquaintances remember that Hunter

was fond of saying that the Soviets brainwashed people

the way Pavlov had conditioned dogs.

In spite of some dissenters like Hunter, the Wolff-

Hinkle model became, with later refinements, the best

available description of extreme forms of political

indoctrination. According to the general consensus, the

Soviets started a new prisoner off by putting him in

solitary confinement. A rotating corps of guards watched

him constantly, humiliating and demeaning him at every

opportunity and making it clear he was totally cut off

from all outside support. The guards ordered him to stand

for long periods, let him sit, told him exactly the

position he could take to lie down, and woke him if he

moved in the slightest while sleeping. They banned all

outside stimuli—books, conversation, or news of the


After four to six weeks of this mind-deadening

routine, the prisoner usually found the stress unbearable

and broke down. “He weeps, he mutters, and prays aloud in

his cell,” wrote Hinkle and Wolff. When the prisoner

reached this stage, the interrogation began. Night after

night, the guards brought him into a special room to face

the interrogator. Far from confronting his captive with

specific misdeeds, the interrogator told him that he knew

his own crimes—all too well. In the most harrowing

Kafkaesque way, the prisoner tried to prove his innocence

to he knew not what. Together the interrogator and

prisoner reviewed the prisoner’s life in detail. The

interrogator seized on any inconsistency—no matter how

minute—as further evidence of guilt, and he laughed at

the prisoner’s efforts to justify himself. But at least

the prisoner was getting a response of some sort. The

long weeks of isolation and uncertainty had made him

grateful for human contact even grateful that his case

was moving toward resolution. True, it moved only as fast

as he was willing to incriminate himself, but . . .

Gradually, he came to see that he and his interrogator

were working toward the same goal of wrapping up his

case. In tandem, they ransacked his soul. The

interrogator would periodically let up the pressure. He

offered a cigarette, had a friendly chat, explained he

had a job to do—making it all the more disappointing the

next time he had to tell the prisoner that his confession

was unsatisfactory .

As the charges against him began to take shape, the

prisoner realized that he could end his ordeal only with

a full confession. Otherwise the grueling sessions would

go on forever. “The regimen of pressure has created an

overall discomfort which is well nigh intolerable,” wrote

Hinkle and Wolff. “The prisoner invariably feels that

‘something must be done to end this.’ He must find a way

out.” A former KGB officer, one of many former

interrogators and prisoners interviewed for the CIA

study, said that more than 99 percent of all prisoners

signed a confession at this stage.

In the Soviet system under Stalin, these confessions

were the final step of the interrogation process, and the

prisoners usually were shot or sent to a labor camp after

sentencing. Today, Russian leaders seem much less

insistent on exacting confessions before jailing their

foes, but they still use the penal (and mental health)

system to remove from the population classes of people

hostile to their rule.

The Chinese took on the more ambitious task of reeducating

their prisoners. For them, confession was only

the beginning. Next, the Chinese authorities moved the

prisoner into a group cell where his indoctrination

began. From morning to night, he and his fellow prisoners

studied Marx and Mao, listened to lectures, and engaged

in self-criticism. Since the progress of each member

depended on that of his cellmates, the group pounced on

the slightest misconduct as an indication of backsliding.

Prisoners demonstrated the zeal of their commitment by

ferociously attacking deviations. Constant intimacy with

people who reviled him pushed the resistant prisoner to

the limits of his emotional endurance. Hinkle and Wolff

found that “The prisoner must conform to the demands of

the group sooner or later.” As the prisoner developed

genuine changes of attitude, pressure on him relaxed. His

cellmates rewarded him with increasing acceptance and

esteem. Their acceptance, in turn, reinforced his

commitment to the Party, for he learned that only this

commitment allowed him to live successfully in the cell.

In many cases, this process produced an exultant sense of

mission in the prisoner—a feeling of having finally

straightened out his life and come to the truth. To be

sure, this experience, which was not so different from

religious conversion, did not occur in all cases or

always last after the prisoner returned to a social group

that did not reinforce it.

From the first preliminary studies of Wolff and

Hinkle, the U.S. intelligence community moved toward the

conclusion that neither the Chinese nor the Russians made

appreciable use of drugs or hypnosis, and they certainly

did not possess the brainwashing equivalent of the atomic

bomb (as many feared). Most of their techniques were

rooted in age-old methods, and CIA brainwashing

researchers like psychologist John Gittinger found

themselves poring over ancient documents on the Spanish

Inquisition. Furthermore, the communists used no

psychiatrists or other behavioral scientists to devise

their interrogation system. The differences between the

Soviet and Chinese systems seemed to grow out of their

respective national cultures. The Soviet brainwashing

system resembled a heavy-handed cop whose job was to

isolate, break, and then subdue all the troublemakers in

the neighborhood. The Chinese system was more like

thousands of skilled acupuncturists, working on each

other and relying on group pressure, ideology, and

repetition. To understand further the Soviet or Chinese

control systems, one had to plunge into the subtle

mysteries of national and individual character.

While CIA researchers looked into those questions,

the main thrust of the Agency’s brainwashing studies

veered off in a different direction. The logic behind the

switch was familiar in the intelligence business. Just

because the Soviets and the Chinese had not invented a

brainwashing machine, officials reasoned, there was no

reason to assume that the task was impossible. If such a

machine were even remotely feasible, one had to assume

the communists might discover it. And in that case,

national security required that the United States invent

the machine first. Therefore, the CIA built up its own

elaborate brainwashing program, which, like the Soviet

and Chinese versions, took its own special twist from our

national character. It was a tiny replica of the

Manhattan Project, grounded in the conviction that the

keys to brainwashing lay in technology. Agency officials

hoped to use old-fashioned American know-how to produce

shortcuts and scientific breakthroughs. Instead of

turning to tough cops, whose methods repelled American

sensibilities, or the gurus of mass motivation, whose

ideology Americans lacked, the Agency’s brainwashing

experts gravitated to people more in the mold of the

brilliant—and sometimes mad—scientist, obsessed by the

wonders of the brain.

In 1953 CIA Director Allen Dulles made a rare public

statement on communist brainwashing: “We in the West are

somewhat handicapped in getting all the details,” Dulles

declared. “There are few survivors, and we have no human

guinea pigs to try these extraordinary techniques.” Even

as Dulles spoke, however, CIA officials acting under his

orders had begun to find the scientists and the guinea

pigs. Some of their experiments would wander so far

across the ethical borders of experimental psychiatry

(which are hazy in their own right) that Agency officials

thought it prudent to have much of the work done outside

the United States.

Call her Lauren G. For 19 years, her mind has been

blank about her experience. She remembers her husband’s

driving her up to the old gray stone mansion that housed

the hospital, Allan Memorial Institute, and putting her

in the care of its director, Dr. D. Ewen Cameron. The

next thing she recalls happened three weeks later:

They gave me a dressing gown. It was way too big, and I

was tripping all over it. I was mad. I asked why did I

have to go round in this sloppy thing. I could hardly

move because I was pretty weak. I remember trying to walk

along the hall, and the walls were all slanted. It was

then that I said, “Holy Smokes, what a ghastly thing.” I

remember running out the door and going up the mountain

in my long dressing gown.

The mountain, named Mont Royal, loomed high above

Montreal. She stumbled and staggered as she tried to

climb higher and higher. Hospital staff members had no

trouble catching her and dragging her back to the

Institute. In short order, they shot her full of

sedatives, attached electrodes to her temples, and gave

her a dose of electroshock. Soon she slept like a baby.

Gradually, over the next few weeks, Lauren G. began

to function like a normal person again. She took basket-

weaving therapy and played bridge with her fellow

patients. The hospital released her, and she returned to

her husband in another Canadian city.

Before her mental collapse in 1959, Lauren G. seemed

to have everything going for her. A refined, glamorous

horsewoman of 30, whom people often said looked like

Elizabeth Taylor, she had auditioned for the lead in

National Velvet at 13 and married the rich boy next door

at 20. But she had never loved her husband and had let

her domineering mother push her into his arms. He drank

heavily. “I was really unhappy,” she recalls. “I had a

horrible marriage, and finally I had a nervous breakdown.

It was a combination of my trying to lose weight, sleep

loss, and my nerves.”

The family doctor recommended that her husband send

her to Dr. Cameron, which seemed like a logical thing to

do, considering his wide fame as a psychiatrist. He had

headed Allan Memorial since 1943, when the Rockefeller

Foundation had donated funds to set up a psychiatric

facility at McGill University. With continuing help from

the Rockefellers, McGill had built a hospital known far

beyond Canada’s borders as innovative and exciting.

Cameron was elected president of the American Psychiatric

Association in 1953, and he became the first president of

the World Psychiatric Association. His friends joked that

they had run out of honors to give him.

Cameron’s passion lay in the more “objective” forms

of therapy, with which he could more easily and swiftly

bring about improvements in patients than with the

notoriously slow Freudian methods. An impatient man, he

dreamed of finding a cure for schizophrenia. No one could

tell him he was not on the right track. Cameron’s

supporter at the Rockefeller Foundation, Robert Morrison,

recorded in his private papers that he found the

psychiatrist tense and ill-at-ease, and Morrison ventured

that this may account for “his lack of interest and

effectiveness in psychotherapy and failure to establish

warm personal relations with faculty members, both of

which were mentioned repeatedly when I visited Montreal.”

Another Rockefeller observer noted that Cameron “appears

to suffer from deep insecurity and has a need for power

which he nourishes by maintaining an extraordinary

aloofness from his associates.”

When Lauren G.’s husband delivered her to Cameron,

the psychiatrist told him she would receive some

electroshock, a standard treatment at the time. Besides

that, states her husband, “Cameron was not very

communicative, but I didn’t think she was getting

anything out of the ordinary.” The husband had no way of

knowing that Cameron would use an unproved experimental

technique on his wife—much less that the psychiatrist

intended to “depattern” her. Nor did he realize that the

CIA was supporting this work with about $19,000 a year in

secret funds.[2]

Cameron defined “depatterning” as breaking up

existing patterns of behavior, both the normal and the

schizophrenic, by means of particularly intensive

electroshocks, usually combined with prolonged, drug-

induced sleep. Here was a psychiatrist willing—indeed,

eager—to wipe the human mind totally clean. Back in 1951,

ARTICHOKE’s Morse Allen had likened the process to

“creation of a vegetable.” Cameron justified this tabula

rasa approach because he had a theory of “differential

amnesia,” for which he provided no statistical evidence

when he published it. He postulated that after he

produced “complete amnesia” in a subject, the person

would eventually recover memory of his normal but not his

schizophrenic behavior. Thus, Cameron claimed he could

generate “differential amnesia.” Creating such a state in

which a man who knew too much could be made to forget had

long been a prime objective of the ARTICHOKE and MKULTRA


Needless to say, Lauren G. does not recall a thing

today about those weeks when Cameron depatterned her.

Afterward, unlike over half of the psychiatrist’s

depatterning patients, Lauren G. gradually recovered full

recall of her life before the treatment, but then, she

remembered her mental problems, too.[3] Her husband says

she came out of the hospital much improved. She declares

the treatment had no effect one way or another on her

mental condition, which she believes resulted directly

from her miserable marriage. She stopped seeing Cameron

after about a month of outpatient electroshock

treatments, which she despised. Her relationship with her

husband further deteriorated, and two years later she

walked out on him. “I just got up on my own hind legs,”

she states. “I said the hell with it. I’m going to do

what I want and take charge of my own life. I left and

started over.” Now divorced and remarried, she feels she

has been happy ever since.

Cameron’s depatterning, of which Lauren G. had a

comparatively mild version, normally started with 15 to

30 days of “sleep therapy.” As the name implies, the

patient slept almost the whole day and night. According

to a doctor at the hospital who used to administer what

he calls the “sleep cocktail,” a staff member woke up the

patient three times a day for medication that consisted

of a combination of 100 mg. Thorazine, 100 mg. Nembutal,

100 mg. Seconal, 150 mg. Veronal, and 10 mg. Phenergan.

Another staff doctor would also awaken the patient two or

sometimes three times daily for electroshock

treatments.[4] This doctor and his assistant wheeled a

portable machine into the “sleep room” and gave the

subject a local anesthetic and muscle relaxant, so as not

to cause damage with the convulsions that were to come.

After attaching electrodes soaked in saline solution, the

attendant held the patient down and the doctor turned on

the current. In standard, professional electroshock,

doctors gave the subject a single dose of 110 volts,

lasting a fraction of a second, once a day or every other

day. By contrast, Cameron used a form 20 to 40 times more

intense, two or three times daily, with the power turned

up to 150 volts. Named the “Page-Russell” method after

its British originators, this technique featured an

initial one-second shock, which caused a major

convulsion, and then five to nine additional shocks in

the middle of the primary and follow-on convulsions. Even

Drs. Page and Russell limited their treatment to once a

day, and they always stopped as soon as their patient

showed “pronounced confusion” and became “faulty in

habits.” Cameron, however, welcomed this kind of

impairment as a sign the treatment was taking effect and

plowed ahead through his routine.

The frequent screams of patients that echoed through

the hospital did not deter Cameron or most of his

associates in their attempts to “depattern” their

subjects completely. Other hospital patients report being

petrified by the “sleep rooms,” where the treatment took

place, and they would usually creep down the opposite

side of the hall.

Cameron described this combined sleep-electroshock

treatment as lasting between 15 to 30 days, with some

subjects staying in up to 65 days (in which case, he

reported, he awakened them for three days in the middle).

Sometimes, as in the case of Lauren G., patients would

try to escape when the sedatives wore thin, and the staff

would have to chase after them. “It was a tremendous

nursing job just to keep these people going during the

treatment,” recalls a doctor intimately familiar with

Cameron’s operation. This doctor paints a picture of

dazed patients, incapable of taking care of themselves,

often groping their way around the hospital and urinating

on the floor.

Cameron wrote that his typical depatterning patient—

usually a woman—moved through three distinct stages. In

the first, the subject lost much of her memory. Yet she

still knew where she was, why she was there, and who the

people were who treated her. In the second phase, she

lost her “space-time image,” but still wanted to

remember. In fact, not being able to answer questions

like, “Where am I?” and “How did I get here?” caused her

considerable anxiety. In the third stage, all that

anxiety disappeared. Cameron described the state as “an

extremely interesting constriction of the range of

recollections which one ordinarily brings in to modify

and enrich one’s statements. Hence, what the patient

talks about are only his sensations of the moment, and he

talks about them almost exclusively in highly concrete

terms. His remarks are entirely uninfluenced by previous

recollections—nor are they governed in any way by his

forward anticipations. He lives in the immediate present.

All schizophrenic symptoms have disappeared. There is

complete amnesia for all events in his life.”

Lauren G. and 52 other subjects at Allan Memorial

received this level of depatterning in 1958 and 1959.

Cameron had already developed the technique when the CIA

funding started. The Agency sent the psychiatrist

research money to take the treatment beyond this point.

Agency officials wanted to know if, once Cameron had

produced the blank mind, he could then program in new

patterns of behavior, as he claimed he could. As early as

1953—the year he headed the American Psychiatric

Association—Cameron conceived a technique he called

“psychic driving,” by which he would bombard the subject

with repeated verbal messages. From tape recordings based

on interviews with the patient, he selected emotionally

loaded “cue statements”—first negative ones to get rid of

unwanted behavior and then positive to condition in

desired personality traits. On the negative side, for

example, the patient would hear this message as she lay

in a stupor:

Madeleine, you let your mother and father treat you as a

child all through your single life. You let your mother

check you up sexually after every date you had with a

boy. You hadn’t enough determination to tell her to stop

it. You never stood up for yourself against your mother

or father but would run away from trouble…. They used

to call you “crying Madeleine.” Now that you have two

children, you don’t seem to be able to manage them and

keep a good relationship with your husband. You are

drifting apart. You don’t go out together. You have not

been able to keep him interested sexually.

Leonard Rubenstein, Cameron’s principal assistant,

whose entire salary was paid from CIA-front funds, put

the message on a continuous tape loop and played it for

16 hours every day for several weeks. An electronics

technician, with no medical or psychological background,

Rubenstein, an electrical whiz, designed a giant tape

recorder that could play 8 loops for 8 patients at the

same time. Cameron had the speakers installed literally

under the pillows in the “sleep rooms.” “We made sure

they heard it,” says a doctor who worked with Cameron.

With some patients, Cameron intensified the negative

effect by running wires to their legs and shocking them

at the end of the message.

When Cameron thought the negative “psychic driving”

had gone far enough, he switched the patient over to 2 to

5 weeks of positive tapes:

You mean to get well. To do this you must let your

feelings come out. It is all right to express your

anger…. You want to stop your mother bossing you

around. Begin to assert yourself first in little things

and soon you will be able to meet her on an equal basis.

You will then be free to be a wife and mother just like

other women.

Cameron wrote that psychic driving provided a way to

make “direct, controlled changes in personality,” without

having to resolve the subject’s conflicts or make her

relive past experiences. As far as is known, no present-

day psychologist or psychiatrist accepts this view. Dr.

Donald Hebb, who headed McGill’s psychology department at

the time Cameron was in charge of psychiatry, minces no

words when asked specifically about psychic driving:

“That was an awful set of ideas Cameron was working with.

It called for no intellectual respect. If you actually

look at what he was doing and what he wrote, it would

make you laugh. If I had a graduate student who talked

like that, I’d throw him out.” Warming to his subject,

Hebb continues: “Look, Cameron was no good as a

researcher…. He was eminent because of politics.”

Nobody said such things at the time, however. Cameron was

a very powerful man.

The Scottish-born psychiatrist, who never lost the

burr in his voice, kept searching for ways to perfect

depatterning and psychic driving. He held out to the CIA

front—the Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology—

that he could find more rapid and less damaging ways to

break down behavior. He sent the Society a proposal that

combined his two techniques with sensory deprivation and

strong drugs. His smorgasbord approach brought together

virtually all possible techniques of mind control, which

he tested individually and together. When his Agency

grant came through in 1957, Cameron began work on sensory


For several years, Agency officials had been

interested in the interrogation possibilities of this

technique that Hebb himself had pioneered at McGill with

Canadian defense and Rockefeller money. It consisted of

putting a subject in a sealed environment—a small room or

even a large box—and depriving him of all sensory input:

eyes covered with goggles, ears either covered with muffs

or exposed to a constant, monotonous sound, padding to

prevent touching, no smells—with this empty regime

interrupted only by meal and bathroom breaks. In 1955

Morse Allen of ARTICHOKE made contact at the National

Institutes of Health with Dr. Maitland Baldwin who had

done a rather gruesome experiment in which an Army

volunteer had stayed in the “box” for 40 hours until he

kicked his way out after, in Baldwin’s words, “an hour of

crying loudly and sobbing in a most heartrending

fashion.” The experiment convinced Baldwin that the

isolation technique could break any man, no matter how

intelligent or strong-willed. Hebb, who unlike Baldwin

released his subjects when they wanted, had never left

anyone in “the box” for more than six days. Baldwin told

Morse Allen that beyond that sensory deprivation would

almost certainly cause irreparable damage. Nevertheless,

Baldwin agreed that if the Agency could provide the cover

and the subjects, he would do, according to Allen’s

report, “terminal type” experiments. After numerous

meetings inside the CIA on how and where to fund Baldwin,

an Agency medical officer finally shot down the project

as being “immoral and inhuman,” suggesting that those

pushing the experiments might want to “volunteer their

heads for use in Dr. Baldwin’s ‘noble’ project.”

With Cameron, Agency officials not only had a doctor

willing to perform terminal experiments in sensory

deprivation, but one with his own source of subjects. As

part of his CIA-funded research, he had a “box” built in

the converted stables behind the hospital that housed

Leonard Rubenstein and his behavioral laboratory.

Undaunted by the limits set in Hebb’s work, Cameron left

one woman in for 35 days, although he had so scrambled

her mind with his other techniques that one cannot say,

as Baldwin predicted to the Agency, if the prolonged

deprivation did specific damage. This subject’s name was

Mary C., and, try as he might, Cameron could not get

through to her. As the aloof psychiatrist wrote in his

notes: “Although the patient was prepared by both

prolonged sensory isolation (35 days) and by repeated

depatterning, and although she received 101 days of

positive driving, no favorable results were obtained.”[5]

Before prescribing this treatment, Cameron had diagnosed

the 52-year-old Mary C.: “Conversion reaction in a woman

of the involutional age with mental anxiety;

hypochondriatic.” In other words, Mary C. was going

through menopause.

In his proposal to the CIA front, Cameron also said

he would test curare, the South American arrow poison

which, when liberally applied, kills by paralyzing

internal body functions. In nonlethal doses, curare

causes a limited paralysis which blocks but does not stop

these functions. According to his papers, some of which

wound up in the archives of the American Psychiatric

Association, Cameron injected subjects with curare in

conjunction with sensory deprivation, presumably to

immobilize them further.

Cameron also tested LSD in combination with psychic

driving and other techniques. In late 1956 and early

1957, one of his subjects was Val Orlikow, whose husband

David has become a member of the Canadian parliament.

Suffering from what she calls a “character neurosis that

started with postpartum depression,” she entered Allan

Memorial as one of Cameron’s personal patients. He soon

put her under his version of LSD therapy. One to four

times a week, he or another doctor would come into her

room and give her a shot of LSD, mixed with either a

stimulant or a depressant and then leave her alone with a

tape recorder that played excerpts from her last session

with him. As far as is known, no other LSD researcher

ever subjected his patients to unsupervised trips—

certainly not over the course of two months when her

hospital records show she was given LSD 14 times. “It was

terrifying,” Mrs. Orlikow recalls. “You’re afraid you’ve

gone off somewhere and can’t come back.” She was supposed

to write down on a pad whatever came into her head while

listening to the tapes, but often she became so

frightened that she could not write at all. “You become

very small,” she says, as her voice quickens and starts

to reflect some of her horror. “You’re going to fall off

the step, and God, you’re going down into hell because

it’s so far, and you are so little. Like Alice, where is

the pill that makes you big, and you’re a squirrel, and

you can’t get out of the cage, and somebody’s going to

kill you.” Then, suddenly, Mrs. Orlikow pulls out of it

and lucidly states, “Some very weird things happened.”

Mrs. Orlikow hated the LSD treatment. Several times

she told Cameron she would take no more, and the

psychiatrist would put his arm around her and ask,

“Lassie,” which he called all his women patients, “don’t

you want to get well, so you can go home and see your

husband?” She remembers feeling guilty about not

following the doctor’s orders, and the thought of

disappointing Cameron, whom she idolized, crushed her.

Finally, after Cameron talked her out of quitting the

treatment several times, she had to end it. She left the

hospital but stayed under his private care. In 1963 he

put her back in the hospital for more intensive psychic

driving. “I thought he was God,” she states. “I don’t

know how I could have been so stupid…. A lot of us were

naive. We thought psychiatrists had the answers. Here was

the greatest in the world, with all these titles.”

In defense of Cameron, a former associate says the

man truly cared about the welfare of his patients. He

wanted to make them well. As his former staff

psychologist wrote:

He abhorred the waste of human potential, seen most

dramatically in the young people whose minds were

distorted by what was then considered to be

schizophrenia. He felt equally strongly about the loss of

wisdom in the aged through memory malfunction. For him,

the end justified the means, and when one is dealing with

the waste of human potential, it is easy to adopt this


Cameron retired abruptly in 1964, for unexplained

reasons. His successor, Dr. Robert Cleghorn, made a

virtually unprecedented move in the academic world of

mutual back-scratching and praise. He commissioned a

psychiatrist and a psychologist, unconnected to Cameron,

to study his electroshock work. They found that 60

percent of Cameron’s depatterned patients complained they

still had amnesia for the period 6 months to 10 years

before the therapy.[6] They could find no clinical proof

that showed the treatment to be any more or less

effective than other approaches. They concluded that “the

incidence of physical complications and the anxiety

generated in the patient because of real or imagined

memory difficulty argue against” future use of the


The study-team members couched their report in

densely academic jargon, but one of them speaks more

clearly now. He talks bitterly of one of Cameron’s former

patients who needs to keep a list of her simplest

household chores to remember how to do them. Then he

repeats several times how powerful a man Cameron was, how

he was “the godfather of Canadian psychiatry.” He

continues, “I probably shouldn’t talk about this, but

Cameron—for him to do what he did—he was a very

schizophrenic guy, who totally detached himself from the

human implications of his work . . . God, we talk about

concentration camps. I don’t want to make this

comparison, but God, you talk about ‘we didn’t know it

was happening,’ and it was—right in our back yard.”

Cameron died in 1967, at age 66, while climbing a

mountain. The American Journal of Psychiatry published a

long and glowing obituary with a full-page picture of his

not-unpleasant face.

D. Ewen Cameron did not need the CIA to corrupt him.

He clearly had his mind set on doing unorthodox research

long before the Agency front started to fund him. With

his own hospital and source of subjects, he could have

found elsewhere encouragement and money to replace the

CIA’s contribution which never exceeded $20,000 a year.

However, Agency officials knew exactly what they were

paying for. They traveled periodically to Montreal to

observe his work, and his proposal was chillingly

explicit. In Cameron, they had a doctor, conveniently

outside the United States, willing to do terminal

experiments in electroshock, sensory deprivation, drug

testing, and all of the above combined. By literally

wiping the minds of his subjects clean by depatterning

and then trying to program in new behavior, Cameron

carried the process known as “brainwashing” to its

logical extreme.

It cannot be said how many—if any—other Agency

brainwashing projects reached the extremes of Cameron’s

work. Details are scarce, since many of the principal

witnesses have died, will not talk about what went on, or

lie about it. In what ways the CIA applied work like

Cameron’s is not known. What is known, however, is that

the intelligence community, including the CIA, changed

the face of the scientific community during the 1950s and

early 1960s by its interest in such experiments. Nearly

every scientist on the frontiers of brain research found

men from the secret agencies looking over his shoulders,

impinging on the research. The experience of Dr. John

Lilly illustrates how this intrusion came about.

In 1953 Lilly worked at the National Institutes of

Health, outside Washington, doing experimental studies in

an effort to “map” the body functions controlled from

various locations in the brain. He devised a method of

pounding up to 600 tiny sections of hypodermic tubing

into the skulls of monkeys, through which he could insert

electrodes “into the brain to any desired distance and at

any desired location from the cortex down to the bottom

of the skull,” he later wrote. Using electric

stimulation, Lilly discovered precise centers of the

monkeys’ brains that caused pain, fear, anxiety, and

anger. He also discovered precise, separate parts of the

brain that controlled erection, ejaculation, and orgasm

in male monkeys. Lilly found that a monkey, given access

to a switch operating a correctly planted electrode,

would reward himself with nearly continuous orgasms—at

least once every 3 minutes—for up to 16 hours a day.

As Lilly refined his brain “maps,” officials of the

CIA and other agencies descended upon him with a request

for a briefing. Having a phobia against secrecy, Lilly

agreed to the briefing only under the condition that it

and his work remain unclassified, completely open to

outsiders. The intelligence officials submitted to the

conditions most reluctantly, since they knew that Lilly’s

openness would not only ruin the spy value of anything

they learned but could also reveal the identities and the

interests of the intelligence officials to enemy agents.

They considered Lilly annoying, uncooperative—possibly

even suspicious.

Soon Lilly began to have trouble going to meetings

and conferences with his colleagues. As part of the

cooperation with the intelligence agencies, most of them

had agreed to have their projects officially classified

as SECRET, which meant that access to the information

required a security clearance.[7] Lilly’s security

clearance was withdrawn for review, then tangled up and

misplaced—all of which he took as pressure to cooperate

with the CIA. Lilly, whose imagination needed no

stimulation to conjure up pictures of CIA agents on

deadly missions with remote-controlled electrodes

strategically implanted in their brains, decided to

withdraw from that field of research. He says he had

decided that the physical intrusion of the electrodes did

too much brain damage for him to tolerate.

In 1954 Lilly began trying to isolate the operations

of the brain, free of outside stimulation, through

sensory deprivation. He worked in an office next to Dr.

Maitland Baldwin, who the following year agreed to

perform terminal sensory deprivation experiments for

ARTICHOKE’s Morse Allen but who never told Lilly he was

working in the field. While Baldwin experimented with his

sensory-deprivation “box,” Lilly invented a special

“tank.” Subjects floated in a tank of body-temperature

water wearing a face mask that provided air but cut off

sight and sound. Inevitably, intelligence officials

swooped down on Lilly again, interested in the use of his

tank as an interrogation tool. Could involuntary subjects

be placed in the tank and broken down to the point where

their belief systems or personalities could be altered?

It was central to Lilly’s ethic that he himself be

the first subject of any experiment, and, in the case of

the consciousness-exploring tank work, he and one

colleague were the only ones. Lilly realized that the

intelligence agencies were not interested in sensory

deprivation because of its positive benefits, and he

finally concluded that it was impossible for him to work

at the National Institutes of Health without compromising

his principles. He quit in 1958.

Contrary to most people’s intuitive expectations,

Lilly found sensory deprivation to be a profoundly

integrating experience for himself personally. He

considered himself to be a scientist who subjectively

explored the far wanderings of the brain. In a series of

private experiments, he pushed himself into the complete

unknown by injecting pure Sandoz LSD into his thigh

before climbing into the sensory-deprivation tank.[8]

When the counterculture sprang up, Lilly became something

of a cult figure, with his unique approach to scientific

inquiry—though he was considered more of an outcast by

many in the professional research community.

For most of the outside world, Lilly became famous

with the release of the popular film, The Day of the

Dolphin, which the filmmakers acknowledged was based on

Lilly’s work with dolphins after he left NIH. Actor

George C. Scott portrayed a scientist, who, like Lilly,

loved dolphins, did pioneering experiments on their

intelligence, and tried to find ways to communicate with

them. In the movie, Scott became dismayed when the

government pounced on his breakthrough in talking to

dolphins and turned it immediately to the service of war.

In real life, Lilly was similarly dismayed when Navy and

CIA scientists trained dolphins for special warfare in

the waters off Vietnam.[9]

A few scientists like Lilly made up their minds not

to cross certain ethical lines in their experimental

work, while others were prepared to go further even than

their sponsors from ARTICHOKE and MKULTRA. Within the

Agency itself, there was only one final question: Will a

technique work? CIA officials zealously tracked every

lead, sparing no expense to check each angle many times


By the time the MKULTRA program ended in 1963, Agency

researchers had found no foolproof way to brainwash

another person.[10] “All experiments beyond a certain

point always failed,” says the MKULTRA veteran, “because

the subject jerked himself back for some reason or the

subject got amnesiac or catatonic.” Agency officials

found through work like Cameron’s that they could create

“vegetables,” but such people served no operational use.

People could be tortured into saying anything, but no

science could guarantee that they would tell the truth.

The impotency of brainwashing techniques left the

Agency in a difficult spot when Yuri Nosenko defected to

the United States in February 1964. A ranking official of

the Soviet KGB, Nosenko brought with him stunning

information. He said the Russians had bugged the American

embassy in Moscow, which turned out to be true. He named

some Russian agents in the West. And he said that he had

personally inspected the KGB file of Lee Harvey Oswald,

who only a few months earlier had been murdered before he

could be brought to trial for the assassination of

President Kennedy. Nosenko said he learned that the KGB

had had no interest in Oswald.

Was Nosenko telling the truth, or was he a KGB

“plant” sent to throw the United States off track about

Oswald? Was his information about penetration correct, or

was Nosenko himself the penetration? Was he acting in

good faith? Were the men within the CIA who believed he

was acting in good faith themselves acting in good faith?

These and a thousand other questions made up the

classical trick deck for spies—each card having “true” on

one side and “false” on the other.

Top CIA officials felt a desperate need to resolve

the issue of Nosenko’s legitimacy. With numerous Agency

counterintelligence operations hanging in the balance,

Richard Helms, first as Deputy Director and then as

Director, allowed CIA operators to work Nosenko over with

the interrogation method in which Helms apparently had

the most faith. It turned out to be not any truth serum

or electroshock depatterning program or anything else

from the Agency’s brainwashing search. Helms had Nosenko

put through the tried-and-true Soviet method: isolate the

prisoner, deaden his senses, break him. For more than

three years—1,277 days, to be exact—Agency officers kept

Nosenko in solitary confinement. As if they were using

the Hinkle-Wolff study as their instruction manual and

the Cardinal Mindszenty case as their success story, the

CIA men had guards watch over Nosenko day and night,

giving him not a moment of privacy. A light bulb burned

continuously in his cell. He was allowed nothing to read—

not even the labels on toothpaste boxes. When he tried to

distract himself by making a chess set from pieces of

lint in his cell, the guards discovered his game and

swept the area clean. Nosenko had no window, and he was

eventually put in a specially built 12′ X 12′ steel bank


Nosenko broke down. He hallucinated. He talked his

head off to his interrogators, who questioned him for 292

days, often while they had him strapped into a lie

detector. If he told the truth, they did not believe him.

While the Soviets and Chinese had shown that they could

make a man admit anything, the CIA interrogators

apparently lacked a clear idea of exactly what they

wanted Nosenko to confess. When it was all over and

Richard Helms ordered Nosenko freed after three and a

half years of illegal detention, some key Agency officers

still believed he was a KGB plant. Others thought he was

on the level. Thus the big questions remained unresolved,

and to this day, CIA men—past and present—are bitterly

split over who Nosenko really is.

With the Nosenko case, the CIA’s brainwashing

programs had come full circle. Spurred by the widespread

alarm over communist tactics, Agency officials had

investigated the field, started their own projects, and

looked to the latest technology to make improvements.

After 10 years of research, with some rather gruesome

results, CIA officials had come up with no techniques on

which they felt they could rely. Thus, when the

operational crunch came, they fell back on the basic

brutality of the Soviet system.


Edward Hunter’s article ” ‘Brain-Washing’ Tactics

Force Chinese into Ranks of Communist Party” appeared in

the Miami News on September 24, 1950. His book was

Brainwashing in Red China (New York: Vanguard Press,

1951). Other material came from several interviews with

Hunter just before he died in June 1978.

The Air Force document cited on brainwashing was

called “Air Force Headquarters Panel Convened to Record

Air Force Position Regarding Conduct of Personnel in

Event of Capture,” December 14, 1953. Researcher Sam

Zuckerman found it and showed it to me.

The figures on American prisoners in Korea and the

quote from Edward Hunter came from hearings before the

Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations,84th

Congress, June 19,20,26, and 27, 1956.

The material on the setting up of the Cornell-Hinkle-

Wolff study came from interviews with Hinkle, Helen

Goodell, and several CIA sources. Hinkle’s and Wolff’s

study on brainwashing appeared in classified form on 2

April 1956 as a Technical Services Division publication

called Communist Control Techniques and in substantially

the same form but unclassified as “Communist

Interrogation and Indoctrination of ‘Enemies of the

State’—An Analysis of Methods Used by the Communist State

Police.” AMA Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry,

August, 1956, Vol. 76.

Allen Dulles spoke on “Brain Warfare” before the

Alumni Conference of Princeton University, Hot Springs,

Virginia on April 10, 1953, and the quote on guinea pigs

came from that speech.

The comments of Rockefeller Foundation officials

about D. Ewen Cameron and the record of Rockefeller

funding were found in Robert S. Morrison’s diary, located

in the Rockefeller Foundation Archives, Pocantico Hills,

New York.

The key articles on Cameron’s work on depatterning

and psychic driving were “Production of Differential

Amnesia as a Factor in the Treatment of Schizophrenia,”

Comprehensive Psychiatry, 1960, 1, p. 26 and “Effects of

Repetition of Verbal Signals upon the Behavior of Chronic

Psychoneurotic Patients” by Cameron, Leonard Levy, and

Leonard Rubenstein, Journal of Mental Science, 1960, 106,

742. The background on Page-Russell electroshocks came

from “Intensified Electrical Convulsive Therapy in the

Treatment of Mental Disorders” by L. G. M. Page and R. J.

Russell, Lancet, Volume 254, Jan.—June, 1948. Dr. John

Cavanagh of Washington, D.C. provided background on

the use of electroshock and sedatives in psychiatry.

Cameron’s MKULTRA subproject was #68. See especially

document 68-37, “Application for Grant to Study the

Effects upon Human Behavior of the Repetition of Verbal

Signals,” January 21, 1957.

Part of Cameron’s papers are in the archives of the

American Psychiatric Association in Washington, and they

provided considerable information on the treatment of

Mary C., as well as a general look at his work.

Interviews with at least a dozen of his former colleagues

also provided considerable information.

Interviews Yvith John Lilly and Donald Hebb provided

background on sensory deprivation. Maitland Baldwin’s

work in the field was discussed in a whole series of

ARTICHOKE documents including #A/B, I,76/4, 21 March

1955, Subject: Total Isolation; #A/B,1, 76/12, 19 May

1955, Subject: Total Isolation—Additional Comments; and

#A/B, I, 76/17,27 April 1955, Subject: Total Isolation,

Supplemental Report #2. The quote from Aldous Huxley on

sensory deprivation is taken from the book of his

writings, Moksha: Writings on Psychedelics and the

Visionary Experience (1931-1963), edited by Michael

Horowitz and Cynthia Palmer (New York: Stonehill, 1978).

The material on Val Orlikow’s experiences with Dr.

Cameron came from interviews with her and her husband

David and from portions of her hospital records, which

she furnished.

Cameron’s staff psychologist Barbara Winrib’s

comments on him were found in a letter to the Montreal

Star, August 11, 1977.

The study of Cameron’s electroshock work ordered by

Dr. Cleghorn was published as “Intensive

Electroconvulsive Therapy: A Follow-up Study,” by A. E.

Schwartzman and P. E. Termansen, Canadian Psychiatric

Association, Volume 12, 1967.

In addition to several interviews, much material on

John Lilly came from his autobiography, The Scientist

(Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1978).

The CIA’s handling of Yuri Nosenko was discussed at length in hearings before the House Assassinations

Committee on September 15, 1978. The best press account of this testimony was written by Jeremiah O’Leary of the Washington Star on September 16, 1978: “How CIA Tried to Break Defector in Oswald Case.”


1. Among the Air Force and Army project leaders were Dr. Fred Williams of the Air Force Psychological Warfare Division, Robert Jay Lifton, Edgar Schein, Albert Biderman, and Lieutenant Colonel James Monroe (an Air Force officer who would later go to work full time in CIA behavioral programs).

2. Cameron himself may not have known that the Agency was the ultimate source of these funds which came through a conduit, the Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology. A CIA document stated he was unwitting when the grants started in 1957, and it cannot be said whether he ever found out.

3. Cameron wrote that when a patient remembered his schizophrenic symptoms, the schizophrenic behavior usually returned. If the amnesia held for these symptoms, as Cameron claimed it often did, the subject usually did not have a relapse. Even in his “cured” patients, Cameron found that Rorschach tests continued to show schizophrenic thinking despite the improvement in overt behavior. To a layman, this would seem to indicate that Cameron’s approach got only at the symptoms, not the causes of mental problems. Not deterred, however, Cameron dismissed this inconsistency as a “persistent enigma.”

4. Cameron wrote in a professional journal that he gave only two electroshocks a day, but a doctor who

actually administered the treatment for him says that three were common at the beginning of the therapy.

5. In his proposal to the Human Ecology group, Cameron wrote that his subjects would be spending only 16 hours a day in sensory deprivation, while they listened to psychic driving tapes (thus providing some outside stimuli). Nevertheless, one of Cameron’s colleagues states that some patients, including Mary C. were in continuously. Always looking for a better way, Cameron almost certainly tried both variations.

6. Cleghorn’s team found little loss of memory on objective tests, like the Wechsler Memory Scale but

speculated that these tests measured a different memory function—short-term recall—than that the subjects claimed to be missing.

7. Lilly and other veterans of government-supported research note that there is a practical advantage for the scientist who allows his work to be classified: it gives him an added claim on government funds. He is then in a position to argue that if his work is important enough to be SECRET, it deserves money.

8. As was the case with LSD work, sensory deprivation research had both a mind control and a transcendental side. Aldous Huxley wrote thusly about the two pioneers in the field: “What men like Hebb and Lilly are doing in the laboratory was done by the Christian hermits in the Thebaid and elsewhere, and by Hindu and Tibetan hermits in the remote fastness of the Himalayas. My own belief is that these experiences really tell us something about the nature of the universe, that they are valuable in themselves and, above all, valuable when incorporated into our world-picture and acted upon [in] normal life.”

9. In a program called “swimmer nullification,” government scientists trained dolphins to attack enemy

frogmen with huge needles attached to their snouts. The dolphins carried tanks of compressed air, which when jabbed into a deepdiver caused him to pop dead to the surface. A scientist who worked in this CIA-Navy program states that some of the dolphins sent to Vietnam during the late 1960s got out of their pens and disappeared— unheard of behavior for trained dolphins. John Lilly confirms that a group of the marine mammals stationed at Cam Ranh Bay did go AWOL, and he adds that he heard that some eventually returned with their bodies and fins covered with attack marks made by other dolphins.

10. After 1963 the Agency’s Science and Technology Directorate continued brain research with unknown

results. See Chapter 12.

Human Ecology

Well before Harold Wolff and Lawrence Hinkle finished their brainwashing study for Allen Dulles in 1956, Wolff was trying to expand his role in CIA research and operations. He offered Agency officials the cooperation of his colleagues at Cornell University, where he taught neurology and psychiatry in the Medical College. In proposal after proposal, Wolff pressed upon the CIA his idea that to understand human behavior—and how governments might manipulate it—one had to study man in relationship to his total environment. Calling this field “human ecology,” Wolff drew into it the disciplines of psychology, medicine, sociology, and anthropology. In the academic world of the early 1950s, this cross-disciplinary approach was somewhat new, as was the word “ecology,” but it made sense to CIA officials. Like Wolff, they were far in advance of the trends in the behavioral sciences.

Wolff carved out vast tracts of human knowledge, some only freshly discovered, and proposed a partnership with the Agency for the task of mastering that knowledge for operational use. It was a time when knowledge itself seemed bountiful and promising, and Wolff was expansive about how the CIA could harness it. Once he figured out how the human mind really worked, he wrote, he would tell the Agency “how a man can be made to think, ‘feel,’ and behave according to the wishes of other men, and,

conversely, how a man can avoid being influenced in this manner.”

Such notions, which may now appear naive or perverse, did not seem so unlikely at the height of the Cold War. And Wolff’s professional stature added weight to his ideas. Like D. Ewen Cameron, he was no obscure academic.

He had been President of the New York Neurological Association and would become, in 1960, President of the American Neurological Association. He served for several years as editor-in-chief of the American Medical Association’s Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry. Both by credentials and force of personality, Wolff was an impressive figure. CIA officials listened respectfully to his grand vision of how spies and doctors could work symbiotically to help—if not save—the world. Also, the Agency men never forgot that Wolff had become close to Director Allen Dulles while treating Dulles’ son for brain damage.

Wolff’s specialized neurological practice led him to believe that brain maladies, like migraine headaches,

occurred because of disharmony between man and his environment. In this case, he wrote to the Agency, “The problem faced by the physician is quite similar to that faced by the Communist interrogator.” Both would be trying to put their subject back in harmony with his environment whether the problem was headache or ideological dissent. Wolff believed that the beneficial effects of any new interrogation technique would naturally spill over into the treatment of his patients, and vice versa. Following the Soviet model, he felt he could help his patients by putting them into an isolated, disoriented state—from which it would be easier to create new behavior patterns. Although Russian-style isolation cells were impractical at Cornell, Wolff hoped to get the same effect more quickly through sensory deprivation. He

told the Agency that sensory-deprivation chambers had “valid medical reason” as part of a treatment that

relieved migraine symptoms and made the patient “more receptive to the suggestions of the psychotherapist.” He proposed keeping his patients in sensory deprivation until they “show an increased desire to talk and to escape from the procedure.” Then, he said, doctors could “utilize material from their own past experience in order to create psychological reactions within them.” This procedure drew heavily on the Stalinist method. It cannot be said what success, if any, Wolff had with it to the benefit of his patients at Cornell.

Wolff offered to devise ways to use the broadest cultural and social processes in human ecology for covert operations. He understood that every country had unique customs for child rearing, military training, and nearly every other form of human intercourse. From the CIA’s point of view, he noted, this kind of sociological information could be applied mainly to indoctrinating and motivating people. He distinguished these motivating techniques from the “special methods” that he felt were ‘more relevant to subversion, seduction, and interrogation.” He offered to study those methods, too, and asked the Agency to give him access to everything in its files on “threats, coercion, imprisonment, isolation, deprivation, humiliation, torture, ‘brainwashing, “black psychiatry,’ hypnosis, and combinations of these with or without chemical agents.” Beyond mere study, Wolff volunteered the unwitting use of Cornell patients for

brainwashing experiments, so long as no one got hurt. He added, however, that he would advise the CIA on experiments that harmed their subjects if they were performed elsewhere. He obviously felt that only the grandest sweep of knowledge, flowing freely between scholar and spy, could bring the best available

techniques to bear on their respective subjects.

In 1955 Wolff incorporated his CIA-funded study group as the Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology, with himself as president.[1] Through the Society, Wolff extended his efforts for the Agency, and his organization turned into a CIA-controlled funding mechanism for studies and experiments in the behavioral sciences. In the early days of the Society, Agency officials trusted Wolff and his untried ideas with a sensitive espionage assignment. In effect, the new specialty of human ecology was going to telescope the stages of research and application into one continuing process.

Speeding up the traditional academic method was required because the CIA men faced an urgent problem. “What was bothering them,” Lawrence Hinkle explains, “was that the Chinese had cleaned up their agents in China…. What they really wanted to do was come up with some Chinese [in America], steer them to us, and make them into agents.” Wolff accepted the challenge and suggested that the Cornell group hide its real purpose behind the cover of investigating “the ecological aspects of disease” among Chinese refugees. The Agency gave the project a budget of $84,175 (about 30 percent of the money it put into Cornell in 1955) and supplied the study group with 100 Chinese refugees to work with. Nearly all these

subjects had been studying in the United States when the communists took over the mainland in 1949, so they tended to be dislocated people in their thirties.

On the Agency side, the main concern, as expressed by one ARTICHOKE man, was the “security hazard” of bringing together so many potential agents in one place. Nevertheless, CIA officials decided to go ahead. Wolff promised to tell them about the inner reaches of the Chinese character, and they recognized the operational advantage that insight into Chinese behavior patterns could provide. Moreover, Wolff said he would pick out the most useful possible agents. The Human Ecology Society would then offer these candidates “fellowships” and subject them to more intensive interviews and “stress producing” situations. The idea was to find out about their personalities, past conditioning, and present motivations, in order to figure out how they might perform in future predicaments—such as finding themselves back in Mainland China as American agents. In the process, Wolff hoped to mold these Chinese into people willing to work for the CIA. Mindful of leaving some cover for Cornell, he was adamant that Agency operators not connected with the project make the actual recruitment pitch to those Chinese whom the Agency men

wanted as agents.

As a final twist, Wolff planned to provide each agent with techniques to withstand the precise forms of hostile interrogation they could expect upon returning to China. CIA officials wanted to “precondition” the agents in order to create long lasting motivation “impervious to lapse of time and direct psychological attacks by the enemy.” In other words, Agency men planned to brainwash their agents in order to protect them against Chinese brainwashing.

Everything was covered—in theory, at least. Wolff was going to take a crew of 100 refugees and turn as many of them as possible into detection-proof, live agents inside China, and he planned to do the job quickly through human ecology. It was a heady chore for the Cornell professor to take on after classes.

Wolff hired a full complement of psychologists, psychiatrists, and anthropologists to work on the

project. He bulldozed his way through his colleagues’ qualms and government red tape alike. Having hired an anthropologist before learning that the CIA security office would not give her a clearance, Wolff simply lied to her about where the money came from. “It was a function of Wolff’s imperious nature,” says his partner Hinkle. “If a dog came in and threw up on the rug during a lecture, he would continue.” Even the CIA men soon found that Harold Wolff was not to be trifled with. “From the Agency side, I don’t know anyone who wasn’t scared of him,” recalls a longtime CIA associate. “He was an autocratic man. I never knew him to chew anyone out. He didn’t have to. We were damned respectful. He moved in

high places. He was just a skinny little man but talk about mind control! He was one of the controllers.”

In the name of the Human Ecology Society, the CIA paid $1,200 a month to rent a fancy town house on

Manhattan’s East 78th Street to house the Cornell group and its research projects Agency technicians traveled to New York in December 1954 to install eavesdropping microphones around the building. These and other more obvious security devices—safes, guards, and the like—made the town house look different from the academic center it was supposed to be. CIA liaison personnel held meetings with Wolff and the staff in the secure confines of the town house, and they all carefully watched the 100 Chinese a few blocks away at the Cornell hospital. The Society paid each subject $25 a day so the researchers could test them, probe them, and generally learn all they could about Chinese people—or at least about middle-

class, displaced, anti-Communist ones.

It is doubtful that any of Wolff’s Chinese ever returned to their homeland as CIA agents, or that all of

Wolff’s proposals were put into effect. In any case, the project was interrupted in midstream by a major shake-up in the CIA’s entire mind-control effort. Early in 1955, Sid Gottlieb and his Ph.D. crew from TSS took over most of the ARTICHOKE functions, including the Society, from Morse Allen and the Pinkerton types in the Office of Security. The MKULTRA men moved quickly to turn the Society into an entity that looked and acted like a legitimate foundation. First they smoothed over the ragged covert edges. Out came the bugs and safes so dear to Morse Allen and company. The new crew even made some effort (largely unsuccessful) to attract non-CIA funds. The biggest change, however, was the Cornell professors now had to deal with Agency representatives who were scientists and who had strong ideas of their own on research questions. Up to this point, the Cornellians had been able to keep the CIA’s involvement within bounds acceptable to them. While Harold Wolff never ceased wanting to explore the furthest reaches of behavior control, his colleagues were wary of going on to the outer limits—at least under Cornell cover.

No one would ever confuse MKULTRA projects with ivory-tower research, but Gottlieb’s people did take a more academic—and sophisticated—approach to behavioral research than their predecessors. The MKULTRA men understood that not every project would have an immediate operational benefit, and they believed less and less in the existence of that one just-over-the-horizon technique that would turn men into puppets. They favored increasing their knowledge of human behavior in relatively small steps, and they concentrated on the reduced goal of influencing and manipulating their subjects. “You’re ahead of the game if you can get people to do something ten percent more often than they would otherwise,” says an MKULTRA veteran.

Accordingly, in 1956, Sid Gottlieb approved a $74,000 project to have the Human Ecology Society study the factors that caused men to defect from their countries and cooperate with foreign governments. MKULTRA officials reasoned that if they could understand what made old turncoats tick, it might help them entice new ones. While good case officers instinctively seemed to know how to handle a potential agent—or thought they did—the MKULTRA men hoped to come up with systematic, even scientific

improvements. Overtly, Harold Wolff designed the program to look like a follow-up study to the Society’s earlier programs, noting to the Agency that it was “feasible to study foreign nationals under the cover of a medical-sociological study.” (He told his CIA funders that “while some information of general value to science should be produced, this in itself will not be a sufficient justification for carrying out a study of this nature.”) Covertly, he declared the purpose of the research was to assess defectors’ social and cultural background, their life experience, and their personality structure, in order to understand their motivations, value systems, and probable future reactions.

The 1956 Hungarian revolt occurred as the defector study was getting underway, and the Human Ecology group, with CIA headquarters approval, decided to turn the defector work into an investigation of 70 Hungarian refugees from that upheaval. By then, most of Harold Wolff’s team had been together through the brainwashing and Chinese studies. While not all of them knew of the CIA’s specific interests, they had streamlined their procedures for answering the questions that Agency officials found interesting. They ran the Hungarians through the battery of tests and observations in six months, compared to a year and a half for the Chinese project.

The Human Ecology Society reported that most of their Hungarian subjects had fought against the Russians during the Revolution and that they had lived through extraordinarily difficult circumstances, including arrest, mistreatment, and indoctrination. The psychologists and psychiatrists found that, often, those who had survived with the fewest problems had been those with markedly aberrant personalities. “This observation has added to the evidence that healthy people are not necessarily ‘normal,’ but are people particularly adapted to their special life situations,” the group declared.

While CIA officials liked the idea that their Hungarian subjects had not knuckled under communist

influence, they recognized that they were working with a skewed sample. American visa restrictions kept most of the refugee left-wingers and former communist officials out of the United States; so, as a later MKULTRA document would state, the Society wound up studying “western-tied rightist elements who had never been accepted completely” in postwar Hungary. Agency researchers realized that these people would “contribute little” toward increasing the CIA’s knowledge of the processes that made a communist official change his loyalties.

In order to broaden their data base, MKULTRA officials decided in March 1957 to bring in some unwitting help. They gave a contract to Rutgers University sociologists Richard Stephenson and Jay

Schulman “to throw as much light as possible on the sociology of the communist system in the throes of

revolution.” The Rutgers professors started out by interviewing the 70 Hungarians at Cornell in New York, and Schulman went on to Europe to talk to disillusioned Communists who had also fled their country. From an operational point of view, these were the people the Agency really cared about; but, as socialists, most of them probably would have resisted sharing their experiences with the CIA—if they had known.[2]

Jay Schulman would have resisted, too. After discovering almost 20 years later that the Agency had

paid his way and seen his confidential interviews, he feels misused. “In 1957 I was myself a quasi-Marxist and if I had known that this study was sponsored by the CIA, there is really, obviously, no way that I would have been associated with it,” says Schulman. “My view is that social scientists have a deep personal responsibility for questioning the sources of funding; and the fact that I didn’t do it at the time was simply, in my judgment, indication of my own naiveté and political innocence, in spite of my ideological bent.”

Deceiving Schulman and his Hungarian subjects did not bother the men from MKULTRA in the slightest. According to a Gottlieb aide, one of the strong arguments inside the CIA for the whole Human Ecology program was that it gave the Agency a means of approaching and using political mavericks who could not otherwise get security clearances. “Sometimes,” he chuckles, “these left-wing social scientists were damned good.” This MKULTRA veteran scoffs at the displeasure Schulman expresses: “If we’d gone to a guy and said, ‘We’re CIA,’ he never would have done it. They were glad to get the money in a world where damned few people were willing to support them…. They can’t complain about how they were treated or that they were asked to do something they wouldn’t have normally done.”

The Human Ecology Society soon became a conduit for CIA money flowing to projects, like the Rutgers one, outside Cornell. For these grants, the Society provided only cover and administrative support behind the gold-plated names of Cornell and Harold Wolff. From 1955 to 1958, Agency officials passed funds through the Society for work on criminal sexual psychopaths at Ionia State Hospital, [3] a mental institution located on the banks of the Grand River in the rolling farm country 120 miles northwest of Detroit. This project had an interesting hypothesis: That child molesters and rapists had ugly secrets buried deep within them and that their stake in not admitting their perversions approached that of spies

not wanting to confess. The MKULTRA men reasoned that any technique that would work on a sexual psychopath would surely have a similar effect on a foreign agent. Using psychologists and psychiatrists connected to the Michigan mental health and the Detroit court systems, they set up a program to test LSD and marijuana, wittingly and unwittingly, alone and in combination with hypnosis.

Because of administrative delays, the Michigan doctors managed to experiment only on 26 inmates in three years— all sexual offenders committed by judges without a trial under a Michigan law, since declared unconstitutional. The search for a truth drug went on, under the auspices of the Human Ecology Society, as well as in other MKULTRA channels.

The Ionia project was the kind of expansionist activity that made Cornell administrators, if not Harold

Wolff, uneasy. By 1957, the Cornellians had had enough. At the same time, the Agency sponsors decided that the Society had outgrown its dependence on Cornell for academic credentials—that in fact the close ties to Cornell might inhibit the Society’s future growth among academics notoriously sensitive to institutional conflicts. One CIA official wrote that the Society “must be given more established stature in the research community to be effective as a cover organization.” Once the Society was cut loose in the foundation world, Agency men felt they would be freer to go anywhere in academia to buy research that might assist covert operations. So the CIA severed the Society’s formal connection to Cornell.

The Human Ecology group moved out of its East 78th Street town house, which had always seem a little too plush for a university program, and opened up a new headquarters in Forest Hills, Queens, which was an inappropriate neighborhood for a well-connected foundation. [4] Agency officials hired a staff of four

led by Lieutenant Colonel James Monroe, who had worked closely with the CIA as head of the Air Force’s study of Korean War prisoners. Sid Gottlieb and the TSS hierarchy in Washington still made the major decisions, but Monroe and the Society staff, whose salaries the Agency paid, took over the Society’s dealings with the outside world and the monitoring of several hundred thousand dollars a year in research projects. Monroe personally supervised dozens of grants, including Dr. Ewen Cameron’s brainwashing work in Montreal. Soon the Society was flourishing as an innovative foundation, attracting

research proposals from a wide variety of behavioral scientists, at a time when these people—particularly the unorthodox ones—were still the step-children of the fund-granting world.

After the Society’s exit from Cornell, Wolff and Hinkle stayed on as president and vice-president,

respectively, of the Society’s board of directors. Dr. Joseph Hinsey, head of the New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center also remained on the board. Allen Dulles continued his personal interest in the Society’s work and came to one of the first meetings of the new board, which, as was customary with CIA fronts, included some big outside names. These luminaries added worthiness to the enterprise while playing essentially figurehead roles. In 1957 the other board members were John Whitehorn, chairman of the psychiatry department at Johns Hopkins University, Carl Rogers, professor of psychology and psychiatry at the University of Wisconsin, and Adolf A. Berle, onetime Assistant Secretary of State and

chairman of the New York Liberal Party. [5] Berle had originally put his close friend Harold Wolff in touch with the CIA, and at Wolff’s request, he came on the Society board despite some reservations. “I am frightened about this one,” Berle wrote in his diary. “If the scientists do what they have laid out for themselves, men will become manageable ants. But I don’t think it will happen.”

There was a lot of old-fashioned back-scratching among the CIA people and the academics as they settled into the work of accommodating each other. Even Harold Wolff, the first and the most enthusiastic of the scholar-spies, had made it clear from the beginning that he expected some practical rewards for his service. According to colleague Hinkle, who appreciated Wolff as one the great grantsman of his time, Wolff expected that the Agency “would support our research and we would be their consultants.” Wolff bluntly informed the CIA that some of his work would have no direct use “except that it vastly enhances

our value . . . as consultants and advisers.” In other words, Wolff felt that his worth to the CIA increased in proportion to his professional accomplishments and importance—which in turn depended partly on the resources he commanded. The Agency men understood, and over the last half of the 1950s, they were happy to contribute almost $300,000 to Wolff’s own research on the brain and central nervous system. In turn, Wolff and his reputation helped them gain access to other leading lights in the academic world.

Another person who benefited from Human Ecology funds was Carl Rogers, whom Wolff had also asked to serve on the board. Rogers, who later would become famous for his nondirective, nonauthoritarian approach to psychotherapy, respected Wolff’s work, and he had no objection to helping the CIA. Although he says he would have nothing to do with secret Agency activities today, he asks for understanding in light of the climate of the 1950s. “We really did regard Russia as the enemy,” declares Rogers, “and we were trying to do various things to make sure the Russians did not get the upper hand.” Rogers received an important professional reward for joining the Society board. Executive Director James Monroe had let him know that, once he agreed to serve, he could expect to receive a Society grant. “That appealed to me because I was having trouble getting funded,” says Rogers. “Having gotten that grant [about $30,000 over three years], it made it possible to get other grants from Rockefeller and NIMH.” Rogers still feels grateful to the Society for helping him establish a funding “track record,” but he emphasizes that the Agency never had any effect on his research.

Although MKULTRA psychologist John Gittinger suspected that Rogers’ work on psychotherapy might

provide insight into interrogation methods, the Society did not give Rogers money because of the content of his work. The grant ensured his services as a consultant, if desired, and, according to a CIA document, “free access” to his project. But above all, the grant allowed the Agency to use Rogers’ name. His standing in the academic community contributed to the layer of cover around the Society that Agency officials felt was crucial to mask their involvement.

Professor Charles Osgood’s status in psychology also improved the Society’s cover, but his research was more directly useful to the Agency, and the MKULTRA men paid much more to get it. In 1959 Osgood, who four years later became president of the American Psychological Association, wanted to push forward his work on how people in different societies express the same feelings, even when using different words and concepts. Osgood wrote in “an abstract conceptual framework,” but Agency

officials saw his research as “directly relevant” to covert activities. They believed they could transfer

Osgood’s knowledge of “hidden values and cues” in the way people communicate into more effective overseas propaganda. Osgood’s work gave them a tool—called the “semantic differential”—to choose the right words in a foreign language to convey a particular meaning.

Like Carl Rogers, Osgood got his first outside

funding for what became the most important work of his

career from the Human Ecology Society. Osgood had written

directly to the CIA for support, and the Society soon

contacted him and furnished $192,975 for research over

five years. The money allowed him to travel widely and to

expand his work into 30 different cultures. Also like

Rogers, Osgood eventually received NIMH money to finish

his research, but he acknowledges that the Human Ecology

grants played an important part in the progress of his

work. He stresses that “there was none of the feeling

then about the CIA that there is now, in terms of

subversive activities,” and he states that the Society

had no influence on anything he produced. Yet Society men

could and did talk to him about his findings. They asked

questions that reflected their own covert interests, not

his academic pursuits, and they drew him out, according

to one of them, “at great length.” Osgood had started

studying cross-cultural meaning well before he received

the Human Ecology money, but the Society’s support

ensured that he would continue his work on a scale that

suited the Agency’s purposes, as well as his own.

A whole category of Society funding, called “cover

grants,” served no other purpose than to build the

Society’s false front. These included a sociological

study of Levittown, Long Island (about $4,500), an

analysis of the Central Mongoloid skull ($700), and a

look at the foreign-policy attitudes of people who owned

fallout shelters, as opposed to people who did not

($2,500). A $500 Human Ecology grant went to Istanbul

University for a study of the effects of circumcision on

Turkish boys. The researcher found that young Turks,

usually circumcised between the ages of five and seven,

felt “severe emotional impact with attending symptoms of

withdrawal.” The children saw the painful operations as

“an act of aggression” that brought out previously hidden

fears—or so the Human Ecology Society reported.

In other instances, the Society put money into

projects whose covert application was so unlikely that

only an expert could see the possibilities. Nonetheless,

in 1958 the Society gave $5,570 to social psychologists

Muzafer and Carolyn Wood Sherif of the University of

Oklahoma for work on the behavior of teen-age boys in

gangs. The Sherifs, both ignorant of the CIA

connection,[6] studied the group structures and attitudes

in the gangs and tried to devise ways to channel

antisocial behavior into more constructive paths. Their

results were filtered through clandestine minds at the

Agency. “With gang warfare,” says an MKULTRA source, “you

tried to get some defectors-in-place who would like to

modify some of the group behavior and cool it. Now,

getting a juvenile delinquent defector was motivationally

not all that much different from getting a Soviet one.”

MKULTRA officials were clearly interested in using

their grants to build contacts and associations with

prestigious academics. The Society put $1,500 a year into

the Research in Mental Health Newsletter published

jointly at McGill University by the sociology and

psychiatric departments. Anthropologist Margaret Mead, an

international culture heroine, sat on the newsletter’s

advisory board (with, among others, D. Ewen Cameron), and

the Society used her name in its biennial report.

Similarly, the Society gave grants of $26,000 to the

well-known University of London psychologist, H. J.

Eysenck, for his work on motivation. An MKULTRA document

acknowledged that this research would have “no immediate

relevance for Agency needs,” but that it would “lend

prestige” to the Society. The grants to Eysenck also

allowed the Society to take funding credit for no less

than nine of his publications in its 1963 report. The

following year, the Society managed to purchase a piece

of the work of the most famous behaviorist of all,

Harvard’s B. F. Skinner. Skinner, who had tried to train

pigeons to guide bombs for the military during World War

II, received a $5,000 Human Ecology grant to pay the

costs of a secretary and supplies for the research that

led to his book, Freedom and Dignity. Skinner has no

memory of the grant or its origins but says, “I don’t

like secret involvement of any kind. I can’t see why it

couldn’t have been open and aboveboard.”

A TSS source explains that grants like these “bought

legitimacy” for the Society and made the recipients

“grateful.” He says that the money gave Agency employees

at Human Ecology a reason to phone Skinner—or any of the

other recipients—to pick his brain about a particular

problem. In a similar vein, another MKULTRA man,

psychologist John Gittinger mentions the Society’s

relationship with Erwin Goffman of the University of

Pennsylvania, whom many consider today’s leading

sociological theorist. The Society gave him a small grant

to help finish a book that would have been published

anyway. As a result, Gittinger was able to spend hours

talking with him about, among other things, an article he

had written earlier on confidence men. These hucksters

were experts at manipulating behavior, according to

Gittinger, and Goffman unwittingly “gave us a better

understanding of the techniques people use to establish

phony relationships”—a subject of interest to the CIA.

To keep track of new developments in the behavioral

sciences, Society representatives regularly visited grant

recipients and found out what they and their colleagues

were doing. Some of the knowing professors became

conscious spies. Most simply relayed the latest

professional gossip to their visitors and sent along

unpublished papers. The prestige of the Human Ecology

grantees also helped give the Agency access to behavioral

scientists who had no connection to the Society. “You

could walk into someone’s office and say you were just

talking to Skinner,” says an MKULTRA veteran. “We didn’t

hesitate to do this. It was a way to name-drop.”

The Society did not limit its intelligence gathering

to the United States. As one Agency source puts it, “The

Society gave us a legitimate basis to approach anyone in

the academic community anywhere in the world.” CIA

officials regularly used it as cover when they traveled

abroad to study the behavior of foreigners of interest to

the Agency, including such leaders as Nikita Khrushchev.

The Society funded foreign researchers and also gave

money to American professors to collect information

abroad. In 1960, for instance, the Society sponsored a

survey of Soviet psychology through the simple device of

putting up $15,000 through the official auspices of the

American Psychological Association to send ten prominent

psychologists on a tour of the Soviet Union. Nine of the

ten had no idea of the Agency involvement, but CIA

officials were apparently able to debrief everyone when

the group returned. Then the Society sponsored a

conference and book for which each psychologist

contributed a chapter. The book added another $5,000 to

the CIA’s cost, but $20,000 all told seemed like a small

price to pay for the information gathered. The

psychologists—except perhaps the knowledgeable one—did

nothing they would not ordinarily have done during their

trip, and the scholarly community benefited from

increased knowledge on an important subject. The only

thing violated was the openness and trust normally

associated with academic pursuits. By turning scholars

into spies—even unknowing ones—CIA officials risked the

reputation of American research work and contributed

potential ammunition toward the belief in many countries

that the U.S. notion of academic freedom and independence

from the state is self-serving and hypocritical.

Secrecy allowed the Agency a measure of freedom from

normal academic restrictions and red tape, and the men

from MKULTRA used that freedom to make their projects

more attractive. The Society demanded “no stupid progress

reports,” recalls psychologist and psychiatrist Martin

Orne, who received a grant to support his Harvard

research on hypnotism. As a further sign of generosity

and trust, the Society gave Orne a follow-on $30,000

grant with no specified purpose.[7] Orne could use it as

he wished. He believes the money was “a contingency

investment” in his work, and MKULTRA officials agree. “We

could go to Orne anytime,” says one of them, “and say,

‘Okay, here is a situation and here is a kind of guy.

What would you expect we might be able to achieve if we

could hypnotize him?’ Through his massive knowledge, he

could speculate and advise.” A handful of other Society

grantees also served in similar roles as covert Agency

consultants in the field of their expertise.

In general, the Human Ecology Society served as the

CIA’s window on the world of behavioral research. No

phenomenon was too arcane to escape a careful look from

the Society, whether extrasensory perception or African

witch doctors. “There were some unbelievable schemes,”

recalls an MKULTRA veteran, “but you also knew Einstein

was considered crazy. You couldn’t be so biased that you

wouldn’t leave open the possibility that some crazy idea

might work.” MKULTRA men realized, according to the

veteran, that “ninety percent of what we were doing would

fail” to be of any use to the Agency. Yet, with a spirit

of inquiry much freer than that usually found in the

academic world, the Society took early stabs at cracking

the genetic code with computers and finding out whether

animals could be controlled through electrodes placed in

their brains.

The Society’s unrestrained, scattershot approach to

behavioral research went against the prevailing wisdom in

American universities—both as to methods and to subjects

of interest. During the 1950s one school of thought—socalled

“behaviorism,”—was accepted on campus, virtually

to the exclusion of all others. The “behaviorists,” led

by Harvard’s B. F. Skinner, looked at psychology as the

study of learned observable responses to outside

stimulation. To oversimplify, they championed the

approach in which psychologists gave rewards to rats

scurrying through mazes, and they tended to dismiss

matters of great interest to the Agency: e.g., the effect

of drugs on the psyche, subjective phenomena like

hypnosis, the inner workings of the mind, and personality

theories that took genetic differences into account.

By investing up to $400,000 a year into the early,

innovative work of men like Carl Rogers, Charles Osgood,

and Martin Orne, the CIA’s Human Ecology Society helped

liberate the behavioral sciences from the world of rats

and cheese. With a push from the Agency as well as other

forces, the field opened up. Former iconoclasts became

eminent, and, for better or worse, the Skinnerian near-

monopoly gave way to a multiplication of contending

schools. Eventually, a reputable behavioral scientist

could be doing almost anything: holding hands with his

students in sensitivity sessions, collecting survey data

on spanking habits, or subjectively exploring new modes

of consciousness. The CIA’s money undoubtedly changed the

academic world to some degree, though no one can say how


As usual, the CIA men were ahead of their time and

had started to move on before the new approaches became

established. In 1963, having sampled everything from palm

reading to subliminal perception, Sid Gottlieb and his

colleagues satisfied themselves that they had overlooked

no area of knowledge—however esoteric—that might be

promising for CIA operations. The Society had served its

purpose; now the money could be better spent elsewhere.

Agency officials transferred the still-useful projects to

other covert channels and allowed the rest to die

quietly. By the end of 1965, when the remaining research

was completed, the Society for the Investigation of Human

Ecology was gone.


MKULTRA subprojects 48 and 60 provided the basic

documents on the Society for the Investigation of Human

Ecology. These were supplemented by the three biennial

reports of the Society that could be found: 1957, 1961,

and 1961-1963. Wolff’s own research work is MKULTRA

subproject 61. Wolfs proposals to the Agency are in #A/B,

II, 10/68, undated “Proposed Plan for Implementing

[deleted]” in two documents included in 48-29, March 5,

1956, “General Principles Upon Which these Proposals Are

Based.” The Agency’s plans for the Chinese Project are

described in #A/B, II, 10/48, undated, Subject: Cryptonym

[deleted] A/B, II 10/72,9 December,1954, Subject: Letter

of Instructions, and #A/B, II, 10/110, undated, untitled.

Details of the logistics of renting the Human Ecology

headquarters and bugging it are in #A/B, II, 10/23, 30

August, 1954, Subject: Meeting of Working Committee of

[deleted], No. 5 and #A/B, II, 10/92, 8 December, 1954,

Subject: Technical Installation.

The Hungarian project, as well as being described in

the 1957 biennial report, was dealt with in MKULTRA

subprojects 65 and 82, especially 65-12, 28 June 1956,

Subject: MKULTRA subproject 65; 65-11, undated, Subject:

Dr. [deleted]’s Project—Plans for the Coming Year,

July,1957-June,1958; and 82-15,11 April 1958, Subject:

Project MKULTRA, Subproject 82.

The Ionia State sexual psychopath research was

MKULTRA Subproject 39, especially 39-4, 9 April 1958,

Subject: Trip Report, Visit to [deleted], 7 April 1958.

Paul Magnusson of the Detroit Free Press and David Pearl

of the Detroit ACLU office both furnished information.

Carl Rogers’ MKULTRA subproject was # 97. He also

received funds under Subproject 74. See especially 74256,

7 October 1958, Supplement to Individual Grant under

MKULTRA, Subproject No. 74 and 97-21, 6 August 1959,

Subject: MKULTRA Subproject 97.

H. J. Eysenck’s MKULTRA subproject was #111. See

especially 111-3, 3 April 1961, Subject: Continuation of

MKULTRA Subproject 111. The American Psychological

Association-sponsored trip to the Soviet Union was

described in Subproject 107. The book that came out of

the trip was called Some Views on Soviet Psychology,

Raymond Bauer (editor), (Washington: American

Psychological Association; 1962).

The Sherifs’ research on teenage gangs was described

in Subproject # 102 and the 1961 Human Ecology biennial

report. Dr. Carolyn Sherif also wrote a letter to the

American Psychological Association Monitor, February

1978. Dr. Sherif talked about her work when she and I

appeared on an August 1978 panel at the American

Psychological Association’s convention in Toronto.

Martin Orne’s work for the Agency was described in

Subproject 84. He contributed a chapter to the Society-

funded book, The Manipulation of Human Behavior, edited

by Albert Biderman and Herbert Zimmer-(New York: John

Wiley & Sons; 1961), pp. 169-215. Financial data on

Orne’s Institute for Experimental Psychiatry came from a

filing with the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Attachment

to Form 1023.

The quote from John Gittinger came from an interview

with him conducted by Dr. Patricia Greenfield. Dr.

Greenfield also interviewed Jay Schulman, Carl Rogers,

and Charles Osgood for an article in the December 1977

issue of the American Psychological Association Monitor,

from which my quotes of Schulman’s comments are taken.

She discussed Erving Goffman’s role in a presentation to

a panel of the American Psychological Association

convention in Toronto in August 1978. The talk was titled

“CIA Support of Basic Research in Psychology: Policy



1. In 1961 the Society changed its name to the Human

Ecology Fund, but for convenience sake it will be called

the Society throughout the book.

2. Also to gain access to this same group of leftist

Hungarian refugees in Europe, the Human Ecology Society

put $15,000 in 1958 into an unwitting study by Dr. A. H.

M. Struik of the University of Nijmegen in the

Netherlands. An Agency document extolled this arrangement

not only as a useful way of studying Hungarians but

because it provided “entree” into a leading European

university and psychological research center, adding

“such a connection has manifold cover and testing

possibilities as well as providing a base from which to

take advantage of developments in that area of the


3. Professor Laurence Hinkle states that it was never

his or Cornell’s intention that the Society would be used

as a CIA funding conduit. When told that he himself had

written letters on the Ionia project, he replied that the

Society’s CIA-supplied bookkeeper was always putting

papers in front of him and that he must have signed

without realizing the implications.

4. By 1961 the CIA staff had tired of Queens and

moved the Society back into Manhattan to 201 East 57th

Street. In 1965 as the Agency was closing down the front,

it switched its headquarters to 183i Connecticut Avenue

N.W. in Washington, the same building owned by Dr.

Charles Geschickter that housed another MKULTRA conduit,

the Geschickter Fund for Medical Research.

5. Other establishment figures who would grace the

Human Ecology board over the years included Leonard

Carmichael, head of the Smithsonian Institution, Barnaby

Keeney, president of Brown University, and George A.

Kelly, psychology professor and Society fund recipient at

Ohio State University.

6. According to Dr. Carolyn Sherif, who says she and

her husband did not share the Cold War consensus and

would never have knowingly taken CIA funds Human Ecology

executive director James Monroe lied directly about the

source of the Society’s money, claiming it came from rich

New York doctors and Texas millionaires who gave it for

tax purposes. Monroe used this standard cover story with

other grantees.

7. A 1962 report of Orne’s laboratory, the Institute

for Experimental Psychiatry, showed that it received two

sizable grants before the end of that year: $30,000 from

Human Ecology and $30,000 from Scientific Engineering

Institute, another CIA front organization. Orne says he

was not aware of the latter group’s Agency connection at

the time, but learned of it later. He used its grant to

study new ways of using the polygraph.

The Gittinger Assessment System

With one exception, the CIA’s behavioral research—

whether on LSD or on electroshock—seems to have had more

impact on the outside world than on Agency operations.

That exception grew out of the work of the MKULTRA

program’s resident genius, psychologist John Gittinger.

While on the CIA payroll, toiling to find ways to

manipulate people, Gittinger created a unique system for

assessing personality and predicting future behavior. He

called his method—appropriately—the Personality

Assessment System (PAS). Top Agency officials have been

so impressed that they have given the Gittinger system a

place in most agent-connected activities. To be sure,

most CIA operators would not go nearly so far as a former

Gittinger aide who says, “The PAS was the key to the

whole clandestine business.” Still, after most of the

touted mind controllers had given up or been sent back

home, it was Gittinger, the staff psychologist, who sold

his PAS system to cynical, anti-gimmick case officers in

the Agency’s Clandestine Services. And during the Cuban

missile crisis, it was Gittinger who was summoned to the

White House to give his advice on how Khrushchev would

react to American pressure.

A heavy-set, goateed native of Oklahoma who in his

later years came to resemble actor Walter Slezak,

Gittinger looked much more like someone’s kindly

grandfather than a calculating theoretician. He had an

almost insatiable curiosity about personality, and he

spent most of his waking hours tinkering with and trying

to perfect his system. So obsessed did he become that he

always had the feeling even after other researchers had

verified large chunks of the PAS and after the CIA had

put it into operational use—that the whole thing was “a

kind of paranoid delusion.”

Gittinger started working on his system even before

he joined the CIA in 1950. Prior to that, he had been

director of psychological services at the state hospital

in Norman, Oklahoma. His high-sounding title did not

reflect the fact that he was the only psychologist on the

staff. A former high school guidance counselor and Naval

lieutenant commander during World War II, he was starting

out at age 30 with a master’s degree. Every day he saw

several hundred patients whose mental problems included

virtually everything in the clinical textbooks.

Numerous tramps and other itinerants, heading West in

search of the good life in California, got stuck in

Oklahoma during the cold winter months and managed to get

themselves admitted to Gittinger’s hospital. In warmer

seasons of the year, quite a few of them worked, when

they had to, as cooks or dishwashers in the short-order

hamburger stands that dotted the highways in the days

before fast food. They functioned perfectly well in these

jobs until freezing nights drove them from their outdoor

beds. The hospital staff usually called them “seasonal

schizophrenics” and gave them shelter until spring.

Gittinger included them in the psychological tests he was

so fond of running on his patients.

As he measured the itinerants on the Wechsler

intelligence scale, a standard IQ test with 11 parts,[1]

Gittinger made a chance observation that became, he says,

the “bedrock” of his whole system. He noticed that the

short-order cooks tended to do well on the digit-span

subtest which rated their ability to remember numbers.

The dishwashers, in contrast, had a poor memory for

digits. Since the cooks had to keep track of many complex

orders—with countless variations of medium rare, onions,

and hold-the-mayo—their retentive quality served them


Gittinger also noticed that the cooks had different

personality traits than the dishwashers. The cooks seemed

able to maintain a high degree of efficiency in a

distracting environment while customers were constantly

barking new orders at them. They kept their composure by

falling back on their internal resources and generally

shutting themselves off from the commotion around them.

Gittinger dubbed this personality type, which was

basically inner-directed, an “Internalizer” (abbreviated

“I”). The dishwashers, on the other hand, did not have

the ability to separate themselves from the external

world. In order to perform their jobs, they had to be

placed off in some far corner of the kitchen with their

dirty pots and pans, or else all the tumult of the place

diverted them from their duty. Gittinger called the

dishwasher type an “Externalizer” (E). He found that if

he measured a high digit span in any person—not just a

short-order cook—he could make a basic judgment about


From observation, Gittinger concluded that babies

were born with distinct personalities which then were

modified by environmental factors. The Internalized—or I—

baby was caught up in himself and tended to be seen as a

passive child; hence, the world usually called him a

“good baby.” The E tot was more interested in outside

stimuli and attention, and thus was more likely to cause

his parents problems by making demands. Gittinger

believed that the way parents and other authority figures

reacted to the child helped to shape his personality.

Adults often pressured or directed the I child to become

more outgoing and the E one to become more self-

sufficient. Gittinger found he could measure the

compensations, or adjustments, the child made on another

Wechsler subtest, the one that rated arithmetic ability.

He noticed that in later life, when the person was

subject to stress, these compensations tended to

disappear, and the person reverted to his original

personality type. Gittinger wrote that his system “makes

possible the assessment of fundamental discrepancies

between the surface personality and the underlying

personality structure—discrepancies that produce tension,

conflict, and anxiety.”

Besides the E-I dimensions, Gittinger identified two

other fundamental sets of personality characteristics

that he could measure with still other Wechsler subtests.

Depending on how a subject did on the block design

subtest, Gittinger could tell if he were Regulated (R) or

Flexible (F). The Regulated person had no trouble

learning by rote but usually did not understand what he

learned. The Flexible individual, on the other hand, had

to understand something before he learned it. Gittinger

noted that R children could learn to play the piano

moderately well with comparatively little effort. The F

child most often hated the drudgery of piano lessons, but

Gittinger observed that the great concert pianists tended

to be Fs who had persevered and mastered the instrument.

Other psychologists had thought up personality

dimensions similar to Gittinger’s E and I, R and F. even

if they defined them somewhat differently. Gittinger’s

most original contribution came in a third personality

dimension, which revealed how well people were able to

adapt their social behavior to the demands of the culture

they lived in. Gittinger found he could measure this

dimension with the picture arrangement Wechsler subtest,

and he called it the Role Adaptive (A) or Role Uniform

(U). It corresponded to “charisma,” since other people

were naturally attracted to the A person while they

tended to ignore the U.

All this became immensely more complicated as

Gittinger measured compensations and modifications with

other Wechsler subtests. This complexity alone worked

against the acceptance of his system by the outside

world, as did the fact that he based much of it on ideas

that ran contrary to accepted psychological doctrine—such

as his heretical notion that genetic differences existed.

It did not help, either, that Gittinger was a non-Ph.D.

whose theory sprang from the kitchen habits of vagrants

in Oklahoma.

Any one of these drawbacks might have stifled

Gittinger in the academic world, but to the pragmatists

in the CIA, they were irrelevant. Gittinger’s strange

ideas seemed to work. With uncanny accuracy, he could

look at nothing more than a subject’s Wechsler numbers,

pinpoint his weaknesses, and show how to turn him into an

Agency spy. Once Gittinger’s boss, Sid Gottlieb, and

other high CIA officials realized how Gittinger’s PAS

could be used to help case officers handle agents, they

gave the psychologist both the time and money to improve

his system under the auspices of the Human Ecology


Although he was a full-time CIA employee, Gittinger

worked under Human Ecology cover through the 1950s.

Agency officials considered the PAS to be one of the

Society’s greatest triumphs, definitely worth continuing

after the Society was phased out. In 1962 Gittinger and

his co-workers moved their base of operations from the

Human Ecology headquarters in New York to a CIA

proprietary company, set up especially for them in

Washington and called Psychological Assessment

Associates. Gittinger served as president of the company,

whose cover was to provide psychological services to

American firms overseas. He personally opened a branch

office in Tokyo (later moved to Hong Kong) to service CIA

stations in the Far East. The Washington staff, which

grew to about 15 professionals during the 1960s, handled

the rest of the world by sending assessment specialists

off for temporary visits.

Hundreds of thousands of dollars in Human Ecology

grants and then even more money in Psychological

Assessment contracts—all CIA funds—flowed out to verify

and expand the PAS. For example, the Society gave about

$140,000 to David Saunders of the Educational Testing

Service, the company that prepares the College Board

exams. Saunders, who knew about the Agency’s involvement,

found a correlation between brain (EEG) patterns and

results on the digit-span test, and he helped Gittinger

apply the system to other countries. In this regard,

Gittinger and his colleagues understood that the Wechsler

battery of subtests had a cultural bias and that a

Japanese E had a very different personality from, say, a

Russian E. To compensate, they worked out localized

versions of the PAS for various nations around the world.

While at the Human Ecology group, Gittinger

supervised much of the Society’s other research in the

behavioral sciences, and he always tried to interest

Society grantees in his system. He looked for ways to

mesh their research with his theories—and vice versa.

Some, like Carl Rogers and Charles Osgood, listened

politely and did not follow up. Yet Gittinger would

always learn something from their work that he could

apply to the PAS. A charming man and a skillful

raconteur, Gittinger convinced quite a few of the other

grantees of the validity of his theories and the

importance of his ideas. Careful not to threaten the egos

of his fellow professionals, he never projected an air of

superiority. Often he would leave people even the

skeptical—openmouthed in awe as he painted unnervingly

accurate personality portraits of people he had never

met. Indeed, people frequently accused him of somehow

having cheated by knowing the subject in advance or

peeking at his file.

Gittinger patiently and carefully taught his system

to his colleagues, who all seem to have views of him that

range from great respect to pure idolatry. For all his

willingness to share the PAS, Gittinger was never able to

show anyone how to use the system as skillfully as he

did. Not that he did not try; he simply was a more

talented natural assessor than any of the others.

Moreover, his system was full of interrelations and

variables that he instinctively understood but had not

bothered to articulate. As a result, he could look at

Wechsler scores and pick out behavior patterns which

would be valid and which no one else had seen. Even after

Agency officials spent a small fortune trying to

computerize the PAS, they found, as one psychologist puts

it, the machine “couldn’t tie down all the variables”

that Gittinger was carrying around in his head.

Some Human Ecology grantees, like psychiatrist Robert

Hyde, were so impressed with Gittinger’s system that they

made the PAS a major part of their own research. Hyde

routinely gave Wechslers to his subjects before plying

them with liquor, as part of the Agency’s efforts to find

out how people react to alcohol. In 1957 Hyde moved his

research team from Boston Psychopathic Hospital, where he

had been America’s first LSD tripper, to Butler Health

Center in Providence. There, with Agency funds, Hyde

built an experimental party room in the hospital,

complete with pinball machine, dartboard, and bamboo bar

stools. From behind a two-way mirror, psychologists

watched the subjects get tipsy and made careful notes on

their reaction to alcohol. Not surprisingly, the

observers found that pure Internalizers became more

withdrawn after several drinks, and that uncompensated Es

were more likely to become garrulous—in essence, sloppy

drunks. Thus Gittinger was able to make generalizations

about the different ways an I or an E responded to

alcohol.[2] Simply by knowing how people scored on the

Wechsler digit-span test, he could predict how they would

react to liquor. Hyde and Harold Abramson at Mount Sinai

Hospital made the same kind of observations for LSD

finding, among other things, that an E was more likely

than an I to have a bad trip. (Apparently, an I is more

accustomed than an E to “being into his own head” and

losing touch with external reality.)

At Gittinger’s urging, other Human Ecology grantees

gave the Wechsler battery to their experimental subjects

and sent him the scores. He was building a unique data

base on all phases of human behavior, and he needed

samples of as many distinct groups as possible. By

getting the scores of actors, he could make

generalizations about what sort of people made good role-

players. Martin Orne at Harvard sent in scores of

hypnosis subjects, so Gittinger could separate the

personality patterns of those who easily went into a

trance from those who could not be hypnotized. Gittinger

collected Wechslers of businessmen, students, high-priced

fashion models, doctors, and just about any other

discrete group he could find a way to have tested. In

huge numbers, the Wechslers came flowing in—29,000 sets

in all by the early 1970s—each one accompanied by

biographic data. With the 10 subtests he used and at

least 10 possible scores on each of those, no two

Wechsler results in the whole sample ever looked exactly

the same. Gittinger kept a computer printout of all

29,000 on his desk, and he would fiddle with them almost

every day—looking constantly for new truths that could be

drawn out of them.

John Gittinger was interested in all facets of

personality, but because he worked for the CIA, he

emphasized deviant forms. He particularly sought out

Wechslers of people who had rejected the values of their

society or who had some vice—hidden or otherwise—that

caused others to reject them. By studying the scores of

the defectors who had come over to the West, Gittinger

hoped to identify common characteristics of men who had

become traitors to their governments. If there were

identifiable traits, Agency operators could look for them

in prospective spies. Harris Isbell, who ran the MKULTRA

drug-testing program at the Lexington, Kentucky detention

hospital, sent in the scores of heroin addicts. Gittinger

wanted to know what to look for in people susceptible to

drugs. The Human Ecology project at Ionia State Hospital

in Michigan furnished Wechslers of sexual psychopaths.

These scores showed that people with uncontrollable urges

have different personality patterns than so-called

normals. Gittinger himself journeyed to the West Coast to

test homosexuals, lesbians, and the prostitutes he

interviewed under George White’s auspices in the San

Francisco safehouse. With each group, he separated out

the telltale signs that might be a future indicator of

their sexual preference in others. Gittinger understood

that simply by looking at the Wechsler scores of someone

newly tested, he could pick out patterns that

corresponded to behavior of people in the data base.

The Gittinger system worked best when the TSS staff

had a subject’s Wechsler scores to analyze, but Agency

officials could not very well ask a Russian diplomat or

any other foreign target to sit down and take the tests.

During World War II, OSS chief William Donovan had faced

a similar problem in trying to find out about Adolf

Hitler’s personality, and Donovan had commissioned

psychoanalyst Walter Langer to make a long-distance

psychiatric profile of the German leader. Langer had

sifted through all the available data on the Führer, and

that was exactly what Gittinger’s TSS assessments staff

did when they lacked direct contact (and when they had

it, too). They pored over all the intelligence gathered

by operators, agents, bugs, and taps and looked at

samples of a man’s handwriting.[3] The CIA men took the

process of “indirect assessment” one step further than

Langer had, however. They observed the target’s behavior

and looked for revealing patterns that corresponded with

traits already recorded among the subjects of the 29,000

Wechsler samples.

Along this line, Gittinger and his staff had a good

idea how various personality types acted after consuming

a few drinks. Thus, they reasoned, if they watched a

guest at a cocktail party and he started to behave in a

recognizable way—by withdrawing, for instance—they could

make an educated guess about his personality type—in this

case, that he was an I. In contrast, the drunken Russian

diplomat who became louder and began pinching every woman

who passed by probably was an E. Instead of using the

test scores to predict how a person would behave, the

assessments staff was, in effect, looking at behavior and

working backward to predict how the person would have

scored if he had taken the test. The Gittinger staff

developed a whole checklist of 30 to 40 patterns that the

skilled observer could look for. Each of these traits

reflected one of the Wechsler subtests, and it

corresponded to some insight picked up from the 29,000

scores in the data base.

Was the target sloppy or neat? Did he relate to women

stiffly or easily? How did he hold a cigarette and put it

into his mouth? When he went through a receiving line,

did he immediately repeat the name of each person

introduced to him? Taken as a whole, all these

observations allowed Gittinger to make a reasoned

estimate about a subject’s personality, with emphasis on

his vulnerabilities. As Gittinger describes the system,

“If you could get a sample of several kinds of

situations, you could begin to get some pretty good

information.” Nevertheless, Gittinger had his doubts

about indirect assessment. “I never thought we were good

at this,” he says.

The TSS assessment staff, along with the Agency’s medical office use the PAS indirectly to keep up the OSS tradition of making psychological portraits of world leaders like Hitler. Combining analytical techniques with gossipy intelligence, the assessors tried to give high-level U.S. officials a better idea of what moved the principal international political figures.[4] One such study of an American citizen spilled over into the legally forbidden domestic area when in 1971 the medical office prepared a profile of Daniel Ellsberg at the request of the White House. To get raw data for the Agency assessors, John Ehrlichman authorized a break-in at Ellsberg’s psychiatrist’s office in California. John Gittinger vehemently denies that his staff played any role in preparing this profile, which the White House plumbers intended to use as a kind of psychological road map to compromise Ellsberg—just as CIA operators regularly worked from such assessments to exploit the weaknesses of foreigners.

Whether used directly or indirectly, the PAS gave Agency case officers a tool to get a better reading of

the people with whom they dealt. CIA field stations overseas routinely sent all their findings on a target,

along with indirect assessment checklists, back to Washington, so headquarters personnel could decide whether or not to try recruitment. The TSS assessment staff contributed to this process by attempting to

predict what ploys would work best on the man in the case officers’ sights. “Our job was to recommend what strategy to try,” says a onetime Gittinger colleague. This source states he had direct knowledge of cases where TSS recommendations led to sexual entrapment operations, both hetero- and homosexual. “We had women ready—called them a stable,” he says, and they found willing men when they had to.

One CIA psychologist stresses that the PAS only provided “clues” on how to compromise people. “If

somebody’s assessment came in like the sexual psychopaths’, it would raise red flags,” he notes. But

TSS staff assessors could only conclude that the target had a potentially serious sex problem. They could by no means guarantee that the target’s defenses could be broken. Nevertheless, the PAS helped dictate the best weapons for the attack. “I’ve heard John [Gittinger] say there’s always something that someone wants,” says another former Agency psychologist. “And with the PAS you can find out what it is. It’s not necessarily sex or booze. Sometimes it’s status or recognition or security.”

Yet another Gittinger colleague describes this process as “looking for soft spots.” He states that after years of working with the system, he still bridled at a few of the more fiendish ways “to get at people” that his colleagues dreamed up. He stayed on until retirement, however, and he adds, “None of this was personal. It was for national security reasons.”

A few years ago, ex-CIA psychologist James Keehner told reporter Maureen Orth that he personally went to New York in 1969 to give Wechsler tests to an American nurse who had volunteered her body for her country. “We wanted her to sleep with this Russian,” explained Keehner. “Either the Russian would fall in love with her and defect, or we’d blackmail him. I had to see if she could sleep with him over a period of time and not get involved emotionally. Boy, was she tough!” Keehner noted that he became disgusted with entrapment techniques, especially after watching a film of an agent in bed with a “recruitment target.” He pointed out that Agency case officers, many of whom “got their jollies” from such work, used a hidden camera to get their shots. The sexual technology developed in the MKULTRA safehouses in New York and San Francisco had been put to work. The operation worked no better in the 1960s, however, than TSS officials predicted such activities would a decade earlier. “You don’t really recruit agents with sexual blackmail,” Keehner concluded. “That’s why I couldn’t even take reading the files after a while. I was sickened at seeing people take pleasure in other people’s inadequacies. First of all, I thought it was just dumb. For all the money going out, nothing ever came back.”

Keehner became disgusted by the picking-at-scabs aspect of TSS assessment work. Once the PAS had

identified a target as having potential mental instabilities, staff members sometimes suggested ways to

break him down, reasoning that by using a ratchet-like approach to put him under increased pressure, they might be able to break the lines that tied him to his country, if not to his sanity. Keehner stated, “I was sent to deal with the most negative aspects of the human condition. It was planned destructiveness. First, you’d check to see if you could destroy a man’s marriage. If you could, then that would be enough to put a lot of stress on the individual, to break him down. Then you might start a minor rumor campaign against him. Harass him constantly. Bump his car in traffic. A lot of it is ridiculous, but it may have a cumulative effect.” Agency case officers might also use this same sort of stress-producing campaign against a particularly effective enemy intelligence officer whom they knew they could never recruit but whom they hoped to neutralize.

Most operations—including most recruitments—did not rely on such nasty methods. The case officer still

benefited from the TSS staffs assessment, but he usually wanted to minimize stress rather than accentuate it. CIA operators tended to agree that the best way to recruit an agent was to make the relationship as productive and satisfying as possible for him, operating from the old adage about catching more flies with honey than vinegar. “You pick the thing most fearful to him—the things which would cause him the most doubt,” says the source. “If his greatest fear is that he can’t trust you to protect him and his family, you overload your pitch with your ability to do it. Other people need structure, so you tell them exactly what they will need to do. If you leave it open-ended, they’ll be scared you’ll ask them to do things they’re incapable of.”[5]

Soon after the successful recruitment of a foreigner to spy for the CIA, either a CIA staff member or a

specially trained case officer normally sat down with the new agent and gave him the full battery of Wechsler subtests—a process that took several hours. The tester never mentioned that the exercise had anything to do with personality but called it an “aptitude” test—which it also is. The assessments office in Washington then analyzed the results. As with the polygraph, the PAS helped tell if the agent were lying. It could often delve deeper than surface concepts of true and false. The PAS might show that the agent’s motivations were not in line with his behavior. In that case, if the gap were too great, the case officer could expect to run up against considerable deception—resulting either from espionage motives or psychotic tendencies.

The TSS staff assessors sent a report back to the field on the best way to deal with the new agent and the

most effective means to exploit him. They would recommend whether his case officer should treat him sternly or permissively. If the agent were an Externalizer who needed considerable companionship, the assessors might suggest that the case officer try to spend as much time with him as possible.[6] They would probably recommend against sending this E agent on a long mission into a hostile country, where he could not have the friendly company he craved.

Without any help from John Gittinger or his system, covert operators had long been deciding matters like

these, which were, after all, rooted in common sense. Most case officers prided themselves on their ability to play their agents like a musical instrument, at just the right tempo, and the Gittinger system did not shake their belief that nothing could beat their own intuition. Former CIA Deputy Director Ray Cline expresses a common view when he says the PAS “was part of the system—kind of a check-and-balance—a supposedly scientific tool that was not weighed very heavily. I never put as much weight on the psychological assessment reports as on a case officer’s view…. In the end, people went with their own opinion.” Former Director William Colby found the assessment reports particularly useful in smoothing over that “traumatic” period when a case officer had to pass on his agent to a replacement. Understandably, the agent often saw the switch as a danger or a hardship. “The new guy has to show some understanding and sympathy,” says Colby, who had 30 years of operational experience himself, “but it doesn’t work if these feelings are not real.”

For those Agency officers who yearned to remove as much of the human element as possible from agent

operations, Gittinger’s system was a natural. It reduced behavior to a workable formula of shorthand letters that, while not insightful in all respects, gave a reasonably accurate description of a person. Like Social Security numbers, such formulas fitted well with a computerized approach. While not wanting to overemphasize the Agency’s reliance on the PAS, former Director Colby states that the system made dealing with agents “more systematized, more professional.”

In 1963 the CIA’s Inspector General gave the TSS assessment staff high marks and described how it fit into operations:

The [Clandestine Services] case officer is first and foremost, perhaps, a practitioner of the art of assessing

and exploiting human personality and motivations for ulterior purposes. The ingredients of advanced skill in this art are highly individualistic in nature, including such qualities as perceptiveness and imagination. [The PAS] seeks to enhance the case officer’s skill by bringing the methods and disciplines of psychology to bear…. The prime objectives are control, exploitation, or neutralization. These objectives are innately anti-ethical rather than therapeutic in their intent.

In other words, the PAS is directed toward the relationship between the American case officer and his

foreign agent, that lies at the heart of espionage. In that sense, it amounts to its own academic discipline—the psychology of spying—complete with axioms and reams of empirical data. The business of the PAS, like that of the CIA, is control. One former CIA psychologist, who still feels guilty about his participation in certain Agency operations, believes that the CIA’s fixation on control and manipulation mirrors, in a more virulent form, the way Americans deal with each other generally. “I don’t think the CIA is too far removed from the culture,” he says. “It’s just a matter of degree. If you put a lot of money out there, there are many people who are lacking the ethics even of the CIA. At least the Agency had an ideological basis.” This psychologist believes that the United States has become an extremely control-oriented society—from the classroom to politics to television advertising. Spying and the PAS techniques are unique only in that they are more systematic and secret.

Another TSS scientist believes that the Agency’s behavioral research was a logical extension of the

efforts of American psychologists, psychiatrists, and sociologists to change behavior—which he calls their “sole motivation.” Such people manipulate their subjects in trying to make mentally disturbed people well, in turning criminals into law-abiding citizens, in improving the work of students, and in pushing poor people to get off welfare. The source cites all of these as examples of “behavior modification” for socially acceptable reasons, which, like public attitudes toward spying, change from time to time. “Don’t get the idea that all these behavioral scientists were nice and pure, that they didn’t want to change anything, and that they were detached in their science,” he warns. “They were up to their necks in changing people. It just happened that the things they were interested in were not always the same as what we were.” Perhaps the saving grace of the behavioral scientists is summed up by longtime MKULTRA consultant Martin Orne: “We are sufficiently ineffective so that our findings can be published.” With the PAS, CIA officials had a handy tool for social engineering. The Gittinger staff found one use for it in the sensitive area of selecting members of foreign police and intelligence agencies. All over the globe, Agency operators have frequently maintained intimate working relations with security services that have consistently mistreated their own citizens. The assessments staff played a key role in choosing members of the secret police in at least two countries whose human-rights records are among the world’s worst.

In 1961, according to TSS psychologist John Winne, the CIA and the Korean government worked together to establish the newly created Korean Central Intelligence Agency (KCIA). The American CIA station in Seoul asked

headquarters to send out an assessor to “select the

initial cadre” of the KCIA. Off went Winne on temporary

duty. “I set up an office with two translators,” he

recalls, “and used a Korean version of the Wechsler.” The

Agency psychologist gave the tests to 25 to 30 police and

military officers and wrote up a half-page report on

each, listing their strengths and weaknesses. Winne

wanted to know about each candidate’s “ability to follow

orders, creativity, lack of personality disorders,

motivation—why he wanted out of his current job. It was

mostly for the money, especially with the civilians.” The

test results went to the Korean authorities, whom Winne

believes made the personnel decisions “in conjunction

with our operational people.”

“We would do a job like this and never get feedback, so we were never sure we’d done a good job,” Winne complains. Sixteen years after the end of his mission to Seoul and after news of KCIA repression at home and bribes to American congressmen abroad, Winne feels that his best efforts had “boomeranged.” He states that Tongsun Park was not one of the KCIA men he tested.

In 1966 CIA staffers, including Gittinger himself, took part in selecting members of an equally

controversial police unit in Uruguay—the anti-terrorist section that fought the Tupamaro urban guerrillas.

According to John Cassidy, the CIA’s deputy station chief there at the time, Agency operators worked to set up this special force together with the Agency for International Development’s Public Safety Mission (whose members included Dan Mitrione, later kidnapped and killed by the Tupamaros). The CIA-assisted police claimed they were in a life-and-death struggle against the guerrillas, and they used incredibly brutal methods, including torture, to stamp out most of the Uruguayan left along with the guerrillas.

While the special police were being organized, “John [Gittinger] came down for three days to get the program underway,” recalls Cassidy. Then Hans Greiner, a Gittinger associate, ran Wechslers on 20 Uruguayan candidates. One question on the information subtest was “How many weeks in the year?” Eighteen of the 20 said it was 48, and only one man got the answer right. (Later he was asked about his answer, and he said he had made a mistake; he meant 48.) But when Greiner asked this same group of police candidates, “Who wrote Faust?” 18 of the 20 knew it was Goethe. “This tells you something about the culture,” notes Cassidy, who served the Agency all over Latin America. It also points up the difficulty

Gittinger had in making the PAS work across cultural lines.

In any case, CIA man Cassidy found the assessment process most useful for showing how to train the antiterrorist section. “According to the results, these men were shown to have very dependent psychologies and they needs d strong direction,” recalls the now-retired operator. Cassidy was quite pleased with the contribution Gittinger and Greiner made. “For years I had been dealing with Latin Americans,” says Cassidy, “and here, largely by psychological tests, one of [Gittinger’s] men was able to analyze people he had no experience with and give me some insight into them…. Ordinarily, we would have just selected the men and gone to work on them.”

In helping countries like South Korea and Uruguay pick their secret police, TSS staff members often

inserted a devilish twist with the PAS. They could not only choose candidates who would make good investigators, interrogators, or whatever, but they could also spot those who were most likely to succumb to future CIA blandishments. “Certain types were more recruitable,” states a former assessor. “I looked for them when I wrote my reports…. Anytime the Company [the CIA] spent money for training a foreigner, the object was that he would ultimately serve our control purposes.” Thus, CIA officials were not content simply to work closely with these foreign intelligence agencies; they insisted on penetrating them, and the PAS provided a useful aid.

In 1973 John Gittinger and his longtime associate John Winne, who picked KCIA men, published a basic

description of the PAS in a professional journal. Although others had written publicly about the system, this article apparently disturbed some of the Agency’s powers, who were then cutting back on the number of CIA employees at the order of short-time Director James Schlesinger.

Shortly thereafter, Gittinger, then 56, stopped being president of Psychological Assessment Associates but

stayed on as a consultant. In 1974 I wrote about Gittinger’s work, albeit incompletely, in Rolling Stone magazine. Gittinger was disturbed that disclosure of his CIA connection would hurt his professional reputation. “Are we tarred by a brush because we worked for the CIA?” he asked during one of several rather emotional exchanges. “I’m proud of it.” He saw no ethical problems in “looking for people’s weaknesses” if it helped the CIA obtain information, and he declared that for many years most Americans thought this was a useful process. At first, he offered to give me the Wechsler tests and prepare a personality assessment to explain the system, but Agency officials prohibited his doing so. “I was given no explanation,” said the obviously disappointed Gittinger. “I’m very proud of my professional work, and I had looked forward to being able to explain it.”

In August 1977 Gittinger publicly testified in Senate hearings. While he obviously would have preferred talking about his psychological research, his most persistent questioner, Senator Edward Kennedy, was much more interested in bringing out sensational details about prostitutes and drug testing. A proud man, Gittinger felt “humiliated” by the experience, which ended with him looking foolish on national television. The next month, the testimony of his former associate, David Rhodes, further bruised Gittinger. Rhodes told the Kennedy subcommittee about Gittinger’s role in leading the “Gang that Couldn’t Spray Straight” in an abortive attempt to test LSD in aerosol cans on unwitting subjects. ittinger

does not want his place in history to be determined by this kind of activity. He would like to see his Personality Assessment System accepted as an important contribution to science.

Tired of the controversy and worn down by trying to explain the PAS, Gittinger has moved back to his native Oklahoma. He took a copy of the 29,000 Wechsler results with him, but he has lost his ardor for working with them. A handful of psychologists around the country still swear by the system and try to pass it on to others. One, who uses it in private practice, says that in therapy it saves six months in understanding the patient. This psychologist takes a full reading of his patient’s personality with the PAS, and then he varies his treatment to fit the person’s problems. He believes that most American psychologists and psychiatrists treat their patients the same whereas the PAS is designed to identify the differences between people. Gittinger very much hopes that others will accept this view and move his system into the mainstream. “It means nothing unless I can get someone else to work on it,” he declares. Given the preconceptions of the psychological community, the inevitable taint arising from the CIA’s role in developing the system, and Gittinger’s lack of academic credentials and energy, his wish will probably not be fulfilled.


The material on the Gittinger Personality Assessment System (PAS) comes from “An Introduction to the

Personality Assessment System” by John Winne and John Gittinger, Monograph Supplement No. 38, Clinical Psychology Publishing Co., Inc. 1973; an interview with John Winne; interviews with three other former CIA psychologists; 1974 interviews with John Gittinger by the author; and an extended interview with Gittinger by Dr. Patricia Greenfield, Associate Professor of Psychology at UCLA. Some of the material was used first in a Rolling Stone article, July 18, 1974, “The CIA Won’t Quite Go Public.” Robert Hyde’s alcohol research at Butler Health Center was MKULTRA Subproject 66. See especially 66-17, 27 August, 1958. Subject: Proposed Alcohol Study—19581959 and 66-5. undated, Subject: Equipment—Ecology Laboratory.

The 1963 Inspector General’s report on TSS, as first released under the Freedom of Information Act, did not include the section on personality assessment quoted from in the chapter. An undated, untitled document, which was obviously this section, was made available in one of the CIA’s last releases.

MKULTRA subproject 83 dealt with graphology research, as did part of Subproject 60, which covered the whole Human Ecology Society. See especially 83-7, December 11, 1959, Subject: [deleted] Graphological Review and 60-28, undated, Subject [deleted] Activities Report, May, 1959April, 1960.

Information on the psychological profile of Ferdinand Marcos came from a U.S. Government source who had read it. Information on the profile of the Shah of Iran came from a column by Jack Anderson and Les Whitten “CIA Study Finds Shah Insecure,” Washington Post, July 11, 1975.

The quotes from James Keehner came from an article in New Times by Maureen Orth, “Memoirs of a CIA Psychologist,” June 25, 1975.

For related reports on the CIA’s role in training foreign police and its activities in Uruguay, see an

article by Taylor Branch and John Marks, “Tracking the CIA,” Harper’s Weekly, January 25, 1975 and Philip Agee’s book, Inside the Company: CIA Diary (London: Penguin; 1975).

The quote from Martin Orne was taken from Patricia Greenfield’s APA Monitor article cited in the last

chapter’s notes.

Gittinger’s testimony before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and the Kennedy subcommittee on August 3, 1977 appeared on pages 50-63. David Rhodes’ testimony on Gittinger’s role in the abortive San Francisco LSD spraying appeared in hearings before the Kennedy subcommittee, September 20, 1977, pp. 100-110.


1. Developed by psychologist David Wechsler, this testing system is called, in different versions, the

Wechsler-Bellevue and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. As Gittinger worked with it over the years, he made modifications that he incorporated in what he named the Wechsler-Bellevue-G. For simplicity’s sake, it is simply referred to as the Wechsler system throughout the book.

2. As with most of the descriptions of the PAS made in the book, this is an oversimplification of a more

complicated process. The system, as Gittinger used it, yielded millions of distinct personality types. His

observations on alcohol were based on much more than a straight I and E comparison. For the most complete description of the PAS in the open literature, see the article by Gittinger and Winne cited in the chapter notes.

3. Graphology (handwriting analysis) appealed to CIA officials as a way of supplementing PAS assessments or making judgments when only a written letter was available. Graphology was one of the seemingly arcane fields which the Human Ecology Society had investigated and found operational uses for. The Society wound up funding handwriting research and a publication in West Germany where the subject was taken much more seriously than in the United States, and it sponsored a study to compare handwriting analyses with Wechsler scores of actors (including some homosexuals), patients in

psychotherapy, criminal psychopaths, and fashion models. Gittinger went on to hire a resident graphologist who could do the same sort of amazing things with handwriting as the Oklahoma psychologist could do with Wechsler scores. One former colleague recalls her spotting— accurately—a stomach ailment in a foreign leader simply by reading one letter. Asked in an interview about how the Agency used her work, she replied, “If they think they can manipulate a person, that’s none of my business. I don’t know what they do with it. My analysis was not done with that intention…. Something I learned very early in government was not to ask questions.”

4. A profile of Ferdinand Marcos found the Filipino president’s massive personal enrichment while in office to be a natural outgrowth of his country’s tradition of putting loyalty to one’s family and friends ahead of all other considerations. Agency assessors found the Shah of Iran to be a brilliant but dangerous megalomaniac whose problems resulted from an overbearing father, the humiliation of having served as a puppet ruler, and his inability for many years to produce a male heir.

5. This source reports that case officers usually used this sort of nonthreatening approach and switched to the rougher stuff if the target decided he did not want to spy for the CIA. In that case, says the ex-CIA man, “you don’t want the person to say no and run off and tattle. You lose an asset that way—not in the sense of the case officer being shot, but by being nullified.” The spurned operator might then offer not to reveal that the target was cheating on his wife or had had a homosexual affair, in return for the target not disclosing the recruitment attempt to his own intelligence service.

6. While Agency officials might also have used the PAS to select the right case officer to deal with the E

agent—one who would be able to sustain the agent’s need for a close relationship over a long period of time—they almost never used the system with this degree of precision. An Agency office outside TSS did keep Wechslers and other test scores on file for most case officers, but the Clandestine Services management was not willing to turn over the selection of American personnel to the psychologists.


No mind-control technique has more captured popular imagination—and kindled fears—than hypnosis. Men have long dreamed they could use overwhelming hypnotic powers to compel others to do their bidding. And when CIA officials institutionalized that dream in the early Cold War Days, they tried, like modern-day Svengalis, to use hypnosis to force their favors on unwitting victims. One group of professional experts, as well as popular novelists, argued that hypnosis would lead to major breakthroughs in spying. Another body of experts believed the opposite. The Agency men, who did not fully trust the academics anyway, listened to both points of view and kept looking for applications which fit their own special needs. To them, hypnosis offered too much promise not to be pursued, but finding the answers was such an elusive and dangerous process that 10 years after the program started CIA officials were still searching for practical uses.

The CIA’s first behavioral research czar, Morse Allen of ARTICHOKE, was intrigued by hypnosis. He read everything he could get his hands on, and in 1951 he went to New York for a four-day course from a well-known stage hypnotist. This hypnotist had taken the Svengali legend to heart, and he bombarded Allen with tales of how he used hypnosis to seduce young women. He told the ARTICHOKE chief that he had convinced one mesmerized lady that he was her husband and that she desperately wanted him. That kind of deception has a place in covert operations, and Morse Allen was sufficiently impressed to

report back to his bosses the hypnotist’s claim that “he spent approximately five nights a week away from home engaging in sexual intercourse.”

Apart from the bragging, the stage hypnotist did give Morse Allen a short education in how to capture a

subject’s attention and induce a trance. Allen returned to Washington more convinced than ever of the benefits of working hypnosis into the ARTICHOKE repertory and of the need to build a defense against it. With permission from above, he decided to take his hypnosis studies further, right in his own office. He asked young CIA secretaries to stay after work and ran them through the hypnotic paces—proving to his own satisfaction that he could make them do whatever he wanted. He had secretaries steal SECRET files and pass them on to total strangers, thus violating the most basic CIA security rules. He got them to steal from each other and to start fires. He made one of them report to the bedroom of a strange man and then

go into a deep sleep. “This activity clearly indicates that individuals under hypnosis might be compromised and blackmailed,” Allen wrote.

On February 19, 1954, Morse Allen simulated the ultimate experiment in hypnosis: the creation of a

“Manchurian Candidate,” or programmed assassin. Allen’s “victim” was a secretary whom he put into a deep trance and told to keep sleeping until he ordered otherwise. He then hypnotized a second secretary and told her that if she could not wake up her friend, “her rage would be so great that she would not hesitate to ‘kill.’ ” Allen left a pistol nearby, which the secretary had no way of knowing was unloaded. Even though she had earlier expressed a fear of firearms of any kind, she picked up the gun and “shot” her sleeping friend. After Allen brought the “killer” out of her trance, she had apparent amnesia for the event, denying she would ever shoot anyone.

With this experiment, Morse Allen took the testing as far as he could on a make-believe basis, but he was

neither satisfied nor convinced that hypnosis would produce such spectacular results in an operational

setting. All he felt he had proved was that an impressionable young volunteer would accept a command

from a legitimate authority figure to take an action she may have sensed would not end in tragedy. She presumably trusted the CIA enough as an institution and Morse Allen as an individual to believe he would not let her do anything wrong. The experimental setting, in effect, legitimated her behavior and prevented it from being truly antisocial.

Early in 1954, Allen almost got his chance to try the crucial test. According to a CIA document, the subject was to be a 35-year-old, well-educated foreigner who had once worked for a friendly secret service, probably the CIA itself. He had now shifted his loyalty to another government, and the CIA was quite upset with him. The Agency plan was to hypnotize him and program him into making an assassination attempt. He would then be arrested at the least for attempted murder and “thereby disposed of.” The scenario had several holes in it, as the operators presented it to the ARTICHOKE team. First, the subject was to be involuntary and unwitting, and as yet no one had come up with a consistently effective way of hypnotizing such people. Second, the ARTICHOKE team would have only limited custody of the subject, who was to be snatched from a social event. Allen understood that it would probably take months of painstaking work to prepare the man for a sophisticated covert operation. The subject was highly unlikely to perform after just one command. Yet, so anxious were the ARTICHOKE men to try the experiment that they were willing to go ahead even under these unfavorable conditions: “The final answer was that in view of the fact that successful completion of this proposed act of attempted assassination was

insignificant to the overall project; to wit, whether it was even carried out or not, that under ‘crash conditions’ and appropriate authority from Headquarters, the ARTICHOKE team would undertake the problem in spite of the operational limitations.”

This operation never took place. Eager to be unleashed, Morse Allen kept requesting prolonged access

to operational subjects, such as the double agents and defectors on whom he was allowed to work a day or two. Not every double agent would do. The candidate had to be among the one person in five who made a good hypnotic subject, and he needed to have a dissociative tendency to separate part of his personality from the main body of his consciousness. The hope was to take an existing ego state—such as an imaginary childhood playmate—and build it into a separate personality, unknown to the first. The hypnotist would communicate directly with this schizophrenic offshoot and command it to carry out specific deeds about which the main personality would know nothing. There would be inevitable leakage between the two personalities, particularly in dreams; but if the hypnotists were clever enough, he could build in cover stories and safety valves which would prevent the subject from acting inconsistently.

All during the spring and summer of 1954, Morse Allen lobbied for permission to try what he called “terminal experiments” in hypnosis, including one along the following scenario:

CIA officials would recruit an agent in a friendly foreign country where the Agency could count on the

cooperation of the local police force. CIA case officers would train the agent to pose as a leftist and report on the local communist party. During training, a skilled hypnotist would hypnotize him under the guise of giving him medical treatment (the favorite ARTICHOKE cover for hypnosis). The hypnotist would then provide the agent with information and tell him to forget it all when he snapped out of the trance. Once the agent had been properly conditioned and prepared, he would be sent into action as a CIA spy. Then Agency officials would tip off the local police that the man was a dangerous communist agent, and he would be arrested. Through their liaison arrangement with the police, Agency case officers would

be able to watch and even guide the course of the interrogation. In this way, they could answer many of

their questions about hypnosis on a live guinea pig who believed his life was in danger. Specifically, the men from ARTICHOKE wanted to know how well hypnotic amnesia held up against torture. Could the amnesia be broken with drugs? One document noted that the Agency could even send in a new hypnotist to try his hand at cracking through the commands of the first one. Perhaps the most cynical part of the whole scheme came at the end of the proposal: “In the event that the agent should break down and admit his connection with US intelligence, we a) deny this absolutely and advise the agent’s disposal, or b)

indicate that the agent may have been dispatched by some other organ of US intelligence and that we should thereafter run the agent jointly with [the local intelligence service].”

An ARTICHOKE team was scheduled to carry out field tests along these lines in the summer of 1954. The planning got to an advanced stage, with the ARTICHOKE command center in Washington cabling overseas for the “time, place, and bodies available for terminal experiments.” Then another cable complained of the “diminishing numbers” of subjects available for these tests. At this point, the available record becomes very fuzzy. The minutes of an ARTICHOKE working group meeting indicate that a key Agency official—probably the station chief in the country where the experiments were going to take place—had second thoughts. One participant at the meeting, obviously rankled by the obstructionism, said if this nay-sayer did not change his attitude, ARTICHOKE officials would have the Director himself order the official to go along.

Although short-term interrogations of unwitting subjects with drugs and hypnosis (the “A” treatment)

continued, the more complicated tests apparently never did get going under the ARTICHOKE banner. By the end of the year, 1954, Allen Dulles took the behavioral-research function away from Morse Allen and gave it to Sid Gottlieb and the men from MKULTRA. Allen had directly pursued the goal of creating a Manchurian Candidate, which he clearly believed was possible. MKULTRA officials were just as interested in finding ways to assert control over people, but they had much less faith in the frontal-assault approach pushed by Allen. For them, finding the Manchurian Candidate became a figurative exercise. They did not give up the dream. They simply pursued it in smaller steps, always hoping to increase the percentages in their favor. John Gittinger, the MKULTRA case officer on hypnosis, states, “Predictable absolute control is not possible on a particular individual. Any psychologist, psychiatrist, or preacher can get control over certain kinds of individuals, but that’s not a predictable, definite thing.” Gittinger adds that despite his belief to this effect, he felt he had to give “a fair shake” to people who wanted to try out ideas to the contrary.

Gottlieb and his colleagues had already been doing hypnosis research for two years. They did a few basic

experiments in the office, as Morse Allen did, but they farmed out most of the work to a young Ph.D. candidate at the University of Minnesota, Alden Sears. Sears, who later moved his CIA study project to the University of Denver, worked with student subjects to define the nature of hypnosis. Among many other things, he looked into several of the areas that would be building blocks in the creation of a Manchurian Candidate. Could a hypnotist induce a totally separate personality? Could a subject be

sent on missions he would not remember unless cued by the hypnotist? Sears, who has since become a Methodist minister, refused to talk about methods he experimented with to build second identities.[1] By 1957, he wrote that the experiments that needed to be done “could not be handled in the University situation.” Unlike Morse Allen, he did not want to perform the terminal experiments.

Milton Kline, a New York psychologist who says he also did not want to cross the ethical line but is sure

the intelligence agencies have, served as an unpaid consultant to Sears and other CIA hypnosis research. Nothing Sears or others found disabused him of the idea that the Manchurian Candidate is possible. “It cannot be done by everyone,” says Kline, “It cannot be done consistently, but it can be done.”

A onetime president of the American Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Kline was one of many outside experts to whom Gittinger and his colleagues talked. Other consultants, with equally impressive credentials, rejected Kline’s views. In no other area of the behavioral sciences was there so little accord on basic questions. “You could find an expert who would agree with everything,” says Gittinger. “Therefore, we tried to get everybody.”

The MKULTRA men state that they got too many unsolicited suggestions on how to use hypnosis in covert operations. “The operators would ask us for easy solutions,” recalls a veteran. “We therefore kept a

laundry list of why they couldn’t have what they wanted. We spent a lot of time telling some young kid whose idea we had heard a hundred times why it wouldn’t work. We would wind up explaining why you couldn’t have a free lunch.” This veteran mentions an example: CIA operators put a great deal of time and money into servicing “dead drops” (covert mail pickup points, such as a hollow tree) in the Soviet Union. If a collector was captured, he was likely to give away the locations. Therefore Agency men suggested that TSS find a way to hypnotize these secret mailmen, so they could withstand interrogation and even torture if arrested.

Morse Allen had wanted to perform the “terminal experiment” to see if a hypnotically induced amnesia

would stand up to torture. Gittinger says that as far as he knows, this experiment was never carried out. “I still like to think we were human beings enough that this was not something we played with,” says Gittinger. Such an experiment could have been performed, as Allen suggested, by friendly police in a country like Taiwan or Paraguay. CIA men did at least discuss joint work in hypnosis with a foreign secret service in 1962.[2] Whether they went further simply cannot be said.

Assuming the amnesia would hold, the MKULTRA veteran says the problem was how to trigger it. Perhaps the Russian phrase meaning “You’re under arrest” could be used as a preprogrammed cue, but what if the police did not use these words as they captured the collector? Perhaps the physical sensation of handcuffs being snapped on could do it, but a metal watchband could have the same effect. According to the veteran, in the abstract, the scheme sounded fine, but in practicality, a foolproof way of triggering the amnesia could not be found. “You had to accept that when someone is caught, they’re going to tell some things,” he says.

MKULTRA officials, including Gittinger, did recommend the use of hypnosis in operational experiments on at least one occasion. In 1959 an important double agent, operating outside his homeland, told his Agency case officer that he was afraid to go home again because he did not think he could withstand the tough interrogation that his government used on returning overseas agents. In Washington, the operators approached the TSS men about using hypnosis, backed up with drugs, to change the agent’s attitude. They hoped they could instill in him the “ability or the necessary will” to hold up under questioning.

An MKULTRA official—almost certainly Gittinger—held a series of meetings over a two-week period with the operators and wrote that the agent was “a better than average” hypnotic subject, but that his goal was to get out of intelligence work: The agent “probably can be motivated to make at least one return visit to his homeland by application of any one of a number of techniques, including hypnosis, but he may redefect in the process.” The MKULTRA official continued that hypnosis probably could not produce an “operationally useful” degree of amnesia for the events of the recent past or for the hypnotic treatment itself that the agent “probably has the native ability to withstand ordinary interrogation . . . provided it is to his advantage to do so.”

The MKULTRA office recommended that despite the relatively negative outlook for the hypnosis, the Agency should proceed anyway. The operation had the advantage of having a “fail-safe” mechanism because the level of hypnosis could be tested out before the agent actually had to return. Moreover, the MKULTRA men felt “that a considerable amount of useful experience can be gained from this operation which could be used to improve Agency capability in future applications.” In effect, they would be using hypnosis not as the linchpin of the operation, but as an adjunct to help motivate the agent. Since the proposed operation involved the use of hypnosis and drugs, final approval could only be given by the high-level Clandestine Services committee set up for this purpose and chaired by Richard Helms. Permission was not forthcoming. In June 1960 TSS officials launched an expanded program of operational experiments in hypnosis in cooperation with the Agency’s Counterintelligence Staff. The legendary James Angleton—the prototype for the title character Saxonton in Aaron Latham’s Orchids for Mother and for Wellington in Victor Marchetti’s The Rope Dancer— headed Counterintelligence, which took on some of the CIA’s most sensitive missions (including the illegal Agency spying against domestic dissidents).

Counterintelligence officials wrote that the hypnosis program could provide a “potential breakthrough in

clandestine technology.” Their arrangement with TSS was that the MKULTRA men would develop the technique in the laboratory, while they took care of “field experimentation.”

The Counterintelligence program had three goals: (1) to induce hypnosis very rapidly in unwitting subjects;

(2) to create durable amnesia; and (3) to implant durable and operationally useful posthypnotic suggestion.

The Agency released no information on any “field experimentation” of the latter two goals, which of course are the building blocks of the Manchurian Candidate. Agency officials provided only one heavily censored document on the first goal, rapid induction. In October 1960 the MKULTRA program invested $9,000 in an outside consultant to develop a way of quickly hypnotizing an unwitting subject. John Gittinger says the process consisted of surprising “somebody sitting in a chair, putting your hands on his forehead, and telling the guy to go to sleep.” The method worked “fantastically” on certain people, including some on whom no other technique was effective, and not on others. “It wasn’t that predictable,” notes Gittinger, who states he knows nothing about the field testing.

The test, noted in that one released document, did not take place until July 1963—a full three years after

the Counterintelligence experimental program began, during which interval the Agency is claiming that no other field experiments took place. According to a CIA man who participated in this test, the

Counterintelligence Staff in Washington asked the CIA station in Mexico City to find a suitable candidate or a rapid induction experiment. The station proposed a low-level agent, whom the Soviets had apparently doubled. A Counterintelligence man flew in from Washington and a hypnotic consultant arrived from California. Our source and a fellow case officer brought the agent to a motel room on a pretext. “I puffed him up with his importance,” says the Agency man. “I said the bosses wanted to see him and of course give him more money.” Waiting in an adjoining room was the hypnotic consultant. At a prearranged time, the two case officers gently grabbed hold of the agent and tipped his chair over until the back was touching the floor. The consultant was supposed to rush in at that precise moment and apply the technique. Nothing happened. The consultant froze, unable to do the deed. “You can imagine what we had to do to cover-up,” says the official, who was literally left holding the agent. “We explained we had heard a noise, got excited, and tipped him down to protect him. He was so grubby for money he would have believed any excuse.”

There certainly is a huge difference between the limited aim of this bungled operation and one aimed at

building a Manchurian Candidate. The MKULTRA veteran maintains that he and his colleagues were not interested in a programmed assassin because they knew in general it would not work and, specifically, that they could not exert total control. “If you have one hundred percent control, you have one hundred percent dependency,” he says. “If something happens and you haven’t programmed it in, you’ve got a problem. If you try to put flexibility in, you lose control. To the extent you let the agent choose, you don’t have control.” He admits that he and his colleagues spent hours running the arguments on the Manchurian Candidate back and forth. “Castro was naturally our discussion point,” he declares. “Could you get somebody gung-ho enough that they would go in and get him?” In the end, he states, they decided there were more reliable ways to kill people. “You can get exactly the same thing from people who are hypnotizable by many other ways, and you can’t get anything out of people who are not hypnotizable, so it has no use,” says Gittinger.

The only real gain in employing a hypnotized killer would be, in theory, that he would not remember who ordered him to pull the trigger. Yet, at least in the Castro case, the Cuban leader already knew who was after him. Moreover, there were plenty of people around willing to take on the Castro contract. “A well-trained person could do it without all this mumbo-jumbo,” says the MKULTRA veteran. By going to the Mafia for hitmen, CIA officials in any case found killers who had a built-in amnesia mechanism that had nothing to do with hypnosis.[3]

The MKULTRA veteran gives many reasons why he believes the CIA never actually tried a Manchurian

Candidate operation, but he acknowledges that he does not know.[4] If the ultimate experiments were performed, they would have been handled with incredible secrecy. It would seem, however, that the same kind of reasoning that impelled Sid Gottlieb to recommend testing powerful drugs on unwitting subjects would have led to experimentation along such lines, if not to create the Manchurian Candidate itself, on some of the building blocks, or lesser antisocial acts. Even if the MKULTRA men did not think hypnosis would work operationally, they had not let that consideration prevent them from trying out numerous other techniques. The MKULTRA chief could even have used a defensive rationale: He had to find out if the Russians could plant a “sleeper” killer in our midst, just as Richard Condon’s novel discussed.

If the assassin scenario seemed exaggerated, Gottlieb still would have wanted to know what other uses the

Russians might try. Certainly, he could have found relatively “expendable” subjects, as he and Morse Allen had for other behavior control experiments. And even if the MKULTRA men really did restrain themselves, it is unlikely that James Angleton and his counterintelligence crew would have acted in such a limited fashion when they felt they were on the verge of a “breakthrough in clandestine technology.”


Morse Allen’s training in hypnosis was described in Document #A/B, V,28/1, 9 July 1951, Subject [Deleted]. His hypnosis experiments in the office are described in a long series of memos. See especially #A/B, III, 2/18, 10 February 1954, Hypnotic Experimentation and Research and #A/B, II, 10/71, 19 August 1954, Subject: Operational/Security [deleted] and unnumbered document, 5 May 1955, Subject: Hypnotism and Covert Operations.

The quote on U.S. prisoners passing through Manchuria came from document #19, 18 June 1953, ARTICHOKE Conference.

Alden Sears’ hypnosis work was the subject of MKULTRA subprojects 5, 25, 29, and 49. See especially 49-28, undated, Proposal for Research in Hypnosis at the [deleted], June 1, 1956 to May 31, 1957, 49-34, undated, Proposals for Research in Hypnosis at the [deleted], June 1, 1956 to May 31, 1957; 5-11, 28 May 1953, Project MKULTRA, Subproject 5 and 5-13,20 April 1954, Subject: [deleted]. See also Patrick Oster’s article in the Chicago Sun-Times, September 4, 1977, “How CIA ‘Hid’ Hypnosis Research.”

General background on hypnosis came from interviews with Alden Sears, Martin Orne, Milton Kline, Ernest Hilgard, Herbert Spiegel, William Kroger, Jack Tracktir, John Watkins, and Harold Crasilneck. See Orne’s chapter on hypnosis in The Manipulation of Human Behavior, edited by Albert Biderman and Herbert Zimmer (New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1961), pp. 169-215.

The contemplated use of hypnosis in an operation involving a foreign intelligence service is referred to

in the Affidavit by Eloise R. Page, in the case John D. Marks v. Central Intelligence Agency et al., Civil Action no. 76-2073.

The 1959 proposed use of hypnosis that was approved by TSS is described in documents #433, 21 August 1959, Possible Use of Drugs and Hypnosis in [deleted] Operational Case; #434, 27 August 1959, Comments on [deleted]; and #435, 15 September 1959, Possible Use of Drugs and Hypnosis in [deleted] Operational Case.

MKULTRA Subproject 128 dealt with the rapid induction technique. See especially 128-1, undated, Subject: To test a method of rapid hypnotic induction in simulated and real operational settings (MKULTRA 128).

A long interview with John Gittinger added considerably to this chapter. Mr. Gittinger had refused

earlier to be interviewed directly by me for this book. Our conversation was limited solely to hypnosis.


1. Sears still maintains the fiction that he thought he was dealing only with a private foundation, the

Geschickter Fund, and that he knew nothing of the CIA involvement in funding his work. Yet a CIA document in his MKULTRA subproject says he was “aware of the real purpose” of the project.” Moreover, Sid Gottlieb brought him to Washington in 1954 to demonstrate hypnosis to a select group of Agency officials.

2. Under my Freedom of Information suit, the CIA specifically denied access to the documents concerning the testing of hypnosis and psychedelic drugs in cooperation with foreign intelligence agencies. The justification given was that releasing such documents would reveal intelligence sources and methods, which are exempted by law. The hypnosis experiment was never carried out, according to the generic description of the document which the Agency had to provide in explaining why it had to be withheld.

3. Referring to this CIA-mob relationship, author Robert Sam Anson has written, “It was inevitable:

Gentlemen wishing to be killers gravitated to killers wishing to be gentlemen.”

4. The veteran admits that none of the arguments he uses against a conditioned assassin would apply to a

programmed “patsy” whom a hypnotist could walk through a series of seemingly unrelated events—a visit to a store, a conversation with a mailman, picking a fight at a political rally. The subject would remember everything that happened to him and be amnesic only for the fact the hypnotist ordered him to do these things. There would be no gaping inconsistency in his life of the sort that can ruin an attempt by a hypnotist to create a second personality. The purpose of this exercise is to leave a circumstantial trail that will make the authorities think the patsy committed a particular crime. The weakness might well be that the amnesia would not hold up under police interrogation, but that would not matter if the police did not believe his preposterous story about being hypnotized or if he were shot resisting arrest. Hypnosis expert Milton Kline says he could create a patsy in three months- an assassin would take him six.


The Search for the Truth

I’m a professional and I just don’t talk about these things. Lots of things are not fit for the public. This has

nothing to do with democracy. It has to do with common sense.

—GRATION H. YASETEVITCH, 1978 (explaining why he did not want to be interviewed for this book)

To hope that the power that is being made available by the behavioral sciences will be exercised by the

scientists, or by a benevolent group, seems to me to be a hope little supported by either recent or distant

history. It seems far more likely that behavioral scientists, holding their present attitudes, will be in the position of the German rocket scientists specializing in guided missiles. First they worked devotedly for

Hitler to destroy the USSR and the United States. Now, depending on who captured them they work devotedly for the USSR in the interest of destroying the United States, or devotedly for the United States in the interest of destroying the USSR. If behavioral scientists are concerned solely with advancing their science it seems most probable that they will serve the purpose of whatever group has the power.


Sid Gottlieb was one of many CIA officials who tried to find a way to assassinate Fidel Castro. Castro

survived, of course, and his victory over the Agency in April 1961 at the Bay of Pigs put the Agency in the headlines for the first time, in a very unfavorable light. Among the fiasco’s many consequences was

Gottlieb’s loss of the research part of the CIA’s behavior-control programs. Still, he and the others kept trying to kill Castro.

In the aftermath of the Bay of Pigs, President Kennedy reportedly vowed to splinter the CIA into a thousand pieces. In the end, he settled for firing Allen Dulles and his top deputies. To head the Agency, which lost none of its power, Kennedy brought in John McCone, a defense contractor and former head of the Atomic Energy Commission. With no operational background, McCone had a different notion than Dulles of how to manage the CIA, particularly in the scientific area. “McCone never felt akin to the covert way of doing things,” recalls Ray Cline, whom the new Director made his Deputy for Intelligence. McCone apparently believed that science should be in the hands of the scientists, not the clandestine operators, and he brought in a fellow Californian, an aerospace “whiz kid” named Albert “Bud” Wheelon to head a new Agency Directorate for Science and Technology.

Before then, the Technical Services Staff (TSS), although located in the Clandestine Services, had been

the Agency’s largest scientific component. McCone decided to strip TSS of its main research functions—including the behavioral one—and let it concentrate solely on providing operational support. In 1962 he approved a reorganization of TSS that brought in Seymour Russell, a tough covert operator, as the new chief. “The idea was to get a close interface with operations,” recalls an ex-CIA man. Experienced TSS technicians remained as deputies to the incoming field men, and the highest deputyship in all TSS went to Sid Gottlieb, who became number-two man under Russell. For Gottlieb, this was another significant promotion helped along by his old friend Richard Helms, whom McCone had elevated to be head of the Clandestine Services.

In his new job, Gottlieb kept control of MKULTRA. Yet, in order to comply with McCone’s command on research programs, Gottlieb had to preside over the partial dismantling of his own program. The loss was not as difficult as it might have been, because, after 10 years of exploring the frontiers of the mind, Gottlieb had a clear idea of what worked and what did not in the behavioral field. Those areas that still were in the research stage tended to be extremely esoteric and technical, and Gottlieb must have known that if the Science Directorate scored any breakthroughs, he would be brought back into the picture immediately to apply the advances to covert operations.

“Sid was not the kind of bureaucrat who wanted to hold on to everything at all costs,” recalls an admiring

colleague. Gottlieb carefully pruned the MKULTRA lists, turning over to the Science Directorate the exotic subjects that showed no short-term operational promise and keeping for himself those psychological, chemical, and biological programs that had already passed the research stage. As previously stated, he moved John Gittinger and the personality-assessment staff out of the Human Ecology Society and kept them under TSS control in their own proprietary company. While Gottlieb was effecting these changes, his programs were coming under attack from another quarter.

In 1963 the CIA Inspector General did the study that led to the suspension of unwitting drug testing in the San Francisco and New York safehouses. This was a blow to Gottlieb, who clearly intended to hold on to this kind of research. At the same time, the Inspector General also recommended that Agency officials draft a new charter for the whole MKULTRA program, which still was exempt from most internal CIA controls. He found that many of the MKULTRA subprojects were of “insufficient sensitivity” to justify bypassing the Agency’s normal procedures for approving and storing records of highly classified

programs. Richard Helms, still the protector of unfettered behavioral research, responded by agreeing

that there should be a new charter—on the condition that it be almost the same as the old one. “The basic reasons for requesting waiver of standardized administrative controls over these sensitive activities are as valid today as they were in April, 1953,” Helms wrote. Helms agreed to such changes as having the CIA Director briefed on the programs twice a year, but he kept the approval process within his control and made sure that all the files would be retained inside TSS. And as government officials so often do when they do not wish to alter anything of substance, he proposed a new name for the activity. In June 1964 MKULTRA became MKSEARCH. [1]

Gottlieb acknowledged that security did not require transferring all the surviving MKULTRA subprojects over to MKSEARCH. He moved 18 subprojects back into regular Agency funding channels, including ones dealing with the sneezing powders, stink bombs, and other “harassment substances.” TSS officials had encouraged the development of these as a way to make a target physically uncomfortable and hence to cause short-range changes in his behavior.

Other MKULTRA subprojects dealt with ways to maximize stress on whole societies. Just as Gittinger’s

Personality Assessment System provided a psychological road map for exploiting an individual’s weaknesses, CIA “destabilization” plans provided guidelines for destroying the internal integrity of target countries like Castro’s Cuba or Allende’s Chile. Control— whether of individuals or nations—has been the Agency’s main business, and TSS officials supplied tools for the “macro” as well as the “micro” attacks.

For example, under MKULTRA Subproject #143, the Agency gave Dr. Edward Bennett of the University of Houston about $20,000 a year to develop bacteria to sabotage petroleum products. Bennett found a substance that, when added to oil, fouled or destroyed any engine into which it was poured. CIA operators used exactly this kind of product in 1967 when they sent a sabotage team made up of Cuban exiles into France to pollute a shipment of lubricants bound for Cuba. The idea was that the tainted oil would “grind out motors and cause breakdowns,” says an Agency man directly involved. This operation, which succeeded, was part of a worldwide CIA effort that lasted through the 1960s into the 1970s to destroy the Cuban economy. [2] Agency officials reasoned, at least in the first years, that it would be easier to overthrow Castro if Cubans could be made unhappy with their standard of living. “We wanted to keep bread out of the stores so people were hungry,” says the CIA man who was assigned to anti-Castro operations. “We wanted to keep rationing in effect and keep leather out, so people got only one pair of shoes every 18 months.”

Leaving this broader sort of program out of the new structure, Gottlieb regrouped the most sensitive

behavioral activities under the MKSEARCH umbrella. He chose to continue seven projects, and the ones he picked give a good indication of those parts of MKULTRA that Gottlieb considered important enough to save. These included none of the sociological studies, nor the search for a truth drug. Gottlieb put the emphasis on chemical and biological substances—not because he thought these could be used to turn men into robots, but because he valued them for their predictable ability to disorient, discredit, injure, or kill people. He kept active two private labs to produce such substances, funded consultants who had secure ways to test them and ready access to subjects, and maintained a funding conduit to pass money on to these other contractors. Here are the seven surviving MKSEARCH subprojects:

First on the TSS list was the safehouse program for drug testing run by George White and others in the

Federal Bureau of Narcotics. Even in 1964, Gottlieb and Helms had not given up hope that unwitting experiments could be resumed, and the Agency paid out $30,000 that year to keep the safehouses open. In the meantime, something was going on at the “pad”—or at least George White kept on sending the CIA vouchers for unorthodox expenses—$1,100 worth in February 1965 alone under the old euphemism for prostitutes, “undercover agents for operations.” What White was doing with or to these agents cannot be said, but he kept the San Francisco operation active right up until the time it finally closed in June. Gottlieb did not give up on the New York safehouse until the following year.[3]

MKSEARCH Subproject #2 involved continuing a $150,000a-year contract with a Baltimore biological

laboratory This lab, run by at least one former CIA germ expert, gave TSS “a quick-delivery capability to meet anticipated future operational needs,” according to an Agency document. Among other things, it provided a private place for “large-scale production of microorganisms.” The Agency was paying the Army Biological Laboratory at Fort Detrick about $100,000 a year for the same services. With its more complete facilities, Fort Detrick could be used to create and package more esoteric bacteria, but Gottlieb seems to have kept the Baltimore facility going in order to have a way of producing biological weapons without the Army’s germ warriors knowing about it. This secrecy-within secrecy was not unusual when TSS men were dealing with subjects as sensitive as infecting targets with diseases. Except on the most general level, no written records were kept on the subject. Whenever an operational unit in the Agency asked TSS about obtaining a biological weapon, Gottlieb or his aides automatically turned down the request unless the head of the Clandestine Services had given his prior approval. Gottlieb handled these

operational needs personally, and during the early 1960s (when CIA assassination attempts probably were at their peak) even Gottlieb’s boss, the TSS chief, was not told what was happening.

With his biological arsenal assured, Gottlieb also secured his chemical flank in MKSEARCH. Another

subproject continued a relationship set up in 1959 with a prominent industrialist who headed a complex of

companies, including one that custom-manufactured rare chemicals for pharmaceutical producers. This man, whom on several occasions CIA officials gave $100 bills to pay for his products, was able to perform specific lab jobs for the Agency without consulting with his board of directors. In 1960 he supplied the Agency with 3 kilos (6.6 pounds) of a deadly carbamate—the same poison OSS’s Stanley Lovell tried to use against Hitler. [4] This company president also was useful to the Agency because

he was a ready source of information on what was going on in the chemical world. The chemical services he offered, coupled with his biological counterpart, gave the CIA the means to wage “instant” chemical and biological attacks—a capability that was frequently used, judging by the large numbers of receipts and invoices that the CIA released under the Freedom of Information Act. With new chemicals and drugs constantly coming to their attention through their continuing relations with the major pharmaceutical companies, TSS officials needed places to test them, particularly after the safehouses closed. Dr. James Hamilton, the San Francisco psychiatrist who worked with George White in the original OSS marijuana days, provided a way. He became MKSEARCH Subproject #3.

Hamilton had joined MKULTRA in its earliest days and had been used as a West Coast supervisor for Gottlieb and company. Hamilton was one of the renaissance men of the program, working on everything from psychochemicals to kinky sex to carbon-dioxide inhalation. By the early 1960s, he had arranged to get access to prisoners at the California Medical Facility at Vacaville. [5] Hamilton worked through a nonprofit research institute connected to the Facility to carry out, as a document puts it, “clinical testing of behavioral control materials” on inmates. Hamilton’s job was to provide “answers to specific questions and solutions to specific problems of direct interest to the Agency.” In a six-month span in 1967 and 1968, the psychiatrist spent over $10,000 in CIA funds simply to pay volunteers— which a normal rates meant he experimented on between 400 to 1,000 inmates in that time period alone.

Another MKSEARCH subproject provided $20,000 to $25,000 a year to Dr. Carl Pfeiffer. Pfeiflfer’s Agency connection went back to 1951, when he headed the Pharmacology Department at the University of Illinois Medical School. He then moved to Emory University and tested LSD and other drugs on inmates of the Federal penitentiary in Atlanta. From there, he moved to New Jersey, where he continued drug experiments on the prisoners at the Bordentown reformatory. An internationally known pharmacologist, Pfeiffer provided the MKSEARCH program with data on the preparation, use, and effect of drugs. He was readily available if Gottlieb or a colleague wanted a study made of the properties of a

particular substance, and like most of TSS’s contractors, he also was an intelligence source. Pfeiffer was useful in this last capacity during the latter part of the 1960s because he sat on the Food and Drug Administration committee that allocated LSD for scientific research in the United States. By this time, LSD was so widely available on the black market that the Federal Government had replaced the CIA’s informal controls of the 1950s with laws and procedures forbidding all but the most strictly regulated research. With Pfeiffer on the governing committee, the CIA could keep up its traditional role of monitoring above-ground LSD experimentation around the United States.

To cover some of the more exotic behavioral fields, another MKSEARCH program continued TSS’s relationship with Dr. Maitland Baldwin, the brain surgeon at the National Institutes of Health who had been so willing in 1955 to perform “terminal experiments” in sensory deprivation for Morse Allen and the ARTICHOKE program. After Allen was pushed aside by the men from MKULTRA, the new TSS team hired Baldwin as a consultant According to one of them, he was full of bright ideas on how to

control behavior, but they were wary of him because he was such an “eager beaver” with an obvious streak of “craziness.” Under TSS auspices, Baldwin performed lobotomies on apes and then put these simian subjects into sensory deprivation—presumably in the same “box” he had built himself at NIH and then had to repair after a desperate soldier kicked his way out. There is no information available on whether Baldwin extended this work to humans, although he did discuss with an outside consultant how lobotomized patients reacted to prolonged isolation. Like Hamilton, Baldwin was a jack-of-all trades who in one experiment beamed radio frequency energy directly at the brain of a chimpanzee and in

another cut off one monkey’s head and tried to transplant it to the decapitated body of another monkey. Baldwin used $250 in Agency money to buy his own electroshock machine, and he did some kind of unspecified work at a TSS safehouse that caused the CIA to shell out $1450 to renovate and repair the place.

The last MKSEARCH subproject covered the work of Dr. Charles Geschickter, who served TSS both as researcher and funding conduit. CIA documents show that Geschickter tested powerful drugs on mental defectives and terminal cancer patients, apparently at the Georgetown University Hospital in Washington. In all, the Agency put $655,000 into Geschickter’s research on knockout drugs, stress-

producing chemicals, and mind-altering substances. Nevertheless, the doctor’s principal service to TSS

officials seems to have been putting his family foundation at the disposal of the CIA—both to channel

funds and to serve as a source of cover to Agency operators. About $2.1 million flowed through this tightly controlled foundation to other researchers.[6] Under MKSEARCH, Geschickter continued to provide TSS with a means to assess drugs rapidly, and he branched out into trying to knock out monkeys with radar waves to the head (a technique which worked but risked frying vital parts of the brain). The Geschickter Fund for Medical Research remained available as a conduit until 1967. [7]

As part of the effort to keep finding new substances to test within MKSEARCH, Agency officials continued their search for magic mushrooms, leaves, roots, and barks. In 1966, with considerable CIA backing, J. C. King, the former head of the Agency’s Western Hemisphere Division who was eased out after the Bay of Pigs, formed an ostensibly private firm called Amazon Natural Drug Company. King, who loved to float down jungle rivers on the deck of his houseboat with a glass of scotch in hand, searched the backwaters of South America for plants of interest to the Agency and/or medical science. To do the work, he hired Amazon men and women, plus at least two CIA paramilitary operators who worked out of Amazon offices in Iquitos, Peru. They shipped back to the United States finds that included Chondodendron toxicoferum, a paralytic agent which is “absolutely lethal in high doses,” according to Dr. Timothy Plowman, a Harvard botanist who like most of the staff was unwitting of the CIA involvement. Another plant that was collected and grown by Amazon employees was the hallucinogen known as yage, which author William Burroughs has described as “the final fix.”

MKSEARCH went on through the 1960s and into the early 1970s, but with a steadily decreasing budget. In 1964 it cost the Agency about $250,000. In 1972 it was down to four subprojects and $110,000. Gottlieb was a very busy man by then, having taken over all TSS in 1967 when his patron, Richard Helms finally made it to the top of the Agency. In June 1972 Gottlieb decided to end MKSEARCH, thus bringing down the curtain on the quest he himself had started two decades before. He wrote this epitaph for the program: As a final commentary, I would like to point out that, by means of Project MKSEARCH, the Clandestine Service has been able to maintain contact with the leading edge of developments in the field of biological and chemical control of human behavior. It has become increasingly obvious over the last several years that this general area had less and less relevance to current clandestine operations. The reasons for this are many and complex, but two of them are perhaps worth mentioning briefly. On the scientific side, it has become very clear that these materials and techniques are too unpredictable in their

effect on individual human beings, under specific circumstances, to be operationally useful. Our operations officers, particularly the emerging group of new senior operations officers, have shown a discerning and perhaps commendable distaste for utilizing these materials and techniques. They seem to realize that, in addition to moral and ethical considerations, the extreme sensitivity and security constraints of such operations effectively rule them out. About the time Gottlieb wrote these words, the Watergate break-in occurred, setting in train forces that would alter his life and that of Richard Helms. A few months later, Richard Nixon was reselected. Soon after the election, Nixon, for reasons that have never been explained, decided to purge Helms. Before leaving to become Ambassador to Iran, Helms presided over a wholesale destruction of documents and tapes—presumably to minimize information that might later be used against him. Sid Gottlieb decided to follow Helms into retirement, and the two men mutually agreed to get rid of all the documentary traces of MKULTRA. They had never kept files on the safehouse testing or similarly sensitive operations in the first place, but they were determined to erase the existing records of their search to control human behavior. Gottlieb later told a Senate committee that he wanted to get rid of the material because of a “burgeoning paper problem” within the Agency, because the files were of “no constructive use” and might be “misunderstood,” and because he wanted to protect the reputations of the researchers with whom he had collaborated on the assurance of secrecy. Gottlieb got in touch with the men who had physical custody of the records, the Agency’s archivists, who proceeded to destroy what he and Helms thought were the only traces of the program. They made a mistake, however—or the archivists did. Seven boxes of substantive records and reports were incinerated, but seven more containing invoices and financial records survived—apparently due to misfiling.

Nixon named James Schlesinger to be the new head of the Agency, a post in which he stayed only a few months before the increasingly beleaguered President moved him over to be Secretary of Defense at the height of Watergate. During his short stop at CIA, Schlesinger sent an order to all Agency employees asking them to let his office know about any instances where Agency officials might have carried out any improper or illegal actions. Somebody mentioned Frank Olson’s suicide, and it was duly included in the many hundreds of pages of misdeeds reported which became known within the CIA as the “family jewels.”

Schlesinger, an outsider to the career CIA operators, had opened a Pandora’s box that the professionals never managed to shut again. Samples of the “family jewels” were slipped out to New York Times reporter Seymour Hersh, who created a national furor in December 1974 when he wrote about the CIA’s illegal spying on domestic dissidents during the Johnson and Nixon years. President Gerald Ford appointed a commission headed by Vice-President Nelson Rockefeller to investigate the past CIA abuses—and to limit the damage. Included in the final Rockefeller report was a section on how an unnamed Department of the Army employee had jumped out of a New York hotel window after Agency men had slipped him LSD. That revelation made headlines around the country. The press seized upon the sensational details and virtually ignored two even more revealing sentences buried in the Rockefeller text: “The drug program was part of a much larger CIA program to study possible means for controlling human behavior. Other studies explored the effects of radiation, electric-shock, psychology, psychiatry, sociology, and harassment substances.”

At this point, I entered the story. I was intrigued by those two sentences, and I filed a Freedom of

Information request with the CIA to obtain all the documents the Agency had furnished the Rockefeller

Commission on behavior control. Although the law requires a government agency to respond within 10 days, it took the Agency more than a year to send me the first 50 documents on the subject, which turned out to be heavily censored.

In the meantime, the committee headed by Senator Frank Church was looking into the CIA, and it called in Sid Gottlieb, who was then spending his retirement working as a volunteer in a hospital in India. Gottlieb secretly testified about CIA assassination programs. (In describing his role in its final report, the Church Committee used a false name, “Victor Scheider.”) Asked about the behavioral-control programs, Gottlieb apparently could not—or would not—remember most of the details. The committee had almost no documents to work with, since the main records had been destroyed in 1973 and the financial files had not yet been found.

The issue lay dormant until 1977, when, about June 1, CIA officials notified my lawyers that they had found the 7 boxes of MKULTRA financial records and that they would send me the releasable portions over the following months. As I waited, CIA Director Stansfield Turner notified President Carter and then the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence that an Agency official had located the 7 boxes. Admiral Turner publicly described MKULTRA as only a program of drug experimentation and not one aimed at behavior control. On July 20 I held a press conference at which I criticized Admiral Turner for his several distortions in describing the MKULTRA program. To prove my various points, I released to the reporters a score of the CIA documents that had already come to me and that gave the flavor of the behavioral efforts. Perhaps it was a slow news day, or perhaps people simply were interested in government attempts to tamper with the mind. In any event, the documents set off a media bandwagon that had the story reported on all three network television news shows and practically everywhere else.

The Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and Senator Edward Kennedy’s Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research soon announced they would hold public hearings on the subject. Both panels had looked into the secret research in 1975 but had been hampered by the lack of documents and forthcoming witnesses. At first the two committees agreed to work together, and they held one joint hearing. Then, Senator Barry Goldwater brought behind-the-scenes pressure to get the Intelligence panel, of which he was vice-chairman, to drop out of the proceedings. He claimed, among other things, that the committee was just rehashing old programs and that the time had come to stop dumping on the CIA. Senator Kennedy plowed ahead anyway. He was limited, however, by the small size of the staff he assigned to the investigation, and his people were literally buried in paper by CIA officials, who released 8,000 pages of documents in the weeks before the hearings. As the hearings started, the staff still not had read very thing—let alone put it all in context.

As Kennedy’s staff prepared for the public sessions, the former men from MKULTRA also got ready. According to one of them, they agreed among themselves to “keep the inquiry within bounds that would satisfy the committee.” Specifically, he says that meant volunteering no more information than the Kennedy panel already had. Charles Siragusa, the narcotics agent who ran the New York safehouse, reports he got a telephone call during this period from Ray Treichler, the Stanford Ph.D. who specialized in chemical warfare for the MKULTRA program. “He wanted me to deny knowing about the safehouse,” says Siragusa. “He didn’t want me to admit that he was the guy…. I said there was no way I could do that.” Whether any other ex-TSS men also suborned perjury cannot be said, but several of them appear to have committed perjury at the hearings. [8] As previously noted, Robert Lashbrook denied firsthand knowledge of the safehouse operation when, in fact, he had supervised one of the “pads” and been present, according to George White’s diary, at the time of an “LSD surprise” experiment. Dr. Charles Geschickter testified he had not tested stress-producing drugs on human subjects while both his own 1960 proposal to the Agency and the CIA’s documents indicate the opposite. Despite the presence of a key aide who constantly cued him during the hearings, Senator Kennedy was not prepared to deal with these and other inconsistencies. He took no action to follow up obviously perjured testimony, and he seemed content to win headlines with reports of “The Gang That Couldn’t Spray Straight.” Although that particular testimony had been set up in advance by a Kennedy staffer, the Senator still managed to act surprised when ex-MKULTRA official David Rhodes told of the ill-fated LSD experiment at the Marin County safehouse.

The Kennedy hearings added little to the general state of knowledge on the CIA’s behavior-control

programs. CIA officials, both past and present, took the position that basically nothing of substance was learned during the 25-odd years of research, the bulk of which had ended in 1963, and they were not challenged. That proposition is, on its face, ridiculous, but neither Senator Kennedy nor any other investigator has yet put any real pressure on the Agency to reveal the content of the research—what was actually learned—as opposed to the experimental means of carrying it out. In this book, I have tried to get at some of the substantive questions, but I have had access to neither the scientific records, which Gottlieb and Helms destroyed, nor the principal people involved. Gottlieb, for instance, who moved from India to Santa Cruz, California and then to parts unknown, turned down repeated requests to be interviewed. “I am interested in very different matters than the subject of your book these days,” he wrote, “and do not have either the time or the inclination to reprocess matters that happened a long time ago.”

Faced with these obstacles, I have tried to weave together a representative sample of what went on, but

having dealt with a group of people who regularly incorporated lying into their daily work, I cannot be

sure. I cannot be positive that they never found a technique to control people, despite my definite bias in

favor of the idea that the human spirit defeated the manipulators. Only a congressional committee could compel truthful testimony from people who have so far refused to be forthcoming, and even Congress’ record has not been good so far. A determined investigative committee at least could make sure that the people being probed do not determine the “bounds” of the inquiry.

A new investigation would probably not be worth the effort just to take another stab at MKULTRA and

ARTICHOKE. Despite my belief that there are some skeletons hidden—literally —the public probably now knows the basic parameters of these programs. Thefact is, however, that CIA officials actively experimented with behavior-control methods for another decade after Sid Gottlieb and company lost the research action. The Directorate of Science and Technology—specifically its Office of Research and Development (ORDf did not remain idle after Director McCone transferred the behavioral research function in 1962.

In ORD, Dr. Stephen Aldrich, a graduate of Amherst and Northwestern Medical School, took over the role that Morse Allen and then Sid Gottlieb had played before him. Aldrich had been the medical director of the Office of Scientific Intelligence back in the days when that office was jockeying with Morse Allen for control of ARTICHOKE, so he was no stranger to the programs. Under his leadership, ORD officials kept probing for ways to control human behavior, and they were doing so with space-age technology that made the days of MKULTRA look like the horse-and-buggy era. If man could get to the moon by the end of the 1960s, certainly the well-financed scientists of ORD could make a good shot at conquering inner space.

They brought their technology to bear on subjects like the electric stimulation of the brain. John Lilly

had done extensive work in this field a decade earlier, before concluding that to maintain his integrity he must find another field. CIA men had no such qualms, however. They actively experimented with placing electrodes in the brain of animals and—probably— men. Then they used electric and radio signals to move their subjects around. The field went far beyond giving monkeys orgasms, as Lilly had done. In the CIA itself, Sid Gottlieb and the MKULTRA crew had made some preliminary studies of it. They started in 1960 by having a contractor search all the available literature, and then they had mapped out the parts of animals’ brains that produced reactions when stimulated.

By April 1961 the head of TSS was able to report “we now have a ‘production capability’ ” in brain

stimulation and “we are close to having debugged a prototype system whereby dogs can be guided along

specific courses.” Six months later, a CIA document noted, “The feasibility of remote control of activities

in several species of animals has been demonstrated…. Special investigations and evaluations will be conducted toward the application of selected elements of these techniques to man.” Another six months later, TSS officials had found a use for electric stimulation: this time putting electrodes in the brains of cold-blooded animals—presumably reptiles. While much of the experimentation with dogs and cats was to find a way of wiring the animal and then directing it by remote control into, say, the office of the Soviet ambassador, this cold-blooded project was designed instead for the delivery of chemical and biological agents or for “executive action-type operations,” according to a document. “Executive action” was the CIA’s euphemism for assassination.

With the brain electrode technology at this level, Steve Aldrich and ORD took over the research function

from TSS. What the ORD men found cannot be said, but the open literature would indicate that the field progressed considerably during the 1960s. Can the human brain be wired and controlled by a big enough computer? Aldrich certainly tried to find out.

Creating amnesia remained a “big goal” for the ORD researcher, states an ex-CIA man. Advances in brain surgery, such as the development of three-dimensional, “stereotaxic” techniques, made psychosurgery a much simpler matter and created the possibility that a precisely placed electrode probe could be used to cut the link between past memory and present recall. As for subjects to be used in behavioral experiments of this sort, the ex-CIA man states that ORD had access to prisoners in at least one American penal institution. A former Army doctor stationed at the Edgewood chemical laboratory states that the lab worked with CIA men to develop a drug that could be used to help program in new memories into the mind of an amnesic subject. How far did the Agency take this research? I don’t know.

The men from ORD tried to create their own latter-day version of the Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology. Located outside Boston, it was called the Scientific Engineering Institute, and Agency officials had set it up originally in 1956 as a proprietary company to do research on radar and other technical matters that had nothing to do with human behavior. Its president, who says he was a “figurehead,” was Dr. Edwin Land, the founder of Polaroid. In the early 1960s, ORD officials decided to bring it into the behavioral field and built a new wing to the Institute’s modernistic building for the “life sciences.” They hired a group of behavioral and medical scientists who were allowed to carry on their own independent research as long as it met Institute standards. These scientists were available to consult

with frequent visitors from Washington, and they were encouraged to take long lunches in the Institute’s dining room where they mixed with the physical scientists and brainstormed about virtually everything. One veteran recalls a colleague joking, “If you could find the natural radio frequency of a person’s sphincter, you could make him run out of the room real fast.” Turning serious, the veteran states the technique was “plausible,” and he notes that many of the crazy ideas bandied about at lunch developed into concrete projects.

Some of these projects may have been worked on at the Institute’s own several hundred-acre farm located in the Massachusetts countryside. But of the several dozen people contacted in an effort to find out what the Institute did, the most anyone would say about experiments at the farm was that one involved stimulating the pleasure centers of crows’ brains in order to control their behavior. Presumably, ORD men did other things at their isolated rural lab.

Just as the MKULTRA program had been years ahead of the scientific community, ORD activities were similarly advanced. “We looked at the manipulation of genes,” states one of the researchers. “We were interested in gene splintering. The rest of the world didn’t ask until 1976 the type of questions we were facing in 1965…. Everybody was afraid of building the supersoldier who would take orders without questioning, like the kamikaze pilot. Creating a subservient society was not out of sight.” Another Institute man describes the work of a colleague who bombarded bacteria with ultraviolet radiation in order to create deviant strains. ORD also sponsored work in parapsychology. Along with the military services, Agency officials wanted to know whether psychics could read minds or control them from afar (telepathy), if they could gain information about distant places or people (clairvoyance or remote viewing), if they could predict the future (precognition), or influence the movement of physical objects or even the human mind (photokinesis). The last could have incredibly destructive applications, if it worked. For instance, switches setting off nuclear bombs would have to be moved only a few inches to launch a holocaust. Or, enemy psychics, with minds honed to laser-beam sharpness, could launch attacks to burn out the brains of American nuclear scientists. Any or all of these techniques have numerous applications to the spy trade.

While ORD officials apparently left much of the drug work to Gottlieb, they could not keep their hands totally out of this field. In 1968 they set up a joint program, called Project OFTEN, with the Army Chemical Corps at Edgewood, Maryland to study the effects of various drugs on animals and humans. The Army helped the Agency put together a computerized data base for drug testing and supplied military volunteers for some of the experiments. In one case, with a particularly effective incapacitiating agent, the Army arranged for inmate volunteers at the Holmesburg State Prison in Philadelphia. Project OFTEN had both offensive and defensive sides, according to an ORD man who described it in a memorandum. He cited as an example of what he and his coworkers hoped to find “a compound that could simulate a heart attack or a stroke in the targeted individual.” In January 1973, just as Richard Helms was leaving the Agency and James Schlesinger was coming in, Project OFTEN was abruptly canceled.

What—if any—success the ORD men had in creating heart attacks or in any of their other behavioral experiments simply cannot be said. Like Sid Gottlieb, Steve Aldrich is not saying, and his colleagues seem even more closemouthed than Gottlieb’s. In December 1977, having gotten wind of the ORD programs, I filed a Freedom of Information request for access to ORD files “on behavioral research, including but not limited to any research or operational activities related to bioelectrics, electric or radio stimulation of the brain, electronic destruction of memory, stereotaxic surgery, psychosurgery, hypnotism, parapsychology, radiation, microwaves, and ultrasonics.” I also asked for documentation on behavioral testing in U.S. penal institutions, and I later added a request for all available files on amnesia. The Agency wrote back six months later that ORD had “identified 130 boxes (approximately 130 cubic feet) of material that are reasonably expected to contain behavioral research documents.”

Considering that Admiral Turner and other CIA officials had tried to leave the impression with Congress and the public that behavioral research had almost all ended in 1963 with the phase-out of MKULTRA, this was an amazing admission. The sheer volume of material was staggering. This book is based on the 7 boxes of heavily censored MKULTRA financial records plus another 3 or so of ARTICHOKE documents, supplemented by interviews. It has taken me over a year, with significant research help, to digest this much smaller bulk. Clearly, greater resources than an individual writer can bring to bear will be needed to get to the bottom of the ORD programs.

A free society’s best defense against unethical behavior modification is public disclosure and awareness.

The more people understand consciousness-altering technology, the more likely they are to recognize its

application, and the less likely it will be used. When behavioral research is carried out in secret, it can be

turned against the government’s enemies, both foreign and domestic. No matter how pure or defense-oriented the motives of the researchers, once the technology exists, the decision to use it is out of their hands. Who can doubt that if the Nixon administration or J. Edgar Hoover had had some foolproof way to control people, they would not have used the technique against their political foes, just as the CIA for years tried to use similar tactics overseas?

As with the Agency’s secrets, it is now too late to put behavioral technology back in the box. Researchers are bound to keep making advances. The technology has already spread to our schools, prisons, and mental hospitals, not to mention the advertising community, and it has also been picked up by police forces around the world. Placing hoods over the heads of political prisoners—a modified form of sensory deprivation—has become a standard tactic around the world, from Northern Ireland to Chile. The Soviet Union has consistently used psychiatric treatment as an instrument of repression. Such methods violate basic human rights just as much as physical abuse, even if they leave no marks on the body.

Totalitarian regimes will probably continue, as they have in the past, to search secretly for ways to

manipulate the mind, no matter what the United States does. The prospect of being able to control people seems too enticing for most tyrants to give up. Yet, we as a country can defend ourselves without sending our own scientists—mad or otherwise—into a hidden war that violates our basic ethical and constitutional principles. After all, we created the Nuremberg Code to show there were limits on scientific research and its application. Admittedly, American intelligence officials have violated our own standard, but the U.S. Government has now officially declared violations will no longer be permitted. The time has come for the United States to lead by example in voluntarily renouncing secret government behavioral research. Other countries might even follow suit, particularly if we were to propose an international agreement which provides them with a framework to do so.

Tampering with the mind is much too dangerous to be left to the spies. Nor should it be the exclusive province of the behavioral scientists, who have given us cause for suspicion. Take this statement by their most famous member, B. F. Skinner: “My image in some places is of a monster of some kind who wants to pull a string and manipulate people. Nothing could be further from the truth. People are manipulated; I just want them to be manipulated more effectively.” Such notions are much more acceptable in prestigious circles than people tend to think: D. Ewen Cameron read papers about “depatterning” with electroshock before meetings of his fellow psychiatrists, and they elected him their president. Human behavior is so important that it must concern us all. The more vigilant we and our representatives are, the less chance we will be unwitting victims.


The reorganization of TSS was described in document #59, 26 July 1963, Report of the Inspection of MKULTRA and in interviews with Ray Cline, Herbert Scoville, and several other former CIA officials.

Richard Helms’ recommendations for a new MKULTRA charter were described in document #450, 9 June, 1964, Sensitive Research Programs (MKULTRA).

Admiral Stansfield Turner’s statement on the MKULTRA program was made before a joint session of the Kennedy subcommittee and the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, August 3, 1977, pp. 4-8.

MKSEARCH programs and their origins in MKULTRA are described in documents #449, 8 April 1964, Revision of Project MKULTRA and #S-1-7, untitled, undated.

Dr. Edward Bennett’s work is the subject of MKULTRA subprojects 104 and 143. See especially 143-23, 11

December 1962, Subject: MKULTRA Subproject 143. Other information on the CIA’s economic sabotage program against Cuba came from interviews with Major General Edward Lansdale, Ray Cline, William Colby, Lincoln Gordon, Covey Oliver, Charles Meyer, Richard Goodwin, Roger Morris, several former CIA and State Department officials, and Cuban government officials.

The continued safehouse operation is MKSEARCH subproject 4. See especially S-12-1, bank statements and receipts of safehouse. The CIA’s dealings with the Treasury Department over the Long committee’s

investigations of wiretaps are detailed in documents #451, 30 January 1967, A Report on a Series of Meetings with Department of the Treasury officials and #452, undated, Meeting with Department of Treasury Official.

The biological laboratory is the subject of MKULTRA subprojects 78 and 110 and MKSEARCH 2. See especially Documents 78-28, September 28, 1962, Subject: PM Support and Biological [deleted] and S-5-6, 8 September 1965, Subject: Hiring by Chief TSD/BB of [deleted], Former Staff Employee in a Consultant Capacity on an Agency Contract. The costs of the Fort Detrick operations came from p. 18 and p. 204 of the Church committee hearings on Unauthorized Storage of Toxic Agents September 16,17, and

18,1975. The description of TSS’s procedures for dealing with biological weapons came from Document 78-28 (cited above) and document #509, undated (but clearly June 1975), Subject: Discussions of MKNAOMI with [deleted] The chemical company subproiect is MKULTRA subproject 116 and MKSEARCH 5. See especially 116-57,30 January 1961, Subject: MKULTRA, Subproject 116; 116-62, October 28, 1960, shipping invoice- and 116-61,4 November 1960, Subject: MKULTRA Subproject 116. Also see James Moore’s subproject, MKULTRA 52; especially 52-53, invoice # 3, 1125-009-1902, April 27, 1960.

James Hamilton’s work is the subject of MKULTRA subprojects 124 and 140 and MKSEARCH Subproject 3. See especially 140-57, 6 May 1965, Subject: Behavioral Control and 140-83, 29 May 1963, Subject: MKULTRA Subproject 140.

Carl Pfeiffer’s subprojects are MKULTRA 9, 26, 28, and 47 and MKSEARCH 7. See especially S-7-4, undated, Subject: Approval of Project [deleted].

Maitland Baldwin’s Subprojects are MKULTRA 62 and MKSEARCH 1. See especially 62-2, undated [deleted] Special Budget and 62-3, undated, 1956, Subject: Re: Trip to [deleted], October 10-14, 1956.

Charles Geschickter’s subprojects are MKULTRA 23, 35, and 45 and MKSEARCH 6. See especially 35-10, May 16, 1955, Subject- To provide for Agency-Sponsored Research Involving Covert Biological and Chemical Warfare; 45-78, undated, Research Proposal: 1960, 45-104 undated, Subject: Research Proposal: 1958-1959; 45-95, 26 January 1959, Continuation of MKULTRA, Subproject No.45; 45104,21

January 1958, Continuation of MKULTRA, Subproject No.45; 45-52,8 February 1962, Continuation of MKULTRA, Subproject No. 45; S-13-7,13 August Subject, Approval of [deleted]; and S-13-9, 13 September 1967, Subject: Approval of [deleted]. See also Geschickter’s testimony before the Kennedy subcommittee, September 20, 1977, pp. 44-49.

The lack of congressional or executive branch knowledge of CIA behavioral activities was mentioned on

p. 386, Church Committee Report, Book I. Amazon Natural Drug’s CIA connection was described by

an ex-ClA official and confirmed by the mother of another former Agency man. Several former employees described its activities in interviews.

Gottlieb’s termination of MKSEARCH came from Document S-14-3 10 July 1972, Termination of MKSEARCH.

The destruction of MKULTRA documents was described in Document #419, 3 October, 1975, Subject: Destruction of Drug and Toxin Related Files and 460, 31 January, 1973, Subject: Project Files: (19511967).

The MKULTRA subprojects on electric stimulation of the brain are 106 and 142. See especially 106-1, undated, Subject: Proposal; 142-14, 22 May 1962, Subject: Project MKULTRA, Subproject No. 142; and document #76 (MKDELTA release), 21 April 1961, Subject: “Guided Animal” Studies.

The list of parapsychology goals was taken from an excellent article by John Wilhelm in the August 2, 1977 Washington Post: “Psychic Spying?”

Project OFTEN information was taken from document #455,6 May 1974, Subject: Project OFTEN and Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense from Deanne P. Siemer, September 20, 1977, Subject: Experimentation Programs Conducted by the Department of Defense That Had CIA Sponsorship or Participation and That Involved the Administration to Human Subjects of Drugs Intended for Mind-control or Behavior-modification Purposes.

The quote from B. F. Skinner was taken from Peter Schrag’s book, Mind Control (New York: Pantheon, 1978) p. 10.


1. At 1977 Senate hearings, CIA Director Stansfield Turner summed up some of MKULTRA’s accomplishments over its 11-year existence: The program contracted out work to 80 institutions, which included 44 colleges or universities, 15 research facilities or private companies, 12 hospitals or clinics, and 3 penal institutions. I estimate that MKULTRA cost the taxpayers somewhere in the neighborhood of $10 million.

2. This economic sabotage program started in 1961, and the chain of command “ran up to the President,”

according to Kennedy adviser Richard Goodwin. On the CIA side, Agency Director John McCone “was very strong on it,” says his former deputy Ray Cline. Cline notes that McCone had the standing orders to all CIA stations abroad rewritten to include “a sentence or two” authorizing a continuing program to disrupt the Cuban economy. Cuba’s trade thus became a standing target for Agency operators, and with the authority on the books, CIA officials apparently never went back to the White House for renewed approval after Kennedy died, in Cline’s opinion. Three former Assistant Secretaries of State in the Johnson and Nixon administrations say the sabotage, which included everything from driving down the price of Cuban sugar to tampering with cane-cutting equipment, was not brought to their attention. Former CIA Director William Colby states that the Agency finally stopped the economic sabotage program in the early 1970s. Cuban government officials counter that CIA agents were still working to create epidemics among Cuban cattle in 1973 and that as of spring 1978, Agency men were committing acts of sabotage against cargo destined for Cuba.

3. In 1967 a Senate committee chaired by Senator Edward Long was inquiring into wiretapping by government agencies, including the Narcotics Bureau. The Commissioner of Narcotics, then Harry Giordano told a senior TSS man— almost certainly Gottlieb—that if CIA officials were “concerned” about its dealings with the Bureau involving the safehouses coming out during the hearings, the most “helpful thing” they could do would be to “turn the Long committee off.” How the CIA men reacted

to this not very subtle blackmail attempt is unclear from the documents, but what does come out is that the TSS man and another top-level CIA officer misled and lied to the top echelon of the Treasury Department (the Narcotics Bureau’s parent organization) about the safehouses and how they were used.

4. James Moore of the University of Delaware, who also produced carbamates when he was not seeking the magic mushroom, served at times as an intermediary between the industrialist and the CIA.

5. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, it seemed that every radical on the West Coast was saying that the CIA was up to strange things in behavior modification at Vacaville. Like many of yesterday’s conspiracy theories, this one turned out to be true.

6. Geschickter was an extremely important TSS asset with connections in high places. In 1955 he convinced Agency officials to contribute $375,000 in secret funds toward the construction of a new research building at Georgetown University Hospital. (Since this money seemed to be coming from private sources, unwitting Federal bureaucrats doubled it under the matching grant program for hospital construction.) The Agency men had a clear understanding with Geschickter that in return for their contribution, he would make sure they received use of one-sixth of the beds and total space in the facility for their own “hospital safehouse.” They then would have a ready source of “human patients and volunteers for experimental use,” according to a CIA document, and the research program in the building would provide cover for up to three TSS staff members. Allen Dulles personally approved the contribution and then, to make sure, he took it to President Eisenhower’s special committee to review

covert operations. The committee also gave its assent, with the understanding that Geschickter could provide “a reasonable expectation” that the Agency would indeed have use of the space he promised. He obviously did, because the CIA money was forthcoming. (This, incidentally, was the only time in a whole quarter-century of Agency behavior-control activities when the documents show that CIA officials went to the White House for approval of anything. The Church committee found no evidence that either the executive branch or Congress was informed of the programs.)

7. In 1967, after Ramparts magazine exposed secret CIA funding of the National Student Association and numerous nonprofit organizations, President Johnson forbade CIA support of foundations or educational institutions. Inside the Agency there was no notion that this order meant ending relationships, such as the one with Geschickter. In his case, the agile CIA men simply transferred the funding from the foundation to a private company, of which his son was the secretary-treasurer.

8. Lying to Congress followed the pattern of lying to the press that some MKULTRA veterans adopted after the first revelations came out. For example, former Human Ecology Society director James Monroe told The New York Times on August 2, 1977 that “only about 25 to 30 percent” of the Society’s budget came from the CIA—a statement he knew to be false since the actual figure was well over 90 percent. His untruth allowed some other grantees to claim that their particular project was funded out of the non-Agency part of the Society.